Xi Jinping is a Chinese politician serving as general secretary of the Communist Party of China, president of the People's Republic of China, chairman of the Central Military Commission. Described as China's "paramount leader" since 2012, he received the title of "core leader" from the CPC in 2016; as general secretary, Xi holds an ex-officio seat on the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, China's top decision-making body. Xi is the first general secretary born after the Second World War and the establishment of the People's Republic of China; the son of Chinese Communist veteran Xi Zhongxun, he was exiled to rural Yanchuan County as a teenager following his father's purge during the Cultural Revolution, lived in a cave in the village of Liangjiahe, where he organised communal labourers. After studying at the Tsinghua University as a "Worker-Peasant-Soldier student", Xi rose through the ranks politically in China's coastal provinces. Xi was governor of Fujian province from 1999 to 2002, governor party secretary of neighbouring Zhejiang province from 2002 to 2007.
Following the dismissal of Chen Liangyu, Xi was transferred to Shanghai as party secretary for a brief period in 2007. He joined the Politburo Standing Committee and central secretariat in October 2007, spending the next five years as Hu Jintao's presumed successor. Xi was vice president from 2008 to 2013 and vice chairman of the Central Military Commission from 2010 to 2012. Since assuming power, Xi has introduced far-ranging measures to enforce party discipline and to ensure internal unity, his signature anti-corruption campaign has led to the downfall of prominent incumbent and retired Communist Party officials, including members of the Politburo Standing Committee. Described as a Chinese nationalist, he has tightened restrictions over civil society and ideological discourse, advocating Internet censorship in China as the concept of "internet sovereignty". Xi has called for further socialist market economic reforms, for governing according to the law and for strengthening legal institutions, with an emphasis on individual and national aspirations under the slogan "Chinese Dream".
He has championed a more assertive foreign policy with regard to China–Japan relations, China's claims in the South China Sea, its role as a leading advocate of free trade and globalization. Xi has sought to expand China's African and Eurasian influence through the One Belt One Road Initiative; the 2015 meeting between Xi and Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou marked the first time the political leaders of both sides of the Taiwan Strait have met since the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1950. Considered the central figure of the fifth generation of leadership of the People's Republic, Xi has centralised institutional power by taking on a wide range of leadership positions, including chairing the newly formed National Security Commission, as well as new steering committees on economic and social reforms, military restructuring and modernization, the Internet. Said to be one of the most powerful leaders in modern Chinese history, Xi's political thoughts have been written into the party and state constitutions, under his leadership the latter was amended to abolish term limits for the presidency.
In 2018, Forbes ranked him as the most powerful and influential person in the world, dethroning Russian President Vladimir Putin who held the accolade for five consecutive years. Xi Jinping was born in Beijing on 15 June 1953, he is the second son of his wife Qi Xin. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 by Mao Zedong, Xi's father held a series of posts, including propaganda chief, vice-premier, vice-chairman of the National People's Congress. Xi's father is from Fuping County, Xi could further trace his patrilineal descent from Xiying in Dengzhou, Henan. In 1963, when Xi was age 10, his father was purged from the Party and sent to work in a factory in Luoyang, Henan. In May 1966, the Cultural Revolution cut short Xi's secondary education when all secondary classes were halted for students to criticise and fight their teachers. Student militants ransacked Xi Heping, was killed, his mother was forced to publicly denounce his father, as he was paraded before a crowd as an enemy of the revolution.
