A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, are pneumatically inflated structures, which provide a flexible cushion that absorbs shock as the tire rolls over rough features on the surface. Tires provide a footprint, designed to match the weight of the vehicle with the bearing strength of the surface that it rolls over by providing a bearing pressure that will not deform the surface excessively; the materials of modern pneumatic tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber and wire, along with carbon black and other chemical compounds. They consist of a body; the tread provides traction. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Early rubber tires were solid. Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, heavy equipment, aircraft.
Metal tires are still used on locomotives and railcars, solid rubber tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, carts and wheelbarrows. The word tire is a short form of attire, from the idea; the spelling tyre does not appear until the 1840s when the English began shrink fitting railway car wheels with malleable iron. Traditional publishers continued using tire; the Times newspaper in Britain was still using tire as late as 1905. The spelling tyre began to be used in the 19th century for pneumatic tires in the UK; the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica states that "he spelling'tyre' is not now accepted by the best English authorities, is unrecognized in the US", while Fowler's Modern English Usage of 1926 says that "there is nothing to be said for'tyre', etymologically wrong, as well as needlessly divergent from our own older & the present American usage". However, over the course of the 20th century, tyre became established as the standard British spelling.
The earliest tires were bands of leather iron placed on wooden wheels used on carts and wagons. The tire would be heated in a forge fire, placed over the wheel and quenched, causing the metal to contract and fit on the wheel. A skilled worker, known as a wheelwright, carried out this work; the first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847 lodged by the Scottish inventor Robert William Thomson. However, this never went into production; the first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast, by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop, owner of one of Ireland's most prosperous veterinary practices. It was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements, his doctor, John Sir John Fagan, had prescribed cycling as an exercise for the boy, was a regular visitor. Fagan participated in designing the first pneumatic tires. Cyclist Willie Hume demonstrated the supremacy of Dunlop's tires in 1889, winning the tire's first-ever races in Ireland and England.
In Dunlop's tire patent specification dated 31 October 1888, his interest is only in its use in cycles and light vehicles. In September 1890, he was made aware of an earlier development but the company kept the information to itself. In 1892, Dunlop's patent was declared invalid because of prior art by forgotten fellow Scot Robert William Thomson of London, although Dunlop is credited with "realizing rubber could withstand the wear and tear of being a tire while retaining its resilience". John Boyd Dunlop and Harvey du Cros together worked through the ensuing considerable difficulties, they employed inventor Charles Kingston Welch and acquired other rights and patents which allowed them some limited protection of their Pneumatic Tyre business's position. Pneumatic Tyre would become Dunlop Tyres; the development of this technology hinged on myriad engineering advances, including the vulcanization of natural rubber using sulfur, as well as by the development of the "clincher" rim for holding the tire in place laterally on the wheel rim.
Synthetic rubbers were invented in the laboratories of Bayer in the 1920s. In 1946, Michelin developed the radial tire method of construction. Michelin had bought the bankrupt Citroën automobile company in 1934, so it was able to fit this new technology immediately; because of its superiority in handling and fuel economy, use of this technology spread throughout Europe and Asia. In the U. S. the outdated bias-ply tire construction persisted, with market share of 87% as late as 1967. Delay was caused by tire and automobile manufacturers in America "concerned about transition costs." In 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of radial construction, setting off a rapid decline in Michelin's competitor technology. In the U. S. the radial tire now has a market share of 100% in automobiles. Today, over 1 billion tires are produced annually in over 400 tire factories. There are 2 aspects to. First, tension in the cords pull on the bead uniformly around the wheel, except where it is reduced above the contact patch.
