Constantin von Alvensleben
Reimar Constantin von Alvensleben was a Prussian general. Born at Eichenbarleben in the Province of Saxony, Alvensleben entered the Prussian Guards from the corps in 1827. He became first lieutenant in 1842, captain in 1849, and major on the Great General Staff in 1853 and he was soon afterwards promoted colonel, and commanded a regiment of Guard infantry up to 1864, when he became a major-general after the Second Schleswig War. Alvensleben commanded a brigade of guards in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, in 1870, on the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, Alvensleben succeeded Prince Friedrich Karl in command of the III Army Corps, which formed part of the 2nd German army. But his questionable judgment with inconsidered attacks at Vionville-Mars-la-Tour resulted in heavy casualties, shortly before his death in 1892 he was awarded the Order of the Black Eagle. The Prussian Infantry Regiment Nr.52 in Cottbus was named von Alvensleben in his honour, house of Alvensleben This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Alvensleben, Constantin von
The Bundeswehr is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities. The States of Germany are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, the Bundeswehr is divided into a military part and a civil part with the armed forces administration. The military part of the defense force consists of the Heer, Luftwaffe, Streitkräftebasis, Zentraler Sanitätsdienst. In addition the Bundeswehr has approximately 27,600 reserve personnel. 2%, the Bundeswehr are in the process of integrating smaller NATO members Brigades into divisions of the German army. The Bundeswehr is to play a role as anchor army for smaller NATO states. 2 of 3 Royal Netherlands Army Brigades are now under German Command, in 2014 the 11th Airmobile Brigade, was integrated into the German Division of fast forces. Also the Dutch 43rd Mechanized Brigade, will be integrated into the 1st Panzer Division of the German army, with the integration starting at the beginning of 2016, and the unit becoming operational at the end of 2019.
The Dutch-German military cooperation are seen as an example for setting up a European defense union, the Czech Republics 4th Rapid Deployment Brigade, and Romania’s 81st Mechanized Brigade, will be integrated into Germany’s 10 Armoured Division and Rapid Response Forces Division. The name Bundeswehr was first proposed by the former Wehrmacht general and Liberal politician Hasso von Manteuffel, the Iron Cross is its official emblem. It is a symbol that has an association with the military of Germany. The Schwarzes Kreuz is derived from the black cross insignia of the medieval Teutonic knights, when the Bundeswehr was established in 1955, its founding principles were based on developing a completely new military force for the defence of West Germany. In this respect the Bundeswehr did not consider itself to be a successor to either the Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic or Hitlers Wehrmacht, neither does it adhere to the traditions of any former German military organization. One of the most visible traditions of the modern Bundeswehr is the Großer Zapfenstreich, the FRG reinstated this formal military ceremony in 1952, three years before the foundation of the Bundeswehr.
Today it is performed by a band with 4 fanfare trumpeters and timpani. The Zapfenstreich is only performed during national celebrations or solemn public commemorations and it can honour distinguished persons present such as the German federal president or provide the conclusion to large military exercises. Another important tradition in the modern German armed forces is the Gelöbnis, there are two kinds of oath, for conscripts/recruits it is a pledge but its a solemn vow for full-time personnel. The pledge is made annually on 20 July, the date on which a group of Wehrmacht officers attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1944, recruits from the Bundeswehrs Wachbataillon make their vow at the Bendlerblock in Berlin. This was the headquarters of the resistance but where the officers were executed following its failure
National People's Army
The National People’s Army was the name used for the armed forces of the German Democratic Republic. The NVA was first established in 1956 and disbanded in 1990 and its participation with the Soviet Armed Forces against the Czechoslovak interim government during the Prague Spring of 1968 was cancelled at the last minute. However, there were frequent reports of East German advisors working with communist African governments during the Cold War, the German Democratic Republic established the National Peoples Army on March 1,1956 from the Kasernierte Volkspolizei. During its first year, about 27 percent of the NVAs officer corps had formerly served in the Wehrmacht, of the 82 highest command positions, ex-Wehrmacht officers held 61, very few of them had served in high ranks. The military knowledge and combat experience of veterans were indispensable in the NVAs early years. In its first six years the NVA operated as an all-volunteer force, the GDR introduced conscription in 1962, and the NVAs strength increased to approximately 170,000 troops.
