Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist
Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist was a German field marshal during World War II. Kleist led the 1st Panzer Group during the Battle of France, the Battle of Belgium, the Balkans Campaign and the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, he was the commander of Army Group A during the latter part of Case Blue, the 1942 summer offensive in southern Russia. Following the war, Kleist was extradited to the Soviet Union where he was sentenced to 25 years in prison for war crimes. Ewald von Kleist was born into the noble family Kleist, an old Pomeranian family with a long history of military service, his ancestor was the Prussian field marshal Henning Alexander von Kleist and his great-grandfather was the Prussian general Karl Wilhelm Heinrich von Kleist. At a young age, Kleist joined the Prussian field artillery regiment, "General Feldzeugmeister" No. 3 on 9 March 1900 as a fahnenjunker. He was commissioned as a lieutenant on 18 August 1901. On March 22, 1914, he was promoted to Captain and joined the Leib-Husaren-Regiment No. 1.
During the First World War, Kleist served on the Eastern Front and participated in the Battle of Tannenberg. From 1915 to 1918 he served as a staff officer on the Western Front. After the First World War ended, Kleist joined the Freikorps and participated in the Latvian and Estonian Wars of Independence as a member of the Iron Division. In June of 1919, he led an attack group during the Battle of Cēsis. Kleist joined the Reichswehr in 1920. From 1924 to 1928 he was assigned as a tactics instructor at the Hannover Cavalry School. In 1928 he served as the chief of staff of the 2nd Cavalry Division in Breslau from 1929 to 1931 he held the same position in the 3rd Division in Berlin. Kleist was promoted to Colonel in 1931 and was given command of the 9th Infantry Regiment in Potsdam. At the beginning of 1932, he was given command of the 2nd Cavalry Division. In October of 1932, he was promoted to Major General. After the Nazis seized power the Reichswehr was united with the newly formed Wehrmacht. On December 1, 1933, he was promoted to lieutenant general.
In October 1934 he was given command of the "Breslau Army", reorganized into the VIII. Army Corps. In 1935 he was given command of the newly formed military district VIII responsible for Silesia while serving as the commanding general of the VIII. Army Corps. On August 1, 1936, he was promoted to General of the Cavalry. In February 1938 Kleist was involved in the Blomberg–Fritsch affair and forced to retire from service. To secure his retirement, he acquired a property near Breslau. After the outbreak of the Second World War Kleist was recalled to active duty and led the XXII Motorised Corps in the Invasion of Poland, during which his corps broke through the southern wing of the Polish army. In May 1940 Panzer Group Kleist was formed, the first operational formation of several Panzer corps in the Wehrmacht. Panzer Group Kleist played an important role in the the Invasion of France, it spearheaded the German breakthrough in the Ardennes and reached the sea, forming a huge pocket containing several Belgian and French armies.
Kleist was promoted to Colonel-General on 19 July 1940 and received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. In April 1941 Panzer Group Kleist was renamed to 1st Panzer Group and spearheaded the invasions of Yugoslavia and Greece. In June of 1941, he led 1st Panzer Group in Operation Barbarossa as part of Army Group South; the 1st Panzer Group was responsible for the breakthrough of the Stalin Line. It defeated the Red Army in the Battle of Brody, one of the largest tank engagements of the war, which involved over 3400 Soviet tanks and 750 German tanks. By 26 September 1941, 1st Panzer Group together with 2nd Panzer Group led by Colonel-General Heinz Guderian had captured over 800 Soviet tanks and took about 650,000 prisoners of war in the battles of Uman and Kiev. In recognition of their achievements, the Kleist and Guderian tank groups were converted into panzer armies at the beginning of October 1941, which made their commands equivalent to other army commanders. After operations at Kiev concluded, Kleist's 1st Panzer Army advanced east to capture the important industrial Donbass region.
