Trinidad Yurok: Chuerey is a seaside city in Humboldt County, located on the Pacific Ocean 8 miles north of the Arcata-Eureka Airport and 15 miles north of the college town of Arcata. Situated at an elevation of 174 feet above its own North Coast harbor, Trinidad is one of California's smallest incorporated cities by population. Trinidad is noted for its spectacular coastline with ten public beaches and offshore rocks, part of the California Coastal National Monument, of which Trinidad is a Gateway City. Fishing operations related to Trinidad Harbor are vital to both local tourism and commercial fishery interests in the region. Before 1700 AD, Yurok people established the village of Tsurai on bluffs overlooking Trinidad Bay; the first European sighting of Trinidad Harbor was by the Manila galleon captain Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeño, who did not make landfall. The next visit was by Bruno de Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra of the Spanish Navy, their two ships anchored in Trinidad Bay on June 9, 1775.
On 11 June, Trinity Sunday, a formal act of possession was conducted. At the place where a wooden cross was erected stands a carved stone cross bearing the inscription. Carolus III Dei G. Hyspaniorum Rex. in the name of King Carlos of Spain. The area was named "la Santisima Trinidad". Settlers arrived on the James R. Whitting in 1850 and founded the town, renamed Warnersville in honor of R. V. Warner, one of the settlers; the first post office opened in Trinidad in 1851. Trinidad was the original county seat of the eponymous Trinity County from 1850 to 1851, of Klamath County, one of California's original counties, from 1851 to 1854. At that time Trinidad became part of the newly created Humboldt County after its creation in 1853, with its county seat in Eureka. Klamath County was dissolved in 1874. During the American Civil War, from July to October 1863, California volunteers fighting the local Indians in the Bald Hills War were stationed in the town, in Trinidad Camp, to protect it and the coast road from Indian raids, until they were moved four miles north to Camp Gilmore.
Trinidad was incorporated in 1870 as a City of the State of California, USA. Trinidad resident Henry A. Boyes was a first sergeant with the 5th Marines in World War II. Part of the auto wreck scene in The Majestic was shot at College Cove Beach on 19 March 2001. Trinidad has an oceanic climate and is temperate compared with inland areas. Annual temperatures range from 40 °F to 60 °F. Winter months are rainy with the average amount being around 50 inches, Although rain falls in all months of the year, it is less pronounced in the summertime. Spring and fall cold fronts form advection fog which pushes the marine layer towards the coast. In summer, low pressure troughs produced by intense heating inland can create strong pressure gradients pulling the marine layer ashore. Summer fogs, moderate precipitation, mild temperatures are characteristic of Northern California coastal forests ecoregion and are vital to the growth of local Coast Redwood. Protected stands of old growth redwoods can be visited 20 miles north of Trinidad, in Redwood National and State Parks.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Trinidad had a population of 367. The population density was 547.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Trinidad was 331 White, 2 African American, 15 Native American, 2 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 1 from other races, 15 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11 persons; the Census reported that 366 people lived in households, 1 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 187 households, out of which 35 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 64 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 21 had a female householder with no husband present, 3 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 20 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 73 households were made up of individuals and 28 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.96. There were 88 families; the population dispersal was 60 people under the age of 18, 25 people aged 18 to 24, 91 people aged 25 to 44, 120 people aged 45 to 64, 71 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 45.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males. There were 252 housing units at an average density of 375.7 per square mile, of which 187 were occupied, of which 113 were owner-occupied, 74 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.2%. 212 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 154 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 311 people, 168 households, 73 families residing in the city; the population density was 643.0 people per square mile. There were 228 housing units at an average density of 471.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.86% White, 1.61% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.32% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. 2.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There wer
Tree height measurement
This article outlines the basic procedures for measuring trees for scientific and champion tree purposes. It does not cover timber assessment for production purposes, focused on marketable wood volumes rather than overall tree size. Tree height is the vertical distance between the base of the tree and the tip of the highest branch on the tree, is difficult to measure accurately, it is not the same as the length of the trunk. If a tree is leaning, the trunk length may be greater than the height of the tree; the base of the tree is where the projection of the pith of the tree intersects the existing supporting surface upon which the tree is growing or where the acorn sprouted. If the tree is growing on the side of a cliff, the base of the tree is at the point where the pith would intersect the cliff side. Roots extending down from that point would not add to the height of the tree. On a slope this base point is considered as halfway between the ground level at the upper and lower sides of the tree.