The proportion of SED members in the officer corps rose steadily after the early 1960s, the NVA saw itself as the instrument of power of the working class. According to its doctrine, the NVA protected peace and secured the achievements of socialism by maintaining a deterrent to imperialist aggression. The NVAs motto, inscribed on its flag, For the Protection of the Workers and Farmers Power. The NVA never took part in combat, although it participated in a support role in the suppression of the Prague Spring of 1968. Instead, the NVA provided logistical help when Soviet troops advanced into Czechoslovakia, during the 1970s, and increasingly in the 1980s, the NVA achieved new standards of mobilization times and combat readiness. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisations submarine-based missiles were seen as its most potent weapon, ultimately,85 per cent of all NVA units were on constant alert, trained to depart within 25 to 30 minutes from their bases to designated areas about five to seven kilometers apart.
Mobilization of reserves would have been completed two days. These unprecedented levels of combat readiness were considered the asset of GDR military deterrence but have never been proven to be accurate. These preparedness levels placed a strain on military professionals and conscripts alike. In the early 1970s the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany high command assigned to the NVA the wartime mission of capturing West Berlin. The NVA plan for the operation, designated Operation Centre, called for some 32,000 troops in two divisions, accompanied by the GSFGs Soviet 6th Guards Separate Motor Rifle Brigade. The plan was updated until 1988, when a less ambitious plan that simply aimed at containing Berlin was substituted
An officer of three-star rank is a very senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8. The term is used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Typically, three-star officers hold the rank of admiral, lieutenant general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure. The RAN does incorporate stars into the rank insignia for flag-rank officers. Unofficial star rank insignia are worn when serving with or visiting other military organisations in order to facilitate equivalent rank recognition. Lieutenant general Vice admiral Air marshal General de Divisão Vice Almirante Major Brigadeiro The three-star rank in Brazil is the rank in a general career. The officers in this position are normally divisional commanders, Vice admiral/vice-amiral Lieutenant-general/lieutenant-général Three maple leaves appear with St. Edwards crown and crossed sabre and baton. Prince Charles holds the rank of vice-admiral in an honorary capacity, before unification, the rank of air marshal was the three-star equivalent for the RCAF.
An Army or Marine Corps lieutenant general commands a corps-sized unit. Additionally, lieutenant generals and vice admirals of all services serve as staff officers at various major command headquarters. In the Russian and Soviet armies, the rank is colonel-general. This is a title that emerged during the early Soviet period, most Warsaw Pact and Soviet-aligned countries adopted this rank. The rank is held by commanders of the ground forces, chiefs of military academies. Colonel general is considered a stone to the rank of general of the army. This title applies to three officers of the air force, MVD, police and militia, internal troops, FSB/KGB, border guards. In the navy, the three star rank is admiral, Corps general Ranks and insignia of NATO Four-star rank Two-star rank
General der Panzertruppe
General der Panzertruppe was a General of the branch OF8-rank rank of German Army, introduced in 1935. A General der Panzertruppe was a Lieutenant General, above Major General, the rank was equivalent to the long established General der Kavallerie, General der Artillerie and General der Infanterie. The Wehrmacht introduced General der Gebirgstruppe, General der Pioniere, General der Fallschirmtruppe, General der Flieger, General der Nachrichtentruppe and General der Luftnachrichtentruppe. In the modern German Army of the Bundeswehr, there is a General der Panzertruppen, which is not a rank but a position, the General der Panzertruppen commands the Armoured Corps Training Centre. The following officers were General der Panzertruppe, General Comparative officer ranks of World War II Reinhard Stumpf, rang- und Herkunftsstruktur der deutschen Generale und Admirale 1933–1945. Harald Boldt Verlag, Boppard am Rhein,1982
Finnish Defence Forces
The Finnish Defence Forces are responsible for the defence of Finland. A universal male conscription is in place, under which all men above 18 years of age serve for 165,255 or 347 days, alternative non-military service and volunteer service by women are possible. Finland is the only non-NATO EU country bordering Russia, finlands official policy states that a wartime military strength of 230,000 personnel constitutes a sufficient deterrent. The army consists of a mobile field army backed up by local defence units. Finlands defence budget equals approximately 2.8 billion euros or 1.3 percent of GDP, the voluntary overseas service is highly popular and troops serve around the world in UN, NATO and EU missions. Homeland defence willingness against an enemy is at 76%, one of the highest rates in Europe. Fighting between the White Guards and the Red Guards had already broken out about a week before around Viipuri, after winning the Civil War, the Finnish peacetime army was organized as three divisions and a brigade by professional German officers.