On 26 September, the Battle of the Sea of Azov began as the Southern Front launched an attack on the northern shores of the Sea of Azov against the German 11th Army, advancing into the Crimea. On 1 October the 1st Panzer Army swept south and encircled the two attacking Soviet 9th and 18th armies, by 11 October both Soviet armies had been destroyed; the Soviet forces suffered heavy losses with over 100,000 men captured as well as 760 artillery pieces and 200 tanks destroyed or captured in the pocket alone. By the end of October, the 1st Panzer Army had taken Donbass. On 17 November, after the German forces crossed the Mius river and captured 10,000 Soviet troops, the Battle of Rostov began. On 19 November 1941 the 1st Panzer Army reached Rostov and the following day, they seized the bridge over the river Don, the last barrier before the Caucasus. On 21 November the Germans took Rostov, but on 27 November the Southern Front led by General Yakov Cherevichenko as part of the Rostov Strategic Offensive Operation, counter-attacked the 1st Panzer Army's over-extended spearhead from the north, forcing them to pull out of the city.
By 2 December 1941, the Soviet forces had retaken Rostov and the 1st Panzer Army was forced to withdraw back to the Mius River, near Taganrog. This was the first major German withdrawal of the war. During the Second Battle of Kharkov on 17 May 1942 as part of Operation Fredericus, Kleist's 1st Panzer Army attacked the Barvenkovo bridgehead from the South, advancing up to ten kilometres in the first day
Max von Fabeck
Herrmann Gustav Karl Max von Fabeck was a Prussian military officer and a German General der Infantarie during World War I. He commanded the 13th Corps in the 5th Army and took part in the Race to the Sea on the Western Front and commanded the new 11th Army on the Eastern Front. Subsequently, he commanded several German armies during the war until his evacuation from the front due to illness in 1916 and died on 16 December. A competent and decorated commander, von Fabeck is a recipient of the Pour le Mérite, Prussia's and Germany's highest military honor. Fabeck was born in Berlin in 1854, he was wife Bertha, née von dem Borne. By the time he was 17 years old he was a second lieutenant in the 1st Footguards Regiment. From 1878 to 1879 he attended the Prussian Military Academy. In 1882 he was appointed to the German General Staff and was promoted to captain in 1884. From 1886 he served in the General Staff of the 28. Division in Karlsruhe. On 24 October 1887 married Helene von Seldeneck, the daughter of the Grand Duke of Baden, chamberlain of William and Julie Brandt Seldeneck of Lindau.
The couple had three daughters Ilse and Hildegard. He became a staff officer to the VI Army Corps in Breslau in 1889 and shortly thereafter was promoted to Major. From 1893 he served in the regiment Grenadier König Friedrich Wilhelm II. Nr. 10 in Schweidnitz. In 1896 he was a Lieutenant Colonel Chief of Staff of the XI. Army Corps in Kassel. In 1898 he was promoted to Colonel and received his first command: the Infanterie-Regiments „Herzog Friedrich Wilhelm von Braunschweig“ Nr. 78 in Osnabrück. From 1901 he led the 25th Infantry Brigade in the 13th Army Division in Münster, he was promoted to Major General that same year. In 1906 Fabeck was promoted to lieutenant general and commander of the 28th Army Division in Karlsruhe. In 1910 he was appointed general of the infantry and commanding general of the XV Army Corps in Strasbourg. In 1913 he assumed the same position at the XIII Army Corps in Stuttgart. At the beginning of World War, the XIII Army Corps commanded by von Fabeck was part of Germany's 5th Army, commanded by Crown Prince Wilhelm.
It participated in the mobile battles known as the Race to the First Battle of Ypres. In March 1915 von Fabeck commanded the newly formed 11th Army, transferred from the Western to the Eastern fronts with whom he fought in Lithuania. In April 1915 he replaced the injured Alexander von Kluck as commander of the 1st Army. In September 1915 von Fabeck got command of the 12th Army, with whom he transferred to the Eastern Front, he was attached à la suite to Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 129 on 27 January 1916. Before he fell ill in October 1916 von Fabeck was the commander of 8th Army for a few weeks. General von Fabeck was awarded the Pour le Mérite for outstanding military leadership during the 1914–15 campaigns in Flanders and northern France, as well as in recognition of successful operational planning in the battles at Mons, Le Cateau and the Ourcq river, he received a personal telegram from the Wilhelm II congratulating him on the award. In October 1916 von Fabeck became ill and he committed suicide on 16 December 1916 at Partenkirchen, Kingdom of Bavaria.
Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Württemberg Grand Cross of the Order of the Zähringer Lion Bavarian Military Merit Order Grand Cross of the Order of Philip the Magnanimous Grand Cross of the Order of Red Eagle with Oak Leaves Order of the Crown of Prussia, 1st class Prussian Service Award Cross Grand Cross of the Albert Order with Gold Star Commander of the Order of the Crown of Italy Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Romania Iron Cross, 1st and 2nd class Commander of the Military Merit Order of Württemberg on 1 November 1914 Pour le Mérite 23 August 1915 Fähnrich—1 October 1871 Leutnant—18 October 1871 Oberleutnant—18 October 1879 Hauptmann—12 July 1884 Major—19 November 1889 Oberstleutnant—27 January 1896 Oberst—24 May 1898 Generalmajor—14 November 1901 Generalleutnant—27 January 1906 General der Infanterie—13 January 1910 Holger Afflerbach: Kaiser Wilhelm II. Als oberster Kriegsherr im Ersten Weltkrieg. Quellen aus der militärischen Umgebung des Kaisers 1914–1918 Deutsche Geschichtsquellen des 19.
Und 20. Jahrhunderts, Band 64. ISBN 3-486-57581-3 Ian F. W. Beckett: Ypres; the First Battle, 1914. ISBN 0-582-50612-3 Robert T. Foley: German Strategy and the Path to Verdun. Erich Falkenhayn and the development of Attrition 1870–1916 ISBN 0-521-84193-3 Stammbaum Familiengeschichte mit Kurzbiografie und Foto Stollwerck-Sammelbild mit Kurzbiografie
An officer of three-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Three-star officers hold the rank of vice admiral, lieutenant general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air marshal. In the Australian Defence Force the following ranks of commissioned officers are awarded three-star ranks: Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal Official rank insignia for Australian'three-star' officers do not use stars in the same fashion as the United States; the RAN does incorporate stars into the hardboard rank insignia for flag-rank officers but this is in conjunction with other devices. Unofficial star rank insignia are sometimes worn when serving with or visiting other military organisations in order to facilitate equivalent rank recognition; the Chiefs of all three services within the Australian Defence Force hold three-star rank as well as three joint positions: Vice Chief of Defence Force, Chief of Joint Operations and Chief Capability Development Group.
Inspector general of Police Lieutenant general Vice admiral Air marshal Vice Almirante General de Divisão Major Brigadeiro The three-star rank in Brazil is the second rank in a general career. The officers in this position are divisional commanders. Vice admiral / vice-amiral Lieutenant-general / lieutenant-général Three maple leaves appear with St. Edward's crown and crossed sabre and baton. Prince Charles holds the rank of vice-admiral in an honorary capacity. Before unification, the rank of air marshal was the three-star equivalent for the RCAF; the equivalent modern German three-star ranks of the Bundeswehr are as follows: Generalleutnant and Vizeadmiral Generaloberstabsarzt and AdmiraloberstabsarztNot to be confused with the Generalleutnant and Vizeadmiral of the Wehrmacht until 1945 or the National People's Army until 1990. Air marshal Lieutenant general Vice admiral Director general Letnan Jendral - Indonesian Army and Indonesian Marine Corps three-star rank Laksamana Madya - Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Maritime Security Agency three-star rank Marsekal Madya - Indonesian Air Force three-star rank Komisaris Jenderal - Indonesian National Police three-star rank Inspector-General of the Police Lieutenant-General Air-Marshal Vice-Admiral Lieutenant general Lieutenant general Vice admiral Vice admiral Deputy Commissioner Police Deputy Director General Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal Vice admiral Lieutenant general A vice admiral commands a numbered fleet, responsible for all naval ships within its area of responsibility.