Second, the bead transfers that net force to the rim. Air pressure, via the ply cords, exerts tensile force on the entire bead surrounding th
Aerojet General X-8
The Aerojet General X-8 was an unguided, spin-stabilized sounding rocket designed to launch a 150 lb payload to 200,000 feet. The X-8 was a version of the prolific Aerobee rocket family. Towards the end of World War II, the US Army and the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory had developed a meteorological sounding rocket, the WAC Corporal; the U. S. Army had captured enough parts to assemble 100 German V-2 guided missiles; the Army determined that its Project Hermes would be extended to assemble and launch a number of the V-2s for military and scientific purposes. Many of the V-2 components were useless, thus the initial intent of the Army was to launch only 20 missiles. The Army was to make space available on the V-2s for upper atmosphere research. Due to the limited number of V-2s planned design of several competing sounding rockets continued. Jet Propulsion Laboratory favored its WAC Corporal despite its inadequacy; the competing rockets were the Applied Physics Laboratory's Aerobee and the Naval Research Laboratory's Neptune.
The Army determined that it would refurbish and manufacture components as necessary to launch many more V-2s than intended, making most available for science. The Aerobee was developed in response to the need for a sounding rocket to replace the dwindling numbers of V-2s. Design and initial development of the Aerobee occurred between June 1946 and November 1947; the first Aerobees, the Navy RTV-N-8a1 and Army Signal Corps XASR-SC-1, used the Aerojet XASR-1 2,600 lbf thrust air-pressurized engine. Aerojet's XASR-1 was developed from the 1,500 lbf thrust WAC-1 engine of the WAC Corporal sounding rocket; the USAF RTV-A-1, Navy RTV-N-10 and Army XASR-SC-2s used the Aerojet XASR-2 2,600 lbf thrust helium pressurized engine. In 1949 the Air Force instigated the development of a more powerful Aerojet engine to replace the 2,600 lb.-thrust XASR-2. This was the 4,000 lbf thrust helium-pressurized AJ 10-25; the USAF X-8A and USN RTV-N-10a used the seminal Aerojet AJ-10-25 or AJ-10-24. The Army Air Force's Air Research and Development Command, needing its own research programs, initiated Project MX-1011 and ordered 33 AJ-10-25 powered Aerobees as RTV-A-1s.
That designation was changed to X-8. The rocket was renamed again as RM-84; the number of X-8s flown came to 60 including 28 X-8s, 30 X-8As, 1 X-8B with a 2,600 lbf thrust XASR-2 chemically pressurized engine, 1 X-8C with a 4,000 lbf thrust AJ 10-25s helium pressurized engine with no booster. The three X-8D with 4,000 lbf thrust AJ 10-25, were never flown. A Navy experimental launch of a stretched Aerobee, the RTV-N-10b resulted in both services requesting improved Aerobees, known generically as Aerobee-Hi. At launch, an 18,000 lbf thrust Aerojet 2.5KS18,000G solid rocket booster fired for 2.5 seconds. After booster jettison, a 2,600 lbf thrust XASR-2 liquid fuel rocket burned for up to 40 seconds; the X-8 recovery sequence was started as the rocket descended through about 200,000 ft feet when the fins were blown off to induce a drag producing tumble. At about 20,000 ft the nose cone was returned to Earth by parachute; the baseline X-8 measured 5.25 ft across the fins. A X-8A reached a maximum altitude of 138.4 miles.
The payloads of the X-8s varied. There were 30 X-8As, 1 X-8B, 2 X8-Cs and 3 X-8Ds delivered to the Air Force; the first RTV-A-1 flight was USAF-1. USAF-1 was launched by an Air Force crew commanded by Major Phillip Calhoun, the Aerobee Project Officer, on 2 December 1949. USAF-1 carried three experiments. Rocket performance was good. Telemetry returned some data; the X-Ray detector foils returned no data. Parachute failure resulted in the nose cone containing the experiments to be lost; the nose cone was found in July 1950, the film was destroyed. The next four flights saw the nose cone. USAF-6, was a more typical X-8 Mission, it carried a payload of Pressure-Temperature detectors for the University of Michigan, an Air Force Cambridge Center multipurpose beacon, 6 channel PPM-AM system, a Ten channel data recorder supplied by Tufts College, a camera to photograph a Sperry aspect gyro for the University of Michigan. USAF-6 reached an altitude of 57.5 miles before a flawless recovery. From December 1949 until the last X-8A flight on 11/12/1956, the X-8s s flew a great variety of experiments.