Xi was aged 15. Without the protection of his father, Xi was sent to work in Liangjiahe Village, Wen'anyi Town, Yanchuan County, Yan'an, Shaanxi, in 1969 in Mao Zedong's Down to the Countryside Movement. After a few months, unable to stand rural life, he ran away to Beijing, he was arrested during a crackdown on deserters from the countryside and sent to a work camp to dig ditches. He became the Party branch secretary of the production team, leaving that post in 1975; when asked about this experience by Chinese state television, Xi recalled, "It was emotional. It was a mood, and when the ideals of the Cultural Revolution could not be realised, it proved an illusion."From 1975 to 1979, Xi studied chemical engineering at Beijing's Tsinghua University as a "Worker-Peasant-Soldier student". There engineering majors spent about one-fifth of their time studying Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong thought, doing farm work and "learning from the People's Liberation Army". From 1979 to 1982, Xi served as secretary for his father's former subordinate Geng Biao, the vice premier and secretary-general of the Central Military Commission.
This gained Xi some military background. In 1985, as part of a Chinese delegation to study U. S. agriculture, he stayed in the hom
History of the Communist Party of China
This article details the history of the Communist Party of China. Marxist ideas started to spread in China after the 1919 May Fourth Movement. In June 1920, Comintern agent Grigori Voitinsky was sent to China, where he met Li Dazhao and other reformers. While in China, Voitinsky financed the founding of the Socialist Youth Corps; the Communist Party of China was founded by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao in the French concession of Shanghai in 1921 as a study society and an informal network. Informal meetings were held in China in 1920 as well as overseas; the official beginning of the Communist Party of China began with the 1st Congress held in Shanghai and Jiaxing in July 1921. The congress was composed of 13 men; the birth of the party was declared. The formal and unified name Zhōngguó the final agenda was carried out; the key delegates in the congress were Li Dazhao, Chen Duxiu, Chen Gongbo, Tan Pingshan, Zhang Guotao, He Mengxiong, Lou Zhanglong and Deng Zhongxia. Mao Zedong was present at the first congress as one of two delegates from a Hunan communist group.
Other attendees included Dong Biwu, Li Hanjun, Li Da, Chen Tanqiu, Liu Renjing, Zhou Fohai, He Shuheng, Deng Enming. Two representatives from the Comintern were present, one of them being Henk Sneevliet. Notably absent at this early point were future leaders Li Lisan and Qu Qiubai. In August 1922, Sneevliet called a surprise special plenum of the central committee. During the meeting Sneevliet proposed that party members join the Kuomintang on the grounds that it was easier to transform the Nationalist Party from the inside than to duplicate its success. Li Dazhao, Cai Heshen and Gao Yuhan opposed the motion, whereupon Sneevliet invoked the authority of the Comintern and forced the CPC to accept his decision. Under the guidance of the Comintern, the party was reorganized along Leninist lines in 1923, in preparation for the Northern Expedition; the nascent party was not held in high regard. Karl Radek, one of the five founding leaders of the Comintern, said in November 1922 that the CPC did not enjoy a high reputation in Moscow.
Moreover, the CPC was divided into two camps, one led by Deng Zhongxia and Li Dazhao on the more moderate "bourgeois, national revolution" model and the other by Zhang Guotao, Lou Zhanglong, He Mengxiong and Chen Duxiu on the anti-imperialism side. Mikhail Markovich Borodin negotiated with Sun Yat-sen and Wang Jingwei the 1923 KMT reorganization and the CPC's incorporation into the newly expanded party. Borodin and General Vasilii Blyukher worked with Chiang Kai-shek to found the Whampoa Military Academy; the CPC's reliance on the leadership of the Comintern provided a strong indication of the First United Front's fragility. The death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925 created great uncertainty regarding who would lead the party, whether they would still work with the Communists. Despite the tensions, the Northern Expedition led by the Kuomintang, with participation of the CPC made quick gains in overthrowing the warlord government. In 1927, as the Northern Expedition approached Shanghai, the Kuomintang leadership split.
