Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry and tank forces. Known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress; the first military forces in history were infantry. In antiquity, infantry were armed with an early melee weapon such as a spear, axe or sword, or an early ranged weapon like a javelin, sling, or bow, with a few infantrymen having both a melee and a ranged weapon. With the development of gunpowder, infantry began converting to firearms. By the time of Napoleonic warfare, infantry and artillery formed a basic triad of ground forces, though infantry remained the most numerous. With armoured warfare, armoured fighting vehicles have replaced the horses of cavalry, airpower has added a new dimension to ground combat, but infantry remains pivotal to all modern combined arms operations.
Infantry have much greater local situational awareness than other military forces, due to their inherent intimate contact with the battlefield. Infantry can more recognise and respond to local conditions and changing enemy weapons or tactics, they can operate in a wide range of terrain inaccessible to military vehicles, can operate with a lower logistical burden. Infantry are the most delivered forces to ground combat areas, by simple and reliable marching, or by trucks, sea or air transport, they can be augmented with a variety of crew-served weapons, armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles. In English, use of the term infantry began about the 1570s, describing soldiers who march and fight on foot; the word derives from Middle French infanterie, from older Italian infanteria, from Latin īnfāns, from which English gets infant. The individual-soldier term infantryman was not coined until 1837. In modern usage, foot soldiers of any era are now considered infantrymen. From the mid-18th century until 1881 the British Army named its infantry as numbered regiments "of Foot" to distinguish them from cavalry and dragoon regiments.
Infantry equipped with special weapons were named after that weapon, such as grenadiers for their grenades, or fusiliers for their fusils. These names can persist long after the weapon speciality. More in modern times, infantry with special tactics are named for their roles, such as commandos, snipers and militia. Dragoons were created. However, if light cavalry was lacking in an army, any available dragoons might be assigned their duties. Conversely, starting about the mid-19th century, regular cavalry have been forced to spend more of their time dismounted in combat due to the ever-increasing effectiveness of enemy infantry firearms, thus most cavalry transitioned to mounted infantry. As with grenadiers, the dragoon and cavalry designations can be retained long after their horses, such as in the Royal Dragoon Guards, Royal Lancers, King's Royal Hussars. Motorised infantry have trucks and other unarmed vehicles for non-combat movement, but are still infantry since they leave their vehicles for any combat.
Most modern infantry have vehicle transport, to the point where infantry being motorised is assumed, the few exceptions might be identified as modern light infantry, or "leg infantry" colloquially. Mechanised infantry go beyond motorised, having transport vehicles with combat abilities, armoured personnel carriers, providing at least some options for combat without leaving their vehicles. In modern infantry, some APCs have evolved to be infantry fighting vehicles, which are transport vehicles with more substantial combat abilities, approaching those of light tanks; some well-equipped mechanised infantry can be designated as armoured infantry. Given that infantry forces also have some tanks, given that most armoured forces have more mechanised infantry units than tank units in their organisation, the distinction between mechanised infantry and armour forces has blurred; the terms "infantry", "armour", "cavalry" used in the official names for military units like divisions, brigades, or regiments might be better understood as a description of their expected balance of defensive and mobility roles, rather than just use of vehicles.
Some modern mechanised infantry units are termed cavalry or armoured cavalry though they never had horses, to e
General of the Infantry (Germany)
General of the Infantry is a former rank of German Ground forces. Present it is an appointment or position to an OF-6 rank officer, responsible for particular affairs of training and equipment of the Bundeswehr infantry. General of the Infantry was a former rank of General of the branch OF8 in the German land forces and in the Prussian Army and the Austro-Hungarian Army, it was the third-highest General officer rank, subordinate only to Colonel General and Field Marshal. It is equivalent to a three-star rank today; the same rank was adopted by the Finnish Army between the world wars. German cavalry officers of equivalent rank were called General der Kavallerie and those in the artillery corps were General der Artillerie. In 1935 the Wehrmacht added the ranks of General der Panzertruppe, General der Gebirgstruppen, General der Fallschirmtruppen, General der Nachrichtentruppen. In the Luftwaffe, the equivalent rank was General der Flieger; the rank was referred to only in the form of General, without specifying the specific forces the bearer commanded.
