The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is extended, facing forward, with palm down and fingers touching. In some versions, the arm is raised upward at an angle. In contemporary times, the former is considered a symbol of fascism, perceived to be based on a custom in ancient Rome. However, no Roman text gives this description, the Roman works of art that display salutational gestures bear little resemblance to the modern Roman salute. Beginning with Jacques-Louis David's painting The Oath of the Horatii, an association of the gesture with Roman republican and imperial culture emerged; the gesture and its identification with Roman culture were further developed in other neoclassic artworks. This was further elaborated upon in popular culture during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in plays and films that portrayed the salute as an ancient Roman custom; these included a 1914 Italian film called Cabiria based upon a screenplay by the nationalist poet Gabriele d'Annunzio. In 1919, d'Annunzio adopted the cinematographically depicted salute as a neo-imperial ritual when he led the occupation of Fiume.
Through d'Annunzio's influence, the gesture soon became part of the rising Italian Fascist movement's symbolic repertoire. In 1923 the salute was adopted by the Italian Fascist regime, it was adopted and made compulsory within the Nazi Party in 1926, gained nationwide prominence in the German state when the Nazis took power in 1933. It was adopted by other fascist movements. Since the end of World War II, displaying the Nazi variant of the salute has been a criminal offence in Germany, the Czech Republic and Poland. Legal restrictions on its use in Italy are more nuanced, use there has generated controversy; the gesture and its variations continue to be used in neo-Nazi and Falangist contexts. The modern gesture consists of stiffly extending the right arm frontally and raising it 135 degrees from the body's vertical axis, with the palm of the hand facing down and the fingers stretched out and touching each other. According to common perceptions, this salute was based on an ancient Roman custom.
However, this description is unknown in Roman literature and is never mentioned by ancient historians of Rome. Not a single Roman work of art, be it sculpture, coinage, or painting, displays a salute of this kind; the gesture of the raised right arm or hand in Roman and other ancient cultures that does exist in surviving literature and art had a different function and is never identical with the modern straight-arm salute. The right hand was used in antiquity as a symbol of pledging trust, friendship or loyalty. For example, Cicero reported that Octavian pledged an oath to Julius Caesar while outstretching his right hand: "Although that youth is powerful and has told Antony off nicely: yet, after all, we must wait to see the end." But what a speech! He swore his oath with the words: "so may I achieve the honours of my father!", at the same time he stretched out his right hand in the direction of his statue. Sculptures commemorating military victories such as those on the Arch of Titus, the Arch of Constantine, or on the Column of Trajan are the best known examples of raised arms in art from this period.
However these monuments do not display a single clear image of the Roman salute. The images closest in appearance to a raised arm salute are scenes in Roman sculpture and coins which show an adlocutio, adventus, or profectio; these are occasions when a high-ranking official, such as a general or the Emperor, addresses individuals or a group soldiers. Unlike modern custom, in which both the leader and the people he addresses raise their arms, most of these scenes show only the senior official raising his hand, it is a sign of greeting or benevolence, but it is used as an indication of power. An opposite depiction is the salutatio of a diogmites, a military police officer, who raises his right arm to greet his commander during his adventus on a relief from 2nd-century Ephesus. An example of a salutational gesture of imperial power can be seen in the statue of Augustus of Prima Porta which follows certain guidelines set out by oratory scholars of his day. In Rhetorica ad Herennium the anonymous author states that the orator "will control himself in the entire frame of his body and in the manly angle of his flanks, with the extension of the arm in the impassioned moments of speech, by drawing in the arm in relaxed moods".