Tree height can be measured in a number of ways with varying degrees of accuracy. Tree height is one of the parameters measured as part of various champion tree programs and documentation efforts. Other used parameters, outlined in Tree measurement include height, crown spread, volume. Additional details on the methodology of tree girth measurement, tree crown measurement, tree volume measurement are presented in the links herein. American Forests, for example, uses a formula to calculate Big Tree Points as part of their Big Tree Program that awards a tree 1 point for each foot of height, 1 point for each inch of girth, ¼ point for each foot of crown spread; the tree whose point total is the highest for that species is crowned as the champion in their registry. The other parameter measured, in addition to the species and location information, is wood volume. A general outline of tree measurements is provided in the article Tree Measurement with more detailed instructions in taking these basic measurements is provided in "The Tree Measuring Guidelines of the Eastern Native Tree Society" by Will Blozan.
The tallest tree in the world is a coast redwood growing in Northern California, named Hyperion. In September 2012, it was measured at 115.72 meters tall. There are 7 other coastal redwoods known to be over 112 meters in height, 222 specimens over 105 meters. There are only five species known to grow over 91 meters in height worldwide. There are historical accounts of tall and large trees. In the northeastern United States, for example, there are frequent stories published in newspapers and magazines dating from the 1800s telling of tall white pines. One extraordinary account in the Weekly Transcript, North Adams, Mass. Thursday, July 12, 1849 reads: "A Large Tree. --- Mr. D. E. Hawks, of Charlemont, cut a Pine tree a short time since, of the following dimensions, it was 7 feet through 10 feet from the stump, 5 feet through 50 feet from the stump. Twenty-two logs were taken from the average length of which were 12 feet. Fourteen feet of the tree were spoiled in falling; the extreme length of the tree from the stump to the top twigs was 300 feet ] ---- Greenfield Gazette."
In 1995 Robert Leverett and Will Blozan measured the Boogerman Pine, a white pine in Great Smokey Mountains National Park, at a height of 207 feet in 1995 using ground-based cross triangulation methods. This the highest accurate measurement obtained for any tree in the eastern United States within modern times; the top of the tree was lost in Hurricane Opal in 1995 and it stands at just under 190 feet in height. It is possible that some white pines in the past reached heights of well over 200 feet given the much larger area of primary forest prior to the timber boom in the 1800s, based on what grows today, it is unlikely they reached the heights in some of these historical accounts; these reported heights are just a mixture of personal and commercial bravado by the lumbermen of the time. Of the various methods of approximating tree heights, the best options, requiring only a minimal amount of equipment, are the stick method and the tape and clinometer method. To get accurate measurements with either method, care must be taken.
First try to view the tree from several different angles to see where the actual top of the tree is located. Use that point for the measurements; this will eliminate the greatest potential for error. The stick method requires a measuring tape and a stick or ruler and uses the principle of similar triangles to estimate tree heights. There are three primary variations of the stick method. A) Stick-rotation method or pencil method for trees on level ground and with top vertically over the base: 1) grasp the end of a stick and hold it at arm’s length with the free end pointed straight up; the base of the stick should still be aligned with the base of the tree. 4) If you have an assistant, have them walk away from the base of the tree at a right angle to your position until they reach the spot on the ground that aligns with the top of the stick. If alone pick a distinctive point on the ground to mark this point; the distance from the base of the tree to this point is equal to the height of the tree.
Again, this method assumes. B)
Hyperion is the name of a coast redwood in California, measured at 115.92 m, which ranks it as the world's tallest known living tree. Hyperion was discovered August 2006, by naturalists Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor; the tree was verified as standing 115.55 m tall by Stephen Sillett. The tree was found in a remote area of Redwood National and State Parks purchased in 1978, it is estimated to contain 530 m3 of wood. The Park houses the second tallest tree Helios, the third tallest Icarus. Sillett estimates Hyperion to be 600 years old while others report it to be 700–800 years old; the exact location of Hyperion is kept secret to protect the tree from damage. Researchers stated that woodpecker damage at the top may have prevented the tree from growing taller. In February 2012, Hyperion was featured in the BBC Radio 4 documentary James and the Giant Redwoods by James Aldred. List of superlative trees National Geographic Video: "World's Tallest Tree Towers Over California" M. D. Vaden.com: Information about the Hyperion Coast Redwood Tree
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Adansonia is a genus of deciduous trees known as baobabs. They are found in arid regions of Madagascar, mainland Africa and Australia; the generic name honours Michel Adanson, the French naturalist and explorer who described Adansonia digitata. In the early 21st century, baobabs in southern Africa began to die off from a cause yet to be determined. Scientists believe it is unlikely that disease or pests were able to kill many trees so while some speculated that the die-off was a result of dehydration from global warming. Baobabs have trunk diameters of 7 to 11 m; the Glencoe baobab, a specimen of A. digitata in Limpopo Province, South Africa, was considered to be the largest living individual, with a maximum circumference of 47 m and a diameter of about 15.9 m. The tree has since split into two parts, so the widest individual trunk may now be that of the Sunland baobab, or Platland tree in South Africa; the diameter of this tree at ground level is 9.3 m and its circumference at breast height is 34 m.