An Army or Marine Corps lieutenant general commands a corps-sized unit, while an Air Force lieutenant general commands a large Numbered Air Force consisting of several wings. Additionally, lieutenant generals and vice admirals of all services serve as high-level staff officers at various major command headquarters and the Pentagon as the heads of their departments. In the Russian and Soviet armies, the three-star rank is full admiral; this is a title. Most Warsaw Pact and Soviet-aligned countries adopted this rank; the rank is held by commanders of the ground forces, chiefs of military academies and commanders of military districts. Colonel general is considered a stepping stone to the rank of general of the army, itself essential to achieving the high rank of marshal of the Russian Federation; this title applies to three star officers of the air force, MVD, police and militia, internal troops, FSB/KGB, border guards and some others. In the navy, the three star rank is admiral. Corps general Ranks and insignia of NATO Four-star rank Two-star rank
Friedrich August Peter von Colomb
Friedrich August Peter von Colomb was a Prussian general. Colomb was born in Aurich, Eastern Frisia as a son of the highranking Prussian public official Pierre Colomb, his brother Ludwig Christoph von Colomb was the Royal Prussian President of Breslau, his sister Amalie married Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher in 1795. Colomb joined the Zieten Hussars in Berlin in 1792 and became a second lieutenant of the King's own Hussarregiment von Rudorff in 1797, he took part in the Napoleonic Wars of 1806 under the command of Blücher in Thuringia and the defense of Lübeck. Colomb was promoted to a Rittmeister in 1811 and fought against French troops in 1813/14. On 20 May 1813 he commanded a unit of 90 volunteers, who managed to conquer 20 French cannons and take 400 prisoners near Zwickau. A memorial reminds of this event still today. In 1815 he became a Lieutenant Colonel and the commanding officer of the 8th Hussar Regiment and was promoted to a Colonel in 1818. On 20 October 1823 he joined the Prussian War Département and became the commander of the 12th Cavalry-Brigade in Neiße, now a Majorgeneral.
1838 Colomb became the military commander of Cologne, 1839 Lieutenantgeneral, 1841 military commander of Berlin und head of the Prussian Gendarms. In 1843 he became the commanding general of the V Army Corps in Posen. Colomb commanded the Prussian forces throughout the Greater Poland Uprising. and was retired on 7 July 1849 with the promotion to a General der Kavallerie. The "Bastion Colomb", a part of the Fortification of Posen was named after him, he died on 12 November 1854 in Königsberg. Colomb married Wilhelmine Luise Stosch in 1808 and Maria Henriette Stosch in 1824, he had two sons with Maria. Peter von Colomb in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
General der Fallschirmtruppe
General der Fallschirmtruppe was a General of the branch rank of the Deutsche Luftwaffe in Nazi Germany. Until the end of World War II in 1945, this particular general officer rank was on three-star level, equivalent to a US Lieutenant general; the "General of the branch" ranks of the Luftwaffe were in 1945: General of parachute troops General of anti-aircraft artillery General of the aviators General of air force communications troops General of the air forceThe rank was equivalent to the General of the branch ranks of the Heer as follows: Heer General of artillery General of mountain troops General of infantry General of cavalry General of the communications troops General of panzer troops General of engineers General of the medical corps General of the veterinary corpsOther services The rank was equivalent to the German three-star ranks: Admiral of the Kriegsmarine, equivalent to and SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS in the Waffen-SS. Bruno Bräuer Paul Conrath Richard Heidrich Eugen Meindl Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke Alfred Schlemm Kurt Student General Comparative officer ranks of World War II
Flecktarn is a family of 3-, 4-, 5- or 6-color disruptive camouflage patterns, the most common being the five-color pattern, consisting of dark green, light green, red brown and green brown or tan depending on the manufacturer. The original German 5-color pattern was designed for use in European temperate woodland terrain. A 3-color variation called Tropentarn is intended for arid and desert conditions: the German Bundeswehr wore it in Afghanistan; the original German 5-color flecktarn has been adopted and modified by many countries for their own camouflage patterns. The German Army started experimenting with camouflage patterns before World War II, some army units used Splittermuster camouflage, first issued in 1931. Waffen-SS combat units used various patterns from 1935 onwards. Many SS camouflage patterns were designed by Prof. Johann Georg Otto Schick. In 1976, the Bundeswehr in Germany developed a number of prototype camouflage patterns, to be trialled as replacements for the solid olive-grey "moleskin" combat uniform.