In the modern German armed forces, the Bundeswehr, the rank of Generalleutnant corresponds to the traditional rank of General der Infanterie. There was no equivalent rank in the army of East Germany, where it was merged into that of Generaloberst. In the Bundeswehr, the position of an infantry officer responsible for certain questions of troop training and equipment with the rank of Brigadier Generals; the position of general of the infantry is connected with that of commander of the infantry school. Corresponding service positions exist for other branches of the army. Since in this usage it refers to a position not a rank, an Oberst is sometimes "General of" his respective type of troops; the form of address is Herr General and/or Herr Oberst. Note that a number of these officers may have gone on to higher ranks during their careers. General Comparative officer ranks of World War II
The Bundeswehr is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities. The States of Germany are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, since the German Constitution states that matters of defense fall into the sole responsibility of the federal government; the Bundeswehr is divided into a military part and a civil part with the armed forces administration. The military part of the federal defense force consists of the German Army, the German Navy, the German Air Force, the Joint Support Service, the Joint Medical Service, the Cyber and Information Space Command; as of 28 February 2019, the Bundeswehr has a strength of 182,055 active soldiers, placing it among the 30 largest military forces in the world and making it the second largest in the European Union behind France in terms of personnel. In addition the Bundeswehr has 28,250 reserve personnel. With German military expenditures at €43.2 billion, the Bundeswehr is among the top ten best-funded forces in the world if in terms of share of German GDP, military expenditures remain average at 1.23% and below the NATO target of 2%.
Germany aims to expand the Bundeswehr to around 203,000 soldiers by 2025 to better cope with increasing responsibilities. The name Bundeswehr was first proposed by the former Wehrmacht general and Liberal politician Hasso von Manteuffel; the Iron Cross is its official emblem. It is a symbol; the Schwarzes Kreuz is derived from the black cross insignia of the medieval Teutonic knights. When the Bundeswehr was established in 1955, its founding principles were based on developing a new military force for the defence of West Germany. In this respect the Bundeswehr did not consider itself to be a successor to either the Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic or Hitler's Wehrmacht. Neither does it adhere to the traditions of any former German military organization, its official ethos is based on three major themes: the aims of the military reformers at the beginning of the 19th century such as Scharnhorst and Clausewitz the conduct displayed by members of the military resistance against Adolf Hitler the attempt of Claus von Stauffenberg and Henning von Tresckow to assassinate him.
Its own tradition since 1955. One of the most visible traditions of the modern Bundeswehr is the Großer Zapfenstreich; the FRG reinstated this formal military ceremony in 1952, three years before the foundation of the Bundeswehr. Today it is performed by a military band with 4 fanfare trumpeters and timpani, a corps of drums, up to two escort companies of the Bundeswehr's Wachbataillon and Torchbearers; the Zapfenstreich is only performed during solemn public commemorations. It can honour distinguished persons present such as the German federal president or provide the conclusion to large military exercises. Another important tradition in the modern German armed forces is the Gelöbnis. There are two kinds of oath: for conscripts/recruits it is a pledge but it's a solemn vow for full-time personnel; the pledge is made annually on 20 July, the date on which a group of Wehrmacht officers attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1944. Recruits from the Bundeswehr's Wachbataillon make their vow at the Bendlerblock in Berlin.
This was the headquarters of the resistance but where the officers were summarily executed following its failure. National commemorations are held nearby within the grounds of the Reichstag. Similar events take place across the German Republic. Since 2011, the wording of the ceremonial vow for full-time recruits and volunteer personnel is: "Ich gelobe, der Bundesrepublik Deutschland treu zu dienen und das Recht und die Freiheit des deutschen Volkes tapfer zu verteidigen." "I pledge to serve the Federal Republic of Germany loyally and to defend the right and the freedom of the German people bravely."Serving Bundeswehr personnel replace "Ich gelobe..." with "Ich schwöre...". After World War II the responsibility for the security of Germany as a whole rested with the four Allied Powers: the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Germany had been without armed forces since the Wehrmacht was dissolved following World War II; when the Federal Republic of Germany was founded in 1949, it was without a military.