Typical payloads were solar radiation, pressure, sky brightness, atmosphere composition, airglow, rocket performance, biological experiments, air density, day airglow, sodium studies, nitric oxide to produce a sporadic E layer, nitric oxide attempt to recombine atomic oxygen, sodium cloud ionization, solar spectrum and atmospheric composition. All but the last X-8 mission were flown from Holloman AFB; the last X-8 was flown for the Signal Corps Electronic Laboratory from Fort Churchill, Canada on 11/12/1956 and studied temperature and winds. After the X-8s Air Force Aerobees were known by their engine model numbers, either AJ-10-27 or AJ-10-
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
WOR is a 50,000 watt Class A clear-channel AM radio station owned by iHeartMedia and licensed to New York City. The station airs a mix of local and syndicated talk radio shows from co-owned Premiere Networks, including The Rush Limbaugh Show, The Sean Hannity Show, Coast to Coast AM with George Noory; the independently syndicated Dave Ramsey Show is heard at night. Since 2016, the station has served as the New York network affiliate for co-owned NBC News Radio; the station's studios are located in the Tribeca neighborhood of Manhattan at the former AT&T Building, with its transmitter in Rutherford, New Jersey. WOR began broadcasting in February 1922 and is one of the oldest radio stations in the United States with a three–letter call sign, characteristic of a station dating from the 1920s. WOR is the only New York City station to have retained its original three-letter call sign, making it the oldest continually used call letters in the New York City area. WOR's original owner was Bamberger's Department Store in New Jersey.
In the early 1920s, the store was selling radio receivers and wanted to put a radio station on the air to help promote receiver sales as well as for general publicity. Effective December 1, 1921 the U. S. Department of Commerce had set aside a single wavelength, 360 meters for radio stations to broadcast "entertainment" programs; the store applied for a license, granted on February 20, 1922 with the randomly assigned call sign of WOR. The station's original city of license was Newark; the station made its debut broadcast on February 22, 1922, from a studio located on an upper floor of the store. A 250-watt De Forest transmitter was constructed on the roof of the department store; the station's first broadcast was made with a homemade microphone constructed by attaching a megaphone to a telephone mouthpiece. Al Jolson's "April Showers" was the first record played on WOR. Three other broadcasting stations were on the air in the region transmitting on 360 meters: WJZ in Newark, operated by the Radio Corporation of America.
The use of the common wavelength required a time–sharing agreement between the stations designating transmitting hours. This soon became complicated, as by June there were a total of ten regional stations using 360 meters; this restricted the number of hours available to WOR, now limited to just a few hours per week. In September 1922, the Department of Commerce set aside a second entertainment wavelength, 400 meters for "Class B" stations that had quality equipment and programming. In the New York City region, WOR, along with two New York City American Telephone & Telegraph Company stations, WBAY and WEAF, were assigned to this new wavelength. In May 1923 additional "Class B" broadcasting frequencies were announced, including three for the Newark/New York City area. WOR moved to 740 kHz, where it shared time with WDT and a new RCA station, WJY. WJY used the time periods assigned to it, by the summer of 1926, WOR began operating full-time, stating that the silent WJY was considered to have forfeited its hours.
In June 1927, the Federal Radio Commission moved WOR to 710 kHz, which it has occupied since. On November 11, 1928, under the provisions of the FRC's General Order 40, this assignment was designated a "clear channel" frequency, with WOR the dominant station. In December 1924, although still licensed to Newark, WOR opened a second studio in Manhattan to originate programs, so that stars of the day based in New York City would have better access to the station. In 1926, WOR left its original New York City studio on the 9th floor of Chickering Hall at 27 West 57th Street, it relocated two blocks from Times Square. WOR was a charter member of the CBS Radio Network, acting as the flagship of the 16 stations that aired the first Columbia Broadcasting System network program on September 18, 1927. In partnership with Chicago radio station WGN and Cincinnati radio station WLW, WOR formed the Mutual Broadcasting System in 1934 and became its New York City flagship station. Mutual was one of the "Big Four" national radio networks in the United States during the 1930s–1980s.