Quintilian states in his Institutio Oratoria: "Experts do not permit the hand to be raised above the level of the eyes or lowered beneath the breast. It may be extended to the left within the limits of the shoulder, but beyond that it is not fitting." Jacques-Louis David's painting The Oath of the Horatii provided the starting point for a gesture that progressed from oath-taking to what will become known as the Roman salute. The painting shows the three sons of Horatius swear on their swords, held by their father, that they will defend Rome to the death, it is based on a historical event described by Livy and elaborated by Dionysius in Roman Antiquities. However, the moment depicted in David's painting is his own creation. Neither Livy nor Dionysius mention any oath taking episode. Dionysius, the more detailed source, reports that the father had left to his sons the decision to fight raised his hands to the heavens to thank the gods. Dominating the center of The Oath of th
Saturday Night Live (season 3)
The third season of Saturday Night Live, an American sketch comedy series aired in the United States on NBC between September 24, 1977, May 20, 1978. In the "Anyone Can Host" episode—for which a contest found a non-celebrity to host the show—the musical guest, Elvis Costello, halted his band, the Attractions, seven seconds into the song "Less Than Zero", launching into "Radio Radio", an as-yet unreleased song critical of mainstream broadcasting; the change angered Lorne Michaels. Costello would not be invited back to the show until 1989. Chevy Chase hosted during the season, making him the first cast member to host after leaving the show. Right before the end-of-the-show onstage goodbyes, a loud altercation broke out backstage between Chase and new cast member Bill Murray. After several insults were exchanged, the two actors began to physically attack each other. Although by most accounts the fight had been at least instigated by John Belushi, he was the one that broke up Murray and Chase only moments before the entire cast regrouped on stage in front of the live television cameras.
Chase would host the show several times throughout the show's history, though he was unpopular with the cast and crew. The DVD set of the entire season was released on May 13, 2008. Prior to the start of the season, 2 new cast members were added as featured cast members which were Al Franken and his partner Tom Davis. Meanwhile Dan Aykroyd joined Jane Curtin as an anchor for Weekend Update. Bold denotes Weekend Update anchor Tom Davis and Al Franken got prominent amounts of screen time. Brian Doyle-Murray and Don Novello joined the writing staff. Michael O'Donoghue temporarily left the show; this season's writers were Dan Aykroyd, Anne Beatts, Tom Davis, Jim Downey, Brian Doyle-Murray, Al Franken, Neil Levy, Lorne Michaels, Marilyn Suzanne Miller, Don Novello, Michael O'Donoghue, Herb Sargent, Tom Schiller, Rosie Schuster and Alan Zweibel. The head writer, like the previous season, was Michael O'Donoghue. Season 3 was released on DVD May 13, 2008
Saturday Night Live 40th Anniversary Special
The Saturday Night Live 40th Anniversary Special is a three-and-a-half-hour prime-time special that aired on Sunday, February 15, 2015, on NBC, celebrating Saturday Night Live's 40th year on the air, having premiered on October 11, 1975, under the original title NBC's Saturday Night. This special generated 23.1 million viewers, becoming NBC's most-watched prime-time, non-sports, entertainment telecast since the Friends series finale in 2004. It is the third such anniversary special to be broadcast, with celebratory episodes held during the 15th and 25th seasons; the special was preceded on NBC by an hour-long SNL 40th Red Carpet Live, hosted by Matt Lauer, Savannah Guthrie, Carson Daly and Al Roker, who interviewed past hosts and previous cast members, musical legends who had performed on the show. The special followed the format of a typical Saturday Night Live episode, extended to 3½ hours instead of the usual 1½, included a cold open, a monologue, sketches, a short film, commercial parodies, musical performances.
The sketches, most of which were revivals of sketches that appeared over the show's run, made reference to the show and its four decades on air, with the original cast members who appeared in those sketches reprising their roles along with numerous guest stars. A handful of commercial parodies, including "Colon Blow" and "Mom Jeans", reran as they appeared on the show. Jimmy Fallon and Justin Timberlake appeared in the cold open, performing a "History of Rap"-esque musical number referencing famous sketches from the show's history. Rachel Dratch and Molly Shannon appeared as Debbie Downer and Mary Katherine Gallagher, respectively. Steve Martin performed the opening monologue, with featured appearances from Tom Hanks, Alec Baldwin, Melissa McCarthy, Chris Rock, Peyton Manning, Miley Cyrus, Billy Crystal, Paul McCartney, Paul Simon, with the latter two performing an abbreviated duet of "I've Just Seen a Face". Dan Aykroyd and Laraine Newman appeared during the "Super Bass-O-Matic 2150" sketch, referencing a sketch done during the show's first season.