It became the structure for the next 20 years. The coast was guarded by former czarist coastal fortifications and ships taken as prizes of war, the Air Force had already been formed in March 1918, but remained a part of the Army and did not become a fully independent fighting force until 1928. The new government instituted conscription after the Civil War and introduced a mobilization system, when the Soviets invaded in November 1939, the Finns defeated the Red Army on numerous occasions, including at the crucial Battle of Suomussalmi. These successes were in part thanks to the application of motti tactics. While the Finns ultimately lost the war and were forced to agree to the Moscow Peace Treaty, during the war the Finns lost 25,904 men, while Soviet losses were 167,976 dead. Finland fought in the Continuation War alongside Germany from 1941 to 1944, thanks to German aid, the army was now much better equipped, and the period of conscription had been increased to two years, making possible the formation of sixteen infantry divisions.
The demobilization and regrouping of the Finnish Defense Forces were carried out in late 1944 under the supervision of the Soviet-dominated Allied Control Commission. Following the Treaty of Paris in 1947, which imposed restrictions on the size and equipment of the forces and required disbandment of the Civic Guard. The reorganization resulted in the adoption of the brigade -in place of the division- as the standard formation, for the first two decades after the Second World War, the Finnish Defence Forces relied largely on obsolete wartime material. Defence spending remained minimal until the early 1960s, during the peak of the Cold War, the Finnish government made a conscious effort to increase defence capability. This resulted in the commissioning of new weapons systems and the strengthening of the defence of Finnish Lapland by the establishment of new garrisons in the area
German Army (German Empire)
The Imperial German Army was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire. The term Deutsches Heer is used for the modern German Army, the German Army was formed after the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership in 1871 and dissolved in 1919, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I. When operating together, the units were known as the Federal Army, Prussia formed the North German Confederation and the treaty provided for the maintenance of a Federal Army and a Federal Navy. Further laws on military duty used these terms, through these conventions and the 1871 Constitution of the German Empire, an Army of the Realm was created. The contingents of the Bavarian, Saxon and Württemberg kingdoms remained semi-autonomous, the Constitution of the German Empire, dated April 16,1871, changed references in the North German Constitution from Federal Army to either Army of the Realm or German Army. After 1871, the armies of the four kingdoms remained relatively distinct.
German Army was used in legal documents, such as the Military Penal Code. Württemberg and Saxon units were numbered according to the Prussian system, the commander of the Imperial German Army, less the Bavarian contingent, was the Kaiser. He was assisted by a Military Cabinet and exercised control through the Prussian Ministry of War, the Chief of the General Staff became the Kaisers main military advisor and the most powerful military figure in the Empire. Bavaria kept its own Ministry of War and General Staff, saxony maintained its own Ministry of War and the Ministry of War of Württemberg continued to exist. Command of the Prussian Army had been reformed in the wake of the defeats suffered by Prussia in the Napoleonic Wars, the General Staff system, that sought to institutionalize military excellence, was the main result. It provided planning and organizational work during peacetime and wartime, the Prussian General Staff, proven in battle in the Wars of Unification, became the German General Staff upon formation of the German Empire, given Prussias leading role in the German Army.
During wartime, the staff of the Army inspectorates formed field army commands, during World War I, a higher command level, the army group, was created. Each army group controlled several field armies, Germany was divided into army inspectorates, each of which oversaw three or four corps. There were five in 1871, with three more added between 1907 and 1913, the corps consisted of two or more divisions and various support troops, covering a geographical area. The corps was responsible for maintaining the reserves and Landwehr in the corps area. By 1914, there were 21 corps areas under Prussian jurisdiction, besides the regional corps, there was a Guard Corps, which controlled the elite Prussian Guard units. A corps usually included an infantry battalion, a heavy artillery battalion, an engineer battalion, a telegraph battalion
Max von Bahrfeldt
Max Ferdinand Bahrfeldt, ennobled as von Bahrfeldt in 1913 was a royal Prussian General of the infantry, a local historian, and a numismatist of world renown. In the anglophone and francophone world, however, he was notorious as the alleged perpetrator of atrocities in Charleroi, Belgium. Bahrfeldt was born into a family from Prenzlau in the Uckermark, joining the Corps of Cadets in 1869 he was made a Lieutenant in the 75th Infantry Regiment Bremen in 1873, stationed at Stade. Bahrfeldt had been interested in numismatics from his youth and he specialized in the coinage of the Roman Republic and the coins of Lower Saxony. Bahrfeldt commenced his numismatic researches while he was in the Army, one year he became co-editor of the Numismatisch-Sphragistischer Anzeiger. Zeitung für Münz-, Siegel-, und Wappenkunde,3 years he was assigned to the post of Regimental Adutant. During this period he served as secretary for the historical society. He carried out excavations at the Perleberg site of the beaker people, in 1883 Bahrfeldt published in Vienna from Samwers papers the History of the Older Roman Coinage from about 200 B. C.