In 1941, the station changed its city of license from Newark to New York City. However, for all intents and purposes it had been a New York City station since its early days, had set up studios across the Hudson two years after it signed on. In 1957, WOR became an independent station. Mutual's new outlet in New York City was AM 970 WAAT in Newark, but WOR continued to carry Mutual's "Top of the News" with Fulton Lewis for 15 minutes each evening, Monday to Friday at 7:00 p.m. for several more years. It aired Mutual's all night talk show hosted by Larry King for several years. For a few years in the late-1950s, WOR aired selected St. Louis Cardinals baseball games sponsored by Budweiser due to the departures of the Dodgers and Giants from New York City to California. In 1941, WOR put W71NY, on the air. WOR had been experimenting with FM broadcasts as W2XWI from its Carteret, New Jersey transmitter site from 1938. For most of its first two decades, W71NY WOR-FM simulcast the same programming as WOR.
In 1949, WOR signed on a sister television station, Channel 9 WOR-TV. It started as an independent station, showing movies and reruns of network shows, with some local children's and talk programs. In 1952, WOR-AM-FM-TV were sold to RKO General; the TV station became WWOR-TV, re
For the radio network of the New York Yankees, see New York Yankees Radio Network. The Yankee Network was an American radio network, based in Boston, with affiliate radio stations throughout New England. At the height of its influence, the Yankee Network had as many as twenty-four affiliated radio stations; the network was co-founded by John Shepard III and his brother Robert, in 1929–1930. The beginnings of what became the Yankee Network occurred in the mid-1920s, when John Shepard's Boston station WNAC linked by telephone land lines with Robert Shepard's Providence, Rhode Island station WEAN, so that the two stations could share or exchange programming; those two stations became the first two Yankee Network stations. In 1930, they were joined by the first affiliated radio stations, including WLBZ in Maine. During the 1930s, the network became known for developing its own local and regional news bureau, the Yankee News Service; the Yankee Network and the Yankee News Service operated until February 1967.
The main benefit of joining the Yankee Network was that it offered its affiliates as much as 17 hours of daily programming. Yankee affiliates were provided with access to some of the best-known Boston vocalists and orchestras, as well as nationally-known entertainers who were appearing in Boston or Providence. For example, a concert by opera star Mary Garden was broadcast, as was a concert by the Providence Symphony Orchestra. Dance music was played by bandleader Joe Rines and his orchestra, or by other popular bandleaders like Dok Eisenbourg; the Yankee Network had its own 22-piece orchestra, led by Charles R. Hector. Among other popular entertainers heard on the Yankee Network in the early 1930s were pianist and bandleader Gus Arnheim, local favorites "Hum and Strum." The Yankee Network broadcast radio plays, featuring its own drama troupe, made up of members of the WNAC staff, led by announcer Ben Hadfield. In addition to religious services and educational talks, there were cultural programs, including excerpts from "The Green Pastures," a play starring black actor Richard B. Harrison.
For sports fans, they could hear Boston Braves and Boston Red Sox baseball games, announced by Fred Hoey. College football, broadcast live from various schools in the region, was a popular feature. In addition to providing local and regional programming, the Yankee Network was affiliated with the Columbia Broadcasting System, which provided national programs to complement Yankee's New England focus. By 1931, the network was offering regular news broadcasts, on the half-hour, making use of reporting by some of Boston's newspapers, but by 1933,the relationship between print and radio had become contentious, with newspapers no longer willing to provide news to radio stations. The so-called "Press-Radio Agreement" limited the number of newscasts radio stations could broadcast to only two a day, listeners were upset that they could no longer hear regular news on the air. In early March 1934, John Shepard III organized his own news bureau, the Yankee News Service, to provide his affiliates with regular local and regional news reports.
It replaced the newscasts provided by reporters from the Boston Herald-Traveler, Boston American, Boston Daily Record. Shepard hired Richard D. Grant, a former print journalist from the Boston Evening Transcript, to be in charge of the news broadcasts. Editor in chief was Leland Bickford, who co-wrote a book in 1935 about the first year of the Yankee News Service; the Yankee News Service used the slogan "News while it IS News," intended as a jab at the newspapers, which disseminated news at a slower pace than radio. That was the title of the book about the creation of the news service. In addition, on February 20, 1938, the Yankee Network debuted its own radio weather service, to provide up-to-date weather information to affiliates; the first chief meteorologist of the Yankee Network Weather Service was Salvatore Pagliuca, who had worked at the Blue Hills Observatory and the Mount Washington Observatory. Throughout the early-to-mid 1930s, the Yankee Network continued to expand, picking up affiliates in such cities as Springfield, Massachusetts.