Adansonia trees produce faint growth rings annually, but they are not reliable for aging specimens, because they are difficult to count and may fade away as the wood ages. Radiocarbon dating has provided data on a few individuals of A. digitata. The Panke baobab in Zimbabwe was some 2,450 years old when it died in 2011, making it the oldest angiosperm documented, two other trees — Dorslandboom in Namibia and Glencoe in South Africa — were estimated to be 2,000 years old. Another specimen known as Grootboom was found to be at least 1275 years old. Greenhouse gases, climate change, global warming appear to be factors reducing baobab longevity. Of the nine species accepted as of April 2018, six are native to Madagascar, two are native to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, one is native to Australia. One of the mainland African species occurs on Madagascar, but it is not a native of that island, it was introduced in ancient times during the colonial era to the Caribbean. It is present in the island nation of Cape Verde.
The ninth species was described in 2012, is found in upland populations of southern and eastern Africa. The African and Australian baobabs are identical despite having separated more than 100 million years ago by oceanic dispersal. Species include:Adansonia digitata L. – African baobab, dead-rat-tree, monkey-bread-tree Adansonia grandidieri Baill. – Grandidier's baobab, giant baobab Adansonia gregorii F. Muell. – boab, Australian baobab, cream-of-tartar-tree, gouty-stem Adansonia kilima Pettigrew, et al. – montane African baobab Adansonia madagascariensis Baill. – Madagascar baobab Adansonia perrieri Capuron – Perrier's baobab Adansonia rubrostipa Jum. & H. Perrier – fony baobab Adansonia suarezensis H. Perrier – Suarez baobab Adansonia za Baill. – za baobab The Malagasy species are important components of the Madagascar dry deciduous forests. Within that biome, Adansonia madagascariensis and A. rubrostipa occur in the Anjajavy Forest, sometimes growing out of the tsingy limestone itself. A. digitata has been called "a defining icon of African bushland".
Baobabs store water in the trunk to endure harsh drought conditions. All occur in seasonally arid areas, are deciduous, shedding their leaves during the dry season. Across Africa, the oldest and largest baobabs began to die in the early 21st century from a combination of drought and rising temperatures; the trees appear to become parched become dehydrated and unable to support their massive trunks. Baobabs are important as nest sites for birds, in particular the mottled spinetail and four species of weaver. Leaves may be eaten as a leaf vegetable; the fruit has a velvety shell and is about the size of a coconut, weighing about 1.5 kilograms, but is not as globular. The fresh fruit is said to taste like sorbet, it has an acidic, citrus flavor. It is a good source of vitamin C, potassium and phosphorus; the dried fruit powder of Adansonia digitata, baobab powder, contains about 12% water and modest levels of various nutrients, including carbohydrates, calcium, potassium and phytosterols, with low levels of protein and fats.
Vitamin C content, described as variable in different samples, was in a range of 74 to 163 milligrams per 100 grams of dried powder. In Angola, the dry fruit is boiled and the broth is used for juices or as the base for a type of ice cream known as gelado de múcua. In Zimbabwe, the fruit is used in traditional food preparations which include "eating the fruit fresh or crushed crumbly pulp to stir into porridge and drinks". In the European Union, prior to commercial approval, baobab fruit powder was not available for use as a food ingredient, as legislation from 1997 dictated that foods not consumed in the EU would have to be formally approved first. In 2008, baobab dried fruit pulp was authorized in the EU as a safe food ingredient, in the year was granted GRAS status in the United States; the seeds of some species are a source of vegetable oil, The fruit pulp and seeds of A. grandidieri and A. za are eaten fresh. In Tanzania, the dry pulp of A. digitata is added to sugarcane to aid fermentation in brewing.