Will Ferrell, Darrell Hammond, Kate McKinnon, Alec Baldwin, Norm Macdonald, Taran Killam, Jim Carrey, Kenan Thompson appeared during the "Celebrity Jeopardy!" sketch. Pete Davidson and Leslie Jones introduced a montage featuring the auditions of current and former cast members, along with a few celebrities who never made the cast, including Jim Carrey, Stephen Colbert, Zach Galifianakis, Kevin Hart. Fred Armisen, Vanessa Bayer, Bradley Cooper, Bill Hader, Taran Killam, Laraine Newman, David Spade, Cecily Strong, Taylor Swift, Kenan Thompson, Kerry Washington, Betty White, Kristen Wiig appeared during "The Californians/Total Bastard Airlines" sketch. Emma Stone, Edward Norton, Bill Hader, Seth Meyers, Melissa McCarthy, Bobby Moynihan appeared during "Weekend Update", anchored by Jane Curtin, Tina Fey, Amy Poehler. Norm Macdonald, Seth Meyers, Kevin Nealon, Colin Quinn introduced a tribute to Chevy Chase, which featured an appearance from Garrett Morris. Maya Rudolph and Martin Short introduced a musical medley featuring appearances by Fred Armisen and Kristen Wiig, Ana Gasteyer and Will Ferrell, Joe Piscopo, Dana Carvey, Adam Sandler, Kenan Thompson and Jason Sudeikis, Steve Martin, Bill Murray, Dan Aykroyd and Jim Belushi.
Jerry Seinfeld led the "Questions from the Audience" segment, which included cameos from Michael Douglas, John Goodman, James Franco, Larry David, Ellen Cleghorne, Dakota Johnson, Tim Meadows, Bob Odenkirk, Sarah Palin. Will Forte and Jason Sudeikis appeared during the "ESPN Classics" sketch. Chris Rock introduced a tribute to Eddie Murphy. Louis C. K. Robert De Niro, Jack Nicholson, Derek Jeter and Peyton Manning introduced clips dedicated to pre-recorded sketches, New York City and sports, respectively. Bill Hader, Chris Parnell, Andy Samberg, Adam Sandler appeared during the SNL Digital Short "That's When You Break", introduced by Zach Galifianakis. Bill Murray introduced an "In Memoriam" tribute to deceased SNL cast and crew members and an obligatory mention of Francisco Franco. Mike Myers and Dana Carvey appeared in the Wayne's World sketch reprising their roles as Wayne Campbell and Garth Algar; the sketch featured a cameo appearance by Kanye West. Steve Martin pulled Lorne Michaels up onstage as they began the famous SNL Goodbye to end the night with the rest of the entertainers.
The show included musical performances by: Paul McCartney, introduced by Keith Richards, performed "Maybe I'm Amazed". Miley Cyrus, introduced by Candice Bergen and Win Butler, performed "50 Ways to Leave Your Lover". Kanye West, introduced by Christopher Walken, performed a medley of "Jesus Walks", "Only One", "Wolves". Paul Simon, introduced by Jack White, performed "Still Crazy After All These Years"; this special assembled together a large list of current and former cast members and musical acts from throughout the show's forty seasons. Show
Cornelius Crane "Chevy" Chase is an American comedian and writer. Born into a prominent New York family, Chase worked a variety of jobs before moving into comedy and began acting with National Lampoon, he became a key cast member in the first season of Saturday Night Live, where his recurring Weekend Update segment soon became a staple of the show. As both a performer and writer, he earned three Primetime Emmy Awards out of five nominations. Chase had his first leading film role in the comedy Foul Play, earning two Golden Globe Award nominations, he is further known for his portrayals of Clark W. Griswold in five National Lampoon's Vacation films and Irwin "Fletch" Fletcher in both Fletch and Fletch Lives. Other prominent titles include Caddyshack, Seems Like Old Times, Spies Like Us, Three Amigos, Memoirs of an Invisible Man, Orange County and Hot Tub Time Machine, he has hosted the Academy Awards twice and had his own late-night talk show, The Chevy Chase Show. He played the character Pierce Hawthorne on the NBC comedy series Community from 2009 to 2014.