At least four distinct camouflage patterns were tested during Bundeswehr Truppenversuch 76. These were based on patterns in nature: one was called "Dots" or "Points". Designed by the German company Marquardt & Schulz, several patterns were developed and tested by the German military; the pattern named. The word flecktarn is a composite formed from Tarnung; the Bundeswehr kept its green combat dress throughout the 1980s, while trials were conducted. Flecktarn was only introduced in 1990 in a newly reunited Germany. In Germany, the Flecktarn camouflage pattern is used by all Bundeswehr service branches, the Heer, the Luftwaffe, some Marine units and the Sanitätsdienst, its official name is 5 Farben-Tarndruck der Bundeswehr. This temperate Flecktarn 5-color scheme consists of 15% light green, 20% light olive, 35% dark green, 20% brown and 10% black, it is used by snipers of the Österreichisches Bundesheer and Belgian Air Force ground personnel and airborne infantry. Albania used 5-color German flecktarn while participating in IFOR in Bosnia in 1996.
France rejected it. Flecktarn was seen as controversial because of its resemblance to the Waffen-SS "peas" and "oak leaves" patterns, which used dots in various colors. Flecktarn is the basis for the Bundeswehr's Tropentarn desert camouflage, the Danish military's T/78 and M/84 camouflage, including a desert variation of the Danish pattern. Several variations of the Flecktarn camouflage are used by the Russian military, one is called Sever, sometimes referred as Flectarn-D while another variant is called Tochka-4. Other country's variations include Japan's Type II Camouflage. In 2013, the German company Mil-Tec introduced a new version of Flecktarn, called the Arid Flecktarn, it retains the 5-color pattern but with the colour scheme resembling that of MultiCam. It is not in use by any world military. Germany: Used by Bundeswehr. Ukraine: Used by some Ukrainian forces including Azov Regiment Donbas Battalion Bohdan Company Ivano-Frankivsk Battalion Kherson Company Sicheslav Company Skif Battalion Sumy Company Shtorm Battalion Chernihiv Company Dnipro-1 Regiment Mykolaiv Battalion Poltava Battalion Vinnytsya-2 Company Luhansk-1 Battalion Lviv Battalion Myrotvorets Regiment Kyiv Regiment Lavender Company Kharkiv Battalion 1st Assault Company Atomwaffen Division
Otto von Garnier
Otto Wladislaus Eduard Konstantin von Garnier was a German General of the Cavalry during World War I. Otto von Garnier was born in Neustadt in Oberschlesien as a son of a Prussian, Lieutenant Otto Wladislaus Aloys Joseph Ernst Eduard von Garnier, his wife Agnes Laurette von Mitzlaff. On 1 October 1876 von Garnier joined the Husaren-Regiment „Graf Goetzen“ Nr. 6 in Leobschütz as a Fahnenjunker. He became a Rittmeister and joined the Großer Generalstab in Berlin, he was promoted to Major on 22 March 1897, an Oberstleutnant on 11 September 1903. During World War I he served as a division- and corps-level commander of Imperial German troops, he was in command of 4th Cavalry Division, part of the force that moved into neutral Belgium to invest the fortress city of Liege. He was wounded at Ciechanów on 21 November 1914, he was awarded with a Pour le Mérite on 17 October 1916. He replaced Erich von Gündell as a commander of V. Reservekorps and Franz von Soden as a commander of VII. Reservekorps. Garnier retired from active duty in March 1918.
His daughter Huberta had married General of the Infantry Dietrich von Choltitz. Order of the Crown Service award Order of the Zähringer Lion Military Merit Order House and Merit Order of Peter Frederick Louis Reußisches Ehrenkreuz Albert Order Lippischer Hausorden Order of the Crown Order of Orange-Nassau Order of Saint Stanislaus Crosses of Military Merit Iron Cross House Order of Hohenzollern