He followed this up with further publications about the coinage issued in the region between the Elbe and the Weser, in 1879 Bahrfeldt published, based on the previous work of Wilhelm Heinrich Jobelmann and Wilhelm Wittpenning, a revised History of the City of Stade. From 1882 to 1885 he studied at the Prussian Staff College and he was awarded the medal of the Royal Numismatic Society in 1912. Bahrfeldt was promoted to Oberst in 1904, and to Generalmajor in 1908 and he commanded the 37th Infantry Division from 1911 till 1913. In August 1914, at the start of First World War, Bahrfeldt was given command of the 19th Reserve Division, part of the X. Reserve Corps and the 2nd Army. He captured Charleroi on August 22,1914 and, accused by the Allies of atrocities at Charleroi and his division participated in the Battle of St. Quentin and the following Battle of the Marne. He fought in the First Battle of Champagne and in June 1915 he was given command of the 10th Reserve Division and he led his division into the Battle of Verdun and was phased out of the Army in April 1916.
Bahrfeldt joined the Deutsche Vaterlandspartei upon its formation in 1917, in the Weimar Republic, he was a member of the conservative Deutschnationale Volkspartei and the Stahlhelm. After the dissolution of the Stahlhelm during the Third Reich, Bahrfeldt transferred to the reserve of the SA, Max von Bahrfeldt died on April 11,1936 in Halle. Bahrfeldt is acknowledged as one of the greatest, possibly the greatest, gothaisches Genealogisches Taschenbuch der Adeligen Häuser, Part B1941, page 18, Justus Perthes, Gotha 1941. Wilhelm Jesse, Max von, Neue Deutsche Biographie,1, Duncker & Humblot, p.543 Jürgen Bohmbach, Stader Stadtlexikon
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base, with the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe was officially established on 26 February 1935. The Condor Legion, a Luftwaffe detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, provided the force with a testing ground for new doctrines. By the summer of 1939, the Luftwaffe had twenty-eight Geschwaders, during World War II, German pilots claimed roughly 70,000 aerial victories, while over 75,000 Luftwaffe aircraft were destroyed or significantly damaged. Of these, nearly 40,000 were lost entirely, the Luftwaffe proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe in 1939 and 1940. From 1942, Allied bombing campaigns gradually destroyed the Luftwaffes fighter arm, in addition to its service in the West, the Luftwaffe operated over the Soviet Union, North Africa and Southern Europe.
In January 1945, during the stages of the Battle of the Bulge, the Luftwaffe made a last-ditch effort to win air superiority. After the defeat of Germany, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946, the Luftwaffe had only two commanders-in-chief throughout its history, Hermann Göring and Generalfeldmarschall Robert Ritter von Greim. Throughout the war, the force was responsible for war crimes, one of the forerunners of the Luftwaffe, the Imperial German Army Air Service, was founded in 1910 with the name Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches, most often shortened to Fliegertruppe. It was renamed Luftstreitkräfte on 8 October 1916, after the defeat of Germany, the service was dissolved on 8 May 1920 under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, which mandated the destruction of all German military aircraft. Since the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to have an air force, to train its pilots on the latest combat aircraft, Germany solicited the help of its future enemy, the Soviet Union, which was isolated in Europe.
This base was known as 4th squadron of the 40th wing of the Red Army. Hundreds of Luftwaffe pilots and technical personnel visited and were trained at Soviet air force schools in locations in Central Russia. The first steps towards the Luftwaffes formation were undertaken just months after Adolf Hitler came to power, in April 1933 the Reichsluftfahrtministerium was established. Görings control over all aspects of aviation became absolute, on 25 March 1933 the Deutschen Luftsportverband absorbed all private and national organizations, while retaining its sports title. On 15 May 1933, all military organizations in the RLM were merged, forming the Luftwaffe. The |Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps was formed in 1937 to give pre-military flying training to male youths, military-age members of the NSFK were drafted to the Luftwaffe. As all such prior NSFK members were Nazi Party members, the absence of Göring in planning and production matters was fortunate