The network received support from advertisers, who saw it as an effective way to reach an audience that extended throughout New England. In 1935, the Yankee Network centralized its executive offices and studios in a new headquarters, 21 Brookline Avenue in Boston; the move followed a $25,000 renovation of the facilities. Included in the building were studios and offices of WNAC and WAAB, the network's Boston stations. One area where the expansion was noticeable was in the news department, praised by national magazines like Variety for its coverage of state legislatures, as well as coverage of news-makers throughout New England. There was some early controversy over John Shepard's policy of inserting brief "plugs" into the newscasts, but Shepard defended the practice as necessary in order to support the broadcasts; as the network hired more staff and was able to cover stories more extensively, the complaints diminished. By 1939, the Yankee Network was said to be the first regional network to send a full-time reporter, Pete Tully, to Washington, D.
C. to cover Congress. The Yankee Network earned praise for its coverage of natural disasters in New England, such as in April 1936, when heavy rainstorms caused flooding in western Massachusetts, or in September 1938, when a hurricane devastated much of Southern New Englan
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting research university in Pasadena, California. Known for its strength in natural science and engineering, Caltech is ranked as one of the world's top-ten universities. Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century; the vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910 and the college assumed its present name in 1921. In 1934, Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities and the antecedents of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán; the university is one among a small group of institutes of technology in the United States, devoted to the instruction of pure and applied sciences. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research.
Its 124-acre primary campus is located 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles. First-year students are required to live on campus and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a strong tradition of practical jokes and pranks, student life is governed by an honor code which allows faculty to assign take-home examinations; the Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division III's Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. As of October 2018, Caltech alumni and researchers include 73 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners. In addition, there are 53 non-emeritus faculty members who have been elected to one of the United States National Academies, 4 Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force and 71 have won the United States National Medal of Technology. Numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA. According to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U.
S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a vocational school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop; the school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute and Throop College of Technology before acquiring its current name in 1920. The vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when scientific research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale, a solar astronomer from the University of Chicago, founded the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1904, he joined Throop's board of trustees in 1907, soon began developing it and the whole of Pasadena into a major scientific and cultural destination. He engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, to Throop's presidency in 1908. Scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus.
In 1910, Throop moved to its current site. Arthur Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. Theodore Roosevelt delivered an address at Throop Institute on March 21, 1911, he declared: I want to see institutions like Throop turn out ninety-nine of every hundred students as men who are to do given pieces of industrial work better than any one else can do them. In the same year, a bill was introduced in the California Legislature calling for the establishment of a publicly funded "California Institute of Technology", with an initial budget of a million dollars, ten times the budget of Throop at the time; the board of trustees offered to turn Throop over to the state, but the presidents of Stanford University and the University of California lobbied to defeat the bill, which allowed Throop to develop as the only scientific research-oriented education institute in southern California, public or private, until the onset of the World War II necessitated the broader development of research-based science education.
The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science and technology. With the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. While he supported the idea of federal appropriations for science, he took exception to a federal bill that would have funded engineering research at land-grant colleges, instead sought to raise a $1 million national research fund from private sources. To that end, as Hale wrote in The New York Times: Throop College of Technology, in Pasadena California has afforded a striking illustration of one way in which the Research Council can secure co-operation and advance scientific investigation; this institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, could be of great service in any broad scheme of cooperation. President S
The LR87 was an American liquid-propellant rocket engine, used on the first stages of Titan intercontinental ballistic missiles and launch vehicles. Composed of twin motors with separate combustion chambers and turbopump machinery, it is considered a single unit; the LR87 first flew in 1959. The LR87 was developed in the late 1950s by Aerojet, it was the first production rocket engine capable of burning the three most common liquid rocket propellant combinations: liquid oxygen/RP-1, nitrogen tetroxide/Aerozine 50, liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The engine operated on an open gas-generator cycle and utilized a regenerative cooled nozzle and combustion chamber. Versions had additional ablative-cooled flanges; the LR87 served as a template for the LR-91, used in the second stage of the Titan missile. It was a fixed-thrust engine, which could not be restarted in flight; the LR87 delivered 1,900 kilonewtons of thrust. Early LR87 engines used on the Titan I burned liquid oxygen; because liquid oxygen is cryogenic, it could not be stored in the missile for long periods of time, had to be loaded before the missile could be launched.