The left-wing of the Kuomintang, based in Wuhan, kept the alliance with the Communists, while Chiang Kai-shek in Nanjing grew hostile to them and launched a campaign against them. This happened after the capture of Shanghai, which occurred with the Communists and Kuomintang still in alliance. André Malraux's novel, Man's Fate, is based on these events; the anti-communist drive became general. As Chiang Kai-shek consolidated his power, various revolts continued, Communist armed forces created a number of'Soviet Areas'; the largest of these was led by Zhu De and Mao Zedong, who established Soviet Republic of China in some remote areas within China through peasant riots. A number of KMT military campaigns failed, but in the meantime the party leadership were driven out of Shanghai and moved to Mao's base, sidelining him. Chiang Kai-shek launched a further campaign; the CPC started the Long March to search for a new base. During the Long March, the party leadership re-examined its policy and blamed their failure on the CPC military leader Otto Braun, a German sent by Comintern.
During the Long March, the native Communists, such as Mao Zedong and Zhu De gained power. The Comintern and Soviet Union. Lost control over the CPC, they settled in Shaanxi. The Western world first got a clear view of the main base of the Communist Party of China through Edgar Snow's Red Star Over China. Snow was the first person to present Mao as the main leader - he was seen as just a guerilla leader and as second to Zhu De. During the Second Sino-Japanese war, the CPC and KMT were temporarily in alliance to fight their common enemy; the Communist government moved from Bao'an to Yan'an in December 1936. The Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army became army groups belonging to the national army, the Soviet Republic of China changed its name as a special Shaan-Gan-Ning administration region; however the army and the region controlled by CPC remained independent from the KMT's government. In eight years, the CPC membership increased from 40,000 to 1,200,000 and its military forces - from 30,000 to one million in addition to more than one million militia support groups.
It is a well accepted i
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China referred to as the Chinese Communist Party, is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front, it was founded in 1921, chiefly by Li Dazhao. The party grew and by 1949 it had driven the nationalist Kuomintang government from mainland China after the Chinese Civil War, leading to the establishment of the People's Republic of China, it controls the world's largest armed forces, the People's Liberation Army. The CPC is organised on the basis of democratic centralism, a principle conceived by Russian Marxist theoretician Vladimir Lenin which entails democratic and open discussion on policy on the condition of unity in upholding the agreed upon policies; the highest body of the CPC is the National Congress, convened every fifth year. When the National Congress is not in session, the Central Committee is the highest body, but since the body meets only once a year most duties and responsibilities are vested in the Politburo and its Standing Committee.
The party's leader holds the offices of General Secretary, Chairman of the Central Military Commission and State President. Through these posts, the party leader is the country's paramount leader; the current paramount leader is Xi Jinping, elected at the 18th National Congress held in October 2012. The CPC is committed to communism and continues to participate in the International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties each year. According to the party constitution, the CPC adheres to Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, socialism with Chinese characteristics, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a New Era; the official explanation for China's economic reforms is that the country is in the primary stage of socialism, a developmental stage similar to the capitalist mode of production. The command economy established under Mao Zedong was replaced by the socialist market economy, the current economic system, on the basis that "Practice is the Sole Criterion for the Truth".
Since the collapse of Eastern European communist governments in 1989–1990 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the CPC has emphasised its party-to-party relations with the ruling parties of the remaining socialist states. While the CPC still maintains party-to-party relations with non-ruling communist parties around the world, since the 1980s it has established relations with several non-communist parties, most notably with ruling parties of one-party states, dominant parties in democracies and social democratic parties; the CPC has its origins in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, during which radical Western ideologies like Marxism and anarchism gained traction among Chinese intellectuals. Other influences stemming from the Bolshevik revolution and Marxist theory inspired the Communist Party of China. Li Dazhao was the first leading Chinese intellectual who publicly supported Leninism and world revolution. In contrast to Chen Duxiu, Li did not renounce participation in the affairs of the Republic of China.