Cornelius Crane Chase was born on October 8, 1943 in Lower Manhattan, New York, grew up in Woodstock, New York. His father, Edward Tinsley "Ned" Chase, was a Princeton-educated, prominent Manhattan book editor and magazine writer, his mother, Cathalene Parker, was a concert pianist and librettist whose own father Admiral Miles Browning served as Rear Admiral Raymond A. Spruance's Chief of Staff on the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise at the Battle of Midway in World War II. Cathalene was adopted as a child by her stepfather, Cornelius Vanderbilt Crane, heir to The Crane Company, took the name Cathalene Crane. Chase's paternal grandfather was artist and illustrator Edward Leigh Chase, his great-uncle was painter and teacher Frank Swift Chase, his maternal grandmother, was an opera singer who performed several times at Carnegie Hall. Chase was named for his adoptive grandfather Cornelius Vanderbilt Crane, while the nickname "Chevy" was bestowed by his grandmother, derived from the medieval English ballad "The Ballad of Chevy Chase".
As a descendant of the Scottish Clan Douglas, the name seemed appropriate to her. He is a 14th-generation New Yorker, was listed in the Social Register at an early age, his mother's ancestors arrived in Manhattan starting in 1624 — among his ancestors are New York City mayors Stephanus Van Cortlandt and John Johnstone. According to his brother John: As a child, Chase vacationed at Castle Hill, the Cranes' summer estate in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Chase's parents divorced, he has stated that he grew up in an upper middle class environment and that his adoptive maternal grandfather did not bequeath any assets to Chase's mother when he died. In a 2007 biography, Chase stated that he was physically and psychologically abused as a child by his mother and stepfather, John Cederquist. Both his parents died in 2005. Chase was educated at Riverdale Country School, an independent day school in the Riverdale neighborhood of New York City, before being expelled, he graduated from the Stockbridge School, an independent boarding school in the town of Stockbridge, Massachusetts.
He attended Haverford College during the 1962–1963 term, where he was noted for slapstick comedy and an absurd sense of physical humor, including his signature pratfalls and "sticking forks into his orifices". During a 2009 interview on the Today show, he ostensibly verified the oft-publicized urban legend that he was expelled for harboring a cow in his fourth floor room, although his former roommate David Felson asserted in a 2003 interview that Chase left for academic reasons. Chase transferred to Bard College in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York, where he studied a pre-med curriculum and graduated in 1967 with a Bachelor of Arts in English. Chase did not enter medical school. Chase was not drafted. Chase played drums with the college band The Leather Canary, headed by school friends Walter Becker and Donald Fagen. Chase has called the group "a bad jazz band". Chase has absolute pitch, he played drums and keyboards for a rock band called Chamaeleon Church, which recorded one album for MGM Records before disbanding in 1969.
To give the album a more soft-rock sound, producer Alan Lorber made several alterations in the mixing, including the muting of Chase's bass drum, Chase was incensed when he heard the final mix. Before fame, Chase worked as a cab driver, truck driver, motorcycle messenger, construction worker, busboy, fruit picker, produce manager in a supermarket, audio engineer, salesman in a wine store, theater usher. Chase was a member of an early underground comedy ensemble called Channel One which he co-founded in 1967, he wrote a one-page spoof on Mission: Impossible for Mad magazine in 1970 and was a writer for the short-lived Sm
Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939, he was involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler was raised near Linz, he moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda, he denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.
By July 1932 the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France, his first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.
Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe, his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In December 1941, shortly after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour, Hitler declared war on the United States, bringing it directly into the conflict. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army. Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims who he and his followers deemed Untermenschen or undesirable.
Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history. Hitler's father Alois; the baptismal register did not show the name of his father, Alois bore his mother's surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois's father. Alois assumed the surname "Hitler" spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler; the name is based on "one who lives in a hut". Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois.
No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire, he was christened as "Adolphus Hitler". He was the fourth of six children born to his third wife, Klara Pölzl. Three of Hitler's siblings—Gustav and Otto—died in infancy. Living in the household were Alois's children from his second marriage: Alois Jr. and Angela. When Hitler was three, the family moved to Germany. There he acquired the distinctive lower Bavarian dialect, rather than Austrian German, which marked his speech throughout his life; the family returned to Austria and settled in Leonding in 1894, in June 1895 Alois retired to Hafeld, near Lambach, where he farmed and kept bees. Hitler attended Volksschule (a state-owned primary schoo
Wolf Isaac Blitzer is a German-American journalist, television news anchor and author, a CNN reporter since 1990. He is the host of The Situation Room. Blitzer serves as the network's lead political anchor. Blitzer was born in Augsburg, the son of Cesia Blitzer, a homemaker, David Blitzer, a home builder, his parents were Jewish refugees from the Auschwitz concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland. He was raised in Buffalo, New York, graduated from Kenmore West Senior High School, he received a Bachelor of Arts in history from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1970. While there, he was a brother of Alpha Epsilon Pi. In 1972, he received a Master of Arts in International Relations from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. While at Johns Hopkins, he studied abroad at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he learned Hebrew. Blitzer has said he has been asked about his name, characterized as made for TV. Blitzer explains that his surname goes back for generations, his first name,'Wolf', is the same first name as that of his maternal grandfather.