Some baobab species are sources of fiber
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals and plants in their environment. A person who studies natural history is called natural historian. Natural history is not limited to it, it involves the systematic study of any category of natural organisms. So while it dates from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world, through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's natural history is a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences; the meaning of the English term "natural history" has narrowed progressively with time. In antiquity, "natural history" covered anything connected with nature, or which used materials drawn from nature, such as Pliny the Elder's encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, which covers astronomy, geography and their technology and superstition, as well as animals and plants. Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two main divisions: the humanities and divinity, with science studied through texts rather than observation or experiment.
The study of nature revived in the Renaissance, became a third branch of academic knowledge, itself divided into descriptive natural history and natural philosophy, the analytical study of nature. In modern terms, natural philosophy corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, while natural history included the biological and geological sciences; the two were associated. During the heyday of the gentleman scientists, many people contributed to both fields, early papers in both were read at professional science society meetings such as the Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences – both founded during the seventeenth century. Natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus' aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden; the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits. Modern definitions of natural history come from a variety of fields and sources, many of the modern definitions emphasize a particular aspect of the field, creating a plurality of definitions with a number of common themes among them.
For example, while natural history is most defined as a type of observation and a subject of study, it can be defined as a body of knowledge, as a craft or a practice, in which the emphasis is placed more on the observer than on the observed. Definitions from biologists focus on the scientific study of individual organisms in their environment, as seen in this definition by Marston Bates: "Natural history is the study of animals and Plants – of organisms.... I like to think of natural history as the study of life at the level of the individual – of what plants and animals do, how they react to each other and their environment, how they are organized into larger groupings like populations and communities" and this more recent definition by D. S. Wilcove and T. Eisner: "The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior, their relationships with other species"; this focus on organisms in their environment is echoed by H. W. Greene and J. B. Losos: "Natural history focuses on where organisms are and what they do in their environment, including interactions with other organisms.
It encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do". Some definitions go further, focusing on direct observation of organisms in their environment, both past and present, such as this one by G. A. Bartholomew: "A student of natural history, or a naturalist, studies the world by observing plants and animals directly; because organisms are functionally inseparable from the environment in which they live and because their structure and function cannot be adequately interpreted without knowing some of their evolutionary history, the study of natural history embraces the study of fossils as well as physiographic and other aspects of the physical environment". A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a descriptive component, as seen in a recent definition by H. W. Greene: "Descriptive ecology and ethology". Several authors have argued for a more expansive view of natural history, including S. Herman, who defines the field as "the scientific study of plants and animals in their natural environments.
It is concerned with levels of organization from the individual organism to the ecosystem, stresses identification, life history, distribution and inter-relationships. It and appropriately includes an esthetic component", T. Fleischner, who defines the field more broadly, as "A practice of intentional, focused attentiveness and receptivity to the more-than-human world, guided by honesty and accuracy"; these definitions explicitly include the arts in the field of natural history, are aligned with the broad definition outlined by B. Lopez, who defines the field as the "Patient interrogation of a landscape" while referring to the natural history knowledge of the Eskimo. A different framework for natural history, covering a similar range of themes, is implied in the scope of work encompassed by many leading natural history museums, which include elements of anthropology, geology and astronomy along with botany and zoology, or include both cultural and natural components of the world; the pl
General Grant (tree)
The General Grant tree is the largest giant sequoia in the General Grant Grove section of Kings Canyon National Park in California and the second largest tree in the world. The tree was named in 1867 after Ulysses S. Grant, Union Army general and the 18th President of the United States. President Calvin Coolidge proclaimed it the "Nation's Christmas Tree" on April 28, 1926. Due in large part to its huge base, the General Grant tree was thought to be the largest tree in the world prior to 1931, when the first precise measurements indicated that the General Sherman was larger. On March 29, 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower declared the tree a "National Shrine", a memorial to those who died in war, it is the only living. In 2005 the General Grant moved up one place in the giant sequoia size rankings, when the Washington tree lost the hollow upper half of its trunk after a fire. Once thought to be well over 2,000 years old, recent estimates suggest the General Grant tree is closer to 1,650 years old.
List of largest giant sequoias List of trees Virtual Grant Tree Walk "General Grant: Our Nation's Christmas Tree". Archived from the original on 2010-12-24; the largest giant sequoias by trunk volume