For the Titan II, the engine was converted to use Aerozine 50 and nitrogen tetroxide, which are hypergolic and storable at room temperature. This allowed Titan II missiles to be kept fueled and ready to launch on short notice. Used on the Titan I, the LR87-3 burned liquid oxygen and RP-1. Following the retirement of the Titan missile program, these engines saw no further use; the LR87-3 was tested with LOX/H2 and NTO/Aerozine 50 making it one of few engines to have been run on three different propellant combinations. Thrust: 647 kN Thrust: 733 kN Specific impulse: 2,840 N‑s/kg Specific impulse: 2,510 N‑s/kg Burn time: 139 seconds Weight: 839 kg Length: 3.13 m Diameter: 1.53 m Chambers: 1 Chamber pressure: 4.0 MPa Chamber temperature: ~3300 °C Expansion ratio: 8:1 Ratio of LOX:RP-1: 1.91:1 Ratio of thrust:weight: 87.2 Modified to burn nitrogen tetroxide and Aerozine 50 for the Titan II. The engine was lighter and simpler than its predecessor due to the use of hypergolic propellants, which did not need an independent ignition system.
Thrust: 956.5 kN Thrust: 1096.8 kN Specific impulse: 2,910 N‑s/kg Specific impulse: 2,540 N‑s/kg Burn time: 155 seconds Weight: 739 kg Length: 3.13 m Diameter: 1.14 m Chambers: 2 Chamber pressure: 5.4 MPa Chamber temperature: ~3000 °C Expansion ratio: 8:1 Fuel consumption: 750 kg/s Ratio N2O4:Aerozine 50: 1.93:1 Ratio of thrust:weight: 151.34 Modified versions of LR87-5 adapted to the needs of the Gemini program. The performance was similar to the previous version, only reducing the chamber pressure and nozzle thrust to meet human-rating requirements; this version was only used on the Titan II GLV. Thrust: 946.700 kN Thrust: 1,086.10 kN Specific impulse: 258 s Specific impulse: 296 s Burn time: 139 s Height: 3.13 m Diameter: 1.53 m Used on the Titan IIIA, IIIB, IIIC Thrust: 1941.7 kN Thrust: 2339.9 kN Specific impulse: 252 s Specific impulse: 304 s Burn time: 150 seconds Used on Titan 24B, 34B, IIIBS, IIID, 34D, 34D7, IIIE. The LR-87-11A was used on the Titan IV A/B. Thrust: 2001.7 kN Thrust: 2413.2 Specific impulse: 252 s Specific impulse: 304 s Burn time: 146–185 seconds Modified to burn liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.
The development coincided with other variants of the late 1950s. Compared to the -3, it had a number of changes associated with the use of lighter and colder liquid hydrogen; the fuel injector turbo was changed along with the fuel turbopump among other things. A total of 52 static tests were performed without serious issue. Aerojet took part in the selection process for a new engine for the second stage of the Saturn IB and Saturn V. Though LR87 LH2 was the best in 10 out of 11 criteria, NASA selected Rocketdyne's J-2. Lessons learned were used during development of the Aerojet M-1 Thrust: 667 kN Specific impulse: 4,420 N‑s/kg Weight: ~700 kg Length: 4 m Diameter: 1.13 m Chambers: 1 AJ-10 RL10 Titan Rocket engine using liquid fuel Encyclopedia Astronautica National Museum of the USAF, Ohio Aerojet LR87