Both of them regarded the October Revolution in Russia as groundbreaking, believing it to herald a new era for oppressed countries everywhere. The CPC was modeled on Vladimir Lenin's theory of a vanguard party. Study circles were, according to Cai Hesen, "the rudiments ". Several study circles were established during the New Culture Movement, but "by 1920 skepticism about their suitability as vehicles for reform had become widespread."The founding National Congress of the CPC was held on 23–31 July 1921. With only 50 members in the beginning of 1921, the CPC organization and authorities grew tremendously. While it was held in a house in the Shanghai French Concession, French police interrupted the meeting on 30 July and the congress was moved to a tourist boat on South Lake in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province. Only 12 delegates attended the congress, with neither Li nor Chen being able to attend, the latter sending a personal representative in his stead; the resolutions of the congress called for the establishment of a communist party and elected Chen as its leader.
The communists dominated the left wing of the KMT, a party organized on Leninist lines, struggling for power with the party's right wing. When KMT leader Sun Yat-sen died in March 1925, he was succeeded by a rightist, Chiang Kai-shek, who initiated moves to marginalize the position of the communists. Fresh from the success of the Northern Expedition to overthrow the warlords, Chiang Kai-shek turned on the communists, who by now numbered in the tens of thousands across China. Ignoring the orders of the Wuhan-based KMT government, he marched on Shanghai, a city controlled by communist militias. Although the communists welcomed Chiang's arrival, he turned on them, massacring 5000 with the aid of the Green Gang. Chiang's army marched on Wuhan, but was prevented from taking the city by CPC General Ye Ting and his troops. Chiang's allies attacked communists; that May, tens of thousands of communists and their sympathizers were killed by nationalists, with the CPC losing 15,000 of its 25,000 members.
The CPC continued supporting the Wuhan KMT government, but on 15 July 1927 the Wuhan government expelled all communis
Li Keqiang is a Chinese politician, the current Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China. An economist by trade, Li is China's head of government as well as one of the leading figures behind China's Financial and Economic Affairs, Foreign Affairs, National Security and Deepening Reforms, he is the second-ranked member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, the de facto top decision-making body of the country. Li is a major part of the "fifth generation of Chinese leadership" along with General secretary Xi Jinping. Li was named the World's 12th Most Powerful Person by the Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People in 2015 and 2016. Li rose through the ranks through his involvement in the Communist Youth League. From 1998 to 2004, Li served as the province's party secretary. From 2004 to 2007 he served as the Party Secretary of Liaoning, the top political office in the province. From 2008 to 2013, Li served as the first-ranked Vice-Premier under then-Premier Wen Jiabao, overseeing a broad portfolio which included economic development, price controls, climate change, macroeconomic management.
Given his Youth League experience, Li has been considered a political ally of former leader Hu Jintao. Li assumed the post of Premier in 2013, has facilitated the Chinese government's shifting of priorities from export-led growth to a greater focus on internal consumption. Li has been a major force behind the implementation of the "comprehensively deepening reforms" announced in the fall of 2013. Made in China 2025 is a strategic plan issued by Li and his cabinet in May 2015. Li Keqiang was born on 1 July 1955 in Anhui province, his father was a local official in Anhui. Li graduated from Hefei No.8 Senior High School in 1974, during the Cultural Revolution, was sent for rural labour in Fengyang County, where he joined the Communist Party of China and made his way in becoming the party head of the local production team. He was awarded the honour of Outstanding Individual in the Study of Mao Zedong Thought during this time. Li refused his father's offer of grooming him for the local county's party leadership and entered the School of Law at Peking University, where he received his LLB and became the president of the university's student council.
He earned a Doctor of Philosophy in economics in 1995, the prominent economist Li Yining was his doctoral advisor. His doctoral dissertation was awarded China's highest prize in economics. In 1982, Li became the Communist Youth League secretary at Peking University, he entered the top leadership of the national organization of the Communist Youth League in 1983 as a member of its secretariat, has worked with former Party General Secretary Hu Jintao, who rose through the ranks of the CYL since. Li became the organization's First Secretary in 1993 and served until 1998, he is a representative member of the first generation to have risen from the CYL leadership. Li became the youngest Chinese provincial governor in June 1998 when he was appointed governor of Henan at the age of 43. According to provincial officials working with him at the time, Li refused to participate in any banquets or large fancy events not related to government activities. During his time as governor, a public sense of his "bad luck" grew due to the occurrence of three major fires in the province.