Blitzer began his career in journalism in the early 1970s, in the Tel Aviv bureau of the Reuters news agency. In 1973, he caught the eye of Jerusalem Post editor Ari Rath, who hired Blitzer as a Washington correspondent for the English language Israeli newspaper. Blitzer remained with the Jerusalem Post until 1990, covering both American politics and developments in the Middle East. Fluent in Hebrew, Blitzer published articles in several Hebrew-language newspapers. Under the name Ze'ev Blitzer, he wrote for Al HaMishmar. Using the name Ze'ev Barak, he had work published in Yedioth Ahronoth. Ze'ev is the Hebrew word for "wolf" and Barak is the Hebrew word for "lightning". In the mid-1970s, Blitzer worked for the American Israel Public Affairs Committee as the editor of their monthly publication, the Near East Report. While at AIPAC, Blitzer's writing focused on Middle East affairs as they relate to United States foreign policy. At an April 1977 White House press conference, Blitzer asked Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat why Egyptian scholars and journalists were not permitted to visit Israel.
Sadat responded that such visits would be possible after an end to the state of belligerence between the two nations. In November of that year, Sadat made a historic visit to Israel, Blitzer covered the negotiations between the two countries from the first joint Israeli-Egyptian press conference in 1977, to the final negotiations that would lead to the signing of the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty two years later. In 1985, Blitzer published Jerusalem: A Reporter's Notebook; the text outlined his personal development as a reporter, the relations between the United States and Israel. In 1986, he became known for his coverage of the arrest and trial of Jonathan Pollard, an American Jew, charged with spying for Israel. Blitzer was the first journalist to interview Pollard, he wrote a book about the Pollard Affair titled Territory of Lies. In the book, Blitzer writes that Pollard contacted him because he had been reading Blitzer's byline for years, because Blitzer "had impressed him as someone, sympathetic".
Pollard hoped that Blitzer would help him "reach the people of Israel, as well as the American Jewish community."Blitzer's interview with Pollard was controversial in the context of the legal action against him, as it was construed by some media voices as a possible violation of the terms of Pollard's plea deal, which forbade media contact. Blitzer's subsequent book about the affair was included in The New York Times list of "Notable Books of the Year" for 1989. In its review, the Times praised the book as "lucid and readable" and called Blitzer's judgment of Israeli officials "harsh but fair". A review in The New York Review of Books was more critical, prompting a letter from Blitzer accusing the reviewer of making several inaccurate statements. Reviewer Robert I. Friedman responded to Blitzer's criticism by characterizing Territory of Lies as "a slick piece of damage control that would make former employers at AIPAC proud."Pollard was released on November 20, 2015, in accordance with federal guidelines in place at the time of his sentencing.
In May 1990, Blitzer worked as the cable network's military affairs reporter. His team's coverage of the first Gulf War in Kuwait won a CableACE Award and made him a household name. In 1992, Blitzer became CNN's White House correspondent, a position he would hold until 1999. During this period, he earned an Emmy Award for his coverage of the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. In 1998, he began hosting the CNN Sunday morning interview program Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer, seen in over 180 countries. Blitzer's first assignment as an anchor was on the daily newscast The World Today, in 1999. In 2000, he started anchoring his own show, Wolf Blitzer Reports, which ran until 2005. CNN has selected Blitzer to anchor their coverage of all U. S. presidential elections since 2004. Since August 8, 2005, Blitzer has hosted The Situation Room, a two-hour afternoon/early evening program on CNN. In 2013, he started anchoring the 1pm ET hour of CNN Newsroom, until 2014, when the slot was renamed to Wolf. In 2016, Senator Paul was one of the first members of Congress to come out in opposition to U.