Germany remained demilitarized and any plans for a German military were forbidden by Allied regulations. Only some naval mine-sweeping units continued to exist, but they remained unarmed and under Allied control and did not serve as a national defence force; the Federal Border Protection Force, a mobile armed police force of 10,000 men, was only formed in 1951. A proposal to integrate West German troops with soldiers of France, the Netherlands and Italy in a European Defence Community was proposed but never implemented. There was a discussion among the United States, the United Kingdom and France over the issue of a revived German military. In particular, France was reluctant to allow Germany to rearm in light of recent history (Germany had invaded France twice in living memory, in World War I and World War II, defeated France in the Franco-German War of 1870/71.
General of the Infantry (Imperial Russia)
General of the Infantry was an Imperial Russian Army military rank. It served as the rank below General-feldmarschal, was the highest rank one could achieve in the infantry from 1796 to 1917. History of Russian military ranks
A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, in some nations' air forces or marines. The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank, it originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank; however different countries use other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations; the various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are known as field officers or field-grade officers, below them are company-grade officers. There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide.
In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, used throughout the Middle East and North Africa but is not used elsewhere in the world. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe, it is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth and the United States of America. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled field marshal, marshal, or captain general; the other is derived from the French Revolution, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a colonel general rank; the rank of field marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries used two brigade command ranks, why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks.
In some nations, the equivalent to brigadier general is brigadier, not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; the serjeant major was the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general and lieutenant general. The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles. Serjeant major as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a creation; the armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles. These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system, in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt. Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks: Adjutant general Commandant-general Inspector general General-in-chief General of the Army General of the Air Force General of the Armies of the United States, a title created for General John J. Pershing, subsequently granted posthumously to George Washington Generaladmiral Air general and aviation general Wing general and group general General-potpukovnik Director general Director general of national defence Controller general Prefect general Master-General of the Ordnance – senior British military position.
Police Director General. Commissioner Admiral In addition to militarily educated generals, there are generals in medicine and engineering; the rank of the most senior chaplain, is usually considered to be a general officer rank. In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix, is the most senior type of general, above lieutenant general and directly below field marshal as a four-star rank, it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks being used only in wartime or as honorary titles. In some armies, the rank of captain general, general of the army, army general or colonel general occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal; the rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e. th
G. I. are initials used to describe the soldiers of the United States Army and airmen of the United States Army Air Forces and for general items of their equipment. The term G. I. has been used as an initialism of "Government Issue" or "General Issue", but it referred to "galvanized iron", as used by the logistics services of the United States Armed Forces. During World War I, American soldiers sardonically referred to incoming German artillery shells as "G. I. cans". During that war, "G. I." started being interpreted as "Government Issue" or "General Issue" for the general items of equipment of soldiers and airmen. The term "G. I." came into widespread use in the United States with the start of the Selective Service System in 1940, extending into 1941. It replaced the term ”Doughboy”, used in World War I. Next, the use of "G. I." expanded from 1942 through 1945. American five-star General Dwight D. Eisenhower said in 1945 that "the heroic figure of this war G. I. Joe and his counterpart in the air, the navy, the Merchant Marine of every one of the United Nations.""G.
I." was used as an adjective for anything having to do with the US Army or Army Air Force.”G. I. Joe”, an action figure, was introduced by Hasbro in 1964, its name comes from the term used to describe soldiers during the war. In British military parlance and in armed forces modelled on British military traditions, G. I. refers to a Gunnery Instructor. Digger – A similar term used in Australia Dogface Doughboy Folk etymology G. I. Bill G. I. Blues G. I. Generation G. I. Jane G. I. Joe – a line of action figures produced and owned by the toy company Hasbro. G. I. Joe disambiguation G-Man Tommy – British slang for a common soldier