Li is known to be outspoken and led economic development in Henan, transforming the poor inland region into an attractive area for investment. Li did not spend time pursuing superficial projects, he trekked through all regions of the province trying to search for a comprehensive solution to its growing problems. Henan jumped in national GDP rankings from 28th in the early 1990s to 18th in 2004, when Li left Henan. However, his government was ineffective at curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic, affecting the rural areas of the province. Li was transferred to work as the Party Secretary in Liaoning in December 2004, taking on the top political office of the province. There he is known for the "Five-points to one Line" project, where he linked up Dalian and Dandong, as well as a series of other ports into a comprehensive network to improve trade flow. With his Youth League experience and his association with paramount leader Hu Jintao, Li was seen from early on in Hu's term as a contender to succeed Hu when his term as party leader ends in 2012.
Li gained membership to the Politburo Standing Committee at 17th Party Congress held in October 2007. He was succeeded in his provincial party chief post by Governor Zhang Wenyue. While Li's political future seemed promising, he was outranked on the Standing Committee by Xi Jinping, who had just left his role as party chief of Shanghai to join the central leadership ranks in Beijing; this rank order ostensibly signaled that it would be Xi, not Li, who would succeed Hu as party General Secretary and President. At the 2008 National People's Congress, Li was elected Vice-Premier, first in rank, reinforcing the speculation that Li would become Premier and was being groomed to succeed then-Premier Wen Jiabao. During his first term in the PSC between 2007 and 2012, Li took on the most important portfolios in the Chinese government, including economic development, government budgets and resources, the environment, health, ostensibly to prepare him for his upcoming premiership, he became the head of central commissions overseeing the Three Gorges Dam and the South-North Water Transfer Project, as well as the leader of steering committees in charge of health care reform, food safety, AIDS-related work.
In addition, Li was the principal lieute
Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
The Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference is the leader of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China. The current Chairman is Wang Yang, the 4th-ranked member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee. Multiple terms in office, consecutive or otherwise, are listed and counted in the first column counts individuals and the second column. Generations of leadership Mao Zedong Administration Deng-Chen Administration Jiang Zemin Administration Hu–Wen Administration Xi–Wang Administration National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Vice Chairperson Secretary-General Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Chairperson List of leaders of the People's Republic of China
Politics of China
The politics of the People's Republic of China takes place in a framework of a socialist republic run by a single party, the Communist Party of China, headed by General Secretary. State power within the People's Republic of China is exercised through the Communist Party, the Central People's Government and their provincial and local representation; the Communist Party of China uses Internal Reference to manage and monitor internal disagreements among the citizens of People's Republic of China. Document Number Nine was circulated among the Chinese Communist Party in 2013 by Xi–Li Administration to tighten control of the ideological sphere in China to ensure the supreme leadership of the Communist Party will not be challenged by Western influences; the PRC controls mainland China, Hainan island, Hong Kong and some South China Sea islands. Each local Bureau or office is under the coequal authority of the local leader and the leader of the corresponding office, bureau or ministry at the next higher level.
People's Congress members at the county level are elected by voters. These county level People's Congresses have the responsibility of oversight of local government, elect members to the Provincial People's Congress; the Provincial People's Congress in turn elects members to the National People's Congress that meets each year in March in Beijing. The ruling Communist Party committee at each level plays a large role in the selection of appropriate candidates for election to the local congress and to the higher levels; the President of China is the titular head of state, serving as the ceremonial figurehead under National People's Congress. The Premier of China is the head of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions; as a one-party state, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China holds ultimate power and authority over state and government. The offices of President, General Secretary, Chairman of the Central Military Commission have been held by one individual since 1993, granting the individual de jure and de facto power over the country.