S. support for the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen. The war has led to massive civilian casualties. Blitzer questioned Senator Paul's reasoning during an interview, stating that cutting off military aid would hurt t
2015 Madrid City Council election
The 2015 Madrid City Council election the 2015 Madrid municipal election, was held on Sunday, 24 May 2015, to elect the 10th City Council of the municipality of Madrid. All 57 seats in the City Council were up for election; the election was held with regional elections in thirteen autonomous communities and local elections all throughout Spain. Leading the People's Party local list was Esperanza Aguirre, former President of Madrid, President of the Spanish Senate and Minister of Education and Culture, as well as the leader of the regional PP branch since 2004. Mayor Ana Botella, who succeeded Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón early into his term in December 2011, had declined re-election in September 2014; the election was an unexpectedly close race between Aguirre's PP and former judge Manuela Carmena's Podemos-supported Ahora Madrid platform. The collapse in the PP vote and the loss of its absolute majority allowed Carmena to gain power through an alliance with the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, resulting in the first left-wing government in the city since 1989.
The PSOE suffered from tactical voting to Ahora Madrid after it became apparent throughout the campaign that the left-of-centre vote was coalescing around Carmena's coalition. The newcomer liberal Citizens party entered the City Council for the first time, collecting votes disenchanted with the PP and replacing Union and Democracy as the main centrist local force. United Left fell below the 5% threshold and failed to gain any representation for the first time in history; the City Council of Madrid was the top-tier administrative and governing body of the municipality of Madrid, composed of the mayor, the government council and the elected plenary assembly. Voting for the local assembly was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen and residing in the municipality of Madrid and in full enjoyment of their political rights, as well as resident non-national European citizens and those whose country of origin allowed Spanish nationals to vote in their own elections by virtue of a treaty.
Local councillors were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 5 percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Councillors were allocated to municipal councils based on the following scale: The mayor was indirectly elected by the plenary assembly. A legal clause required that mayoral candidates earned the vote of an absolute majority of councillors, or else the candidate of the most-voted party in the assembly was to be automatically appointed to the post. In case of a tie, a toss-up would determine the appointee; the electoral law provided that parties, federations and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, groupings of electors were required to secure the signature of a determined amount of the electors registered in the municipality for which they sought election. For the case of Madrid, as its population was over 1,000,001, at least 8,000 signatures were required.
Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called. According to the Spanish legislation on local authorities, the government of cities is assigned to the City Council and the mayor; the Spanish political system is parliamentary democracy in all its levels of government, with the city council responsible for the election of the mayor. People's Party: The Mayor of Madrid, Ana Botella, announced her intention not to run for mayor in September 2014. Mariano Rajoy, the President of the PP, designated Esperanza Aguirre as candidate on 6 March 2015. Spanish Socialist Workers' Party: The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party scheduled a primary election on October 2014. Regional assemblyman and frequent talk show guest Antonio Miguel Carmona and city councillor Enrique del Olmo announced their intention to run for the post.
Candidates intending to run had to secure the endorsement of at least 20% of the party membership. On the closing day of the endorsement collection only Carmona had gathered the required endorsements, thus being nominated as party candidate without the primary election being held. United Left:United left of Madrid held an open primary election on 30 November 2014; the election was contested by: Mauricio Valiente, representing the minority sectors in the last IU Regional Assembly Raquel López, city councillor, representing the majority sectors. Eulalia Vaquero, assembly woman, representing sectors disengaged from the majority. Valiente defeated his rivals by securing 59% of the votes. However, he withdrew his candidacy after internal turmoil in the regional branch of the party and entered the Ahora Madrid election list, led by Manuela Carmena. Raquel López was designated as the new IU candidate for the local election instead. Union and Democracy: The party's current spokesperson on the City Council, David Ortega, obtained a landslide victory against three unknown candidates.
Electoral debates were held in Telemadrid between the candidates of the PP, PSOE, IU, UPyD, Vox and Ahora Madrid in the last week of campaign, between 18 and 20 May. The most expected and tense moment came with the debate between PP candidate Esperanza Aguirre and AM Manuela Carmena, as the most-likely candidates to become the next Mayor of the city. Aguirre immediat