China's population, geographical vastness, social diversity frustrate attempts to rule from Beijing. Economic reform during the 1980s and the devolution of much central government decision making, combined with the strong interest of local Communist Party officials in enriching themselves, has made it difficult for the central government to assert its authority. Political power has become much less personal and more institutionally based than it was during the first forty years of the PRC. For example, Deng Xiaoping was never the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, President, or Premier of China, but was the leader of China for a decade. Today the authority of China's leaders is much more tied to their institutional base; the incident of Hong Kong’s Missing Booksellers had alarmed the public that political confrontation of different political cadre in the senior level of the Chinese Communist Party still dominates China's politics. Central government leaders must build consensus for new policies among party members and regional leaders, influential non-party members, the population at large.
However, control is maintained over the larger group through control of information. The Chinese Communist Party considers China to be in the initial stages of socialism. Many Chinese and foreign observers see the PRC as in transition from a system of public ownership to one in which private ownership plays an important role. Privatization of housing and increasing freedom to make choices about education and employment weakened the work unit system, once the basic cell of Communist Party control over society. China's complex political and ideological mosaic, much less uniform beneath the surface than in the idealized story of the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China, resists simple categorization; as the social and political as well as economic consequences of market reform become manifest, tensions between the old—the way of the comrade—and the new—the way of the citizen—are sharpening. Some Chinese scholars such as Zhou Tianyong, the vice director of research of the Central Party School, argue that gradual political reform as well as repression of those pushing for overly rapid change over the next twenty years will be essential if China is to avoid an overly turbulent transition to a middle class dominated polity.
Some Chinese look back to the Cultural Revolution and fear chaos if the Communist Party should lose control due to domestic upheavals and so a robust system of monitoring and control is in place to counter the growing pressure for political change. China practices a form of democracy. Socialist Consultative Democracy is the form of democracy that exists in the People's Republic of China, though at least one source says that this form of democracy was created by the Communist Party of China. According to an article on Qiushi Journal, "Consultative democracy was created by the CPC and the Chinese people as a form of socialist democracy. In this sense, consultative democracy represents the grand product of our efforts to enrich and develop Marxist theories on democracy. Socialist consultative democracy exhibits distinctive features as well as unique advantages. Not only representing a commitment to socialism, it carries forward China’s fine political and cultural traditions. Not only representing a commitment to the organizational principles and leadership mode of democratic centralism, it affirms the role of the general public in democracy.
Not only representing a commitment
Leader of the Communist Party of China
The leader, now the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, is by right of office the Chairman of the Central Military Commission and the President of the People's Republic of China. Since its formation in 1921, the leader's post has been titled as Secretary of the Central Bureau and General Secretary. By custom the party leader has either been elected by the Central Committee or the Central Politburo. There were several name changes until Mao Zedong formalised the office of Chairman of the Central Committee. Since 1982, the CPC National Congress and its 1st CC Plenary Session has been the main institutional setting in which the CPC leadership are elected. From 1992 onwards every party leader has been elected by a 1st CC Plenary Session. In the period 1928–45 the CPC leader was elected by conference, meetings of the Central Committee or by decisions of the Politburo; the last exception to this rule is Jiang Zemin, elected at the 4th Plenary Session of the 13th Central Committee in the aftermath of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
To be nominated for the office of General Secretary, one has to be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee. Despite breaching the party's constitution, several individuals have been de facto leaders of the CPC without holding formal positions of power. Wang Ming was in charge in 1931 after Xiang Zhongfa was jailed by Kuomintang forces, while Li Lisan is considered to have been the real person in-charge for most of Xiang's tenure. Deng Xiaoping is the last CPC official to achieve this. Paramount Leader Orders of precedence in the People's Republic of China List of leaders of the Kuomintang List of leaders of the Democratic Progressive Party List of national leaders of the People's Republic of China