Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Defence Command (Denmark)
The Danish Defence Command is the Danish joint military command and the top coordination and controlling authority of the Danish military. It is a Level I command authority, directly under the Ministry of Defence, it consists of the Chief of Defence and three service staffs and Planning Staffs, known collectively as Forsvarsstaben, Arctic Command and the Special Operations Command. Forsvarskommandoen was established on the basic of law no. 334 of June 18, 1969 about the origination of the Danish Defence. It was a continuation of the Danish defence re-construction of 1950, which erected Ministry of Defence, Chief of Defence, Forsvarsstaben, Hærkommandoen, Søværnskommandoen and Flyverkommandoen; these latter commands was in 1969 combined into one and placed under the Ministry of Defence, giving the Chief of Defence full administrative and operational command of all branches of the Danish military. The staff of these former branch commands continued to exist inside FKO, but in 1982, which saw a major re-construction of FKO, they too vanished in favour of an more branch independent organisation.
The reorganization resulted in a unified command structure similar to the previous Generalkommandoen. The Danish Defence agreement 2005–09 called for another major re-construction of the Danish military, affecting the origination of FKO. Between 1973 and 2006 FKO was located in Vedbæk a little north of Lyngby, in a modern steel and concrete building, built 1970 – November 1972 by Forsvarets Bygningstjeneste. FKO moved to this building in March 1973. FKO moved to Søarsenalet on Holmen naval base on July 24, 2006. Due to the Danish Defence Agreement 2013–17, the FKO saw major structural reorganization, to such an extent that it was renamed Værnsfælles Forsvarskommando, however retaining its name in English. On 1 January 2019, as part of the Danish Defence Agreement 2018–23, the Danish name was changed back to Forsvarskommando; the entities and authorities which were subject to the operational commands, referring now directly to VFK. Forsvarskommandoen
Chief of Defence (Denmark)
The Chief of Defence of Denmark, under responsibility of the Defence minister, is the Chief of Defence and commander of the Royal Danish Army, the Royal Danish Navy and the Royal Danish Air Force. The Chief of Defence is the military adviser to the Defence minister and head of the Defence Command; the Chief of Defence is the highest-ranking military officer in Denmark and has the rank of four-star General, supervises 93% of all military spending in Denmark. The Danish Home Guard and Defence intelligence is directly under the Ministry of Defence, only in times of war will the Home Guard Command be transferred to the Defence Command, thus come under the authority of the Chief of Defence; the job was traditionally rotated evenly between the army and air force. This tradition was abandoned in 2009. There is no fixed length of time associated with the position, the contract however has to be renewed every 5 years
Danish Defence is the unified armed forces of the Kingdom of Denmark, charged with the defence of Denmark and its constituent, self-governing nations Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Defence promote Denmark's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid. Since the creation of a standing military in 1510, the armed forces have seen action in many wars, most involving Sweden, but involving the world's great powers, including the Thirty Years' War, the Great Northern War, the Napoleonic Wars. Today, Danish Defence consists of: Denmark's principal land warfare branch; the Defence include the Home Guard. The Queen is the Commander-in-chief in accordance with the Danish constitution, under the Danish Defence Law the Minister of Defence serves as the commander of Danish Defence and the Danish Home Guard. De facto the Danish Cabinet is the commanding authority of the Defence, though it cannot mobilize the armed forces, for purposes that are not defence oriented, without the consent of parliament.
The modern Danish military can be traced back with the creation of the Royal Danish Navy. During this time, the Danish Kingdom held considerable territories, including Schleswig-Holstein and colonies in Africa and the Americans. Following the defeat in the Second Schleswig War, the military became a political hot-button issue, with many wanting the disarm the military. Denmark managed to maintain its neutrality during the First World War, with a relative strong military force. However, following the Interwar period, a more pacifistic government came to power, decreasing the size of the military; this resulted in Denmark having a limited military, when Denmark was invaded in 1940. After World War II, the different branches were reorganized, collected under Danish Defence; this was to ensure a unified command as learned from the War. With the defeat in 1864, Denmark had adopted a policy of neutrality; this was however abandoned after World War Two, when Denmark decided to support the UN peacekeeping forces and become a member of NATO.
During the Cold War, Denmark began to rebuild its military and to prepare for possible attacks by the Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies. During this time Denmark participated in a number of UN peacekeeping missions including UNEF and UNFICYP. Following the end of the Cold War, Denmark began a more active foreign policy, deciding to participate in international operations; this began with the participation in the Bosnian War, where the Royal Danish Army served as part of the United Nations Protection Force and were in two skirmishes. This was the first time the Danish Army was a part of a combat operation since World War 2. On April 29, 1994, the Royal Danish Army, while on an operation to relieve an observation post as part of the United Nations Protection Force, the Jutland Dragoon Regiment came under artillery fire from the town of Kalesija; the United Nations Protection Force returned fire and eliminated the artillery positions. On October 24, 1994, the Royal Danish Army, while on an operation to reinforce an observation post in the town of Gradačac, were fired upon by a T-55 Bosnian Serb tank.
One of the three Danish Leopard 1 tanks experienced slight damage, but all returned fired and put the T-55 tank out of action. With the September 11 attacks, Denmark joined US forces in the War on terror, participating in both the War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War. In Afghanistan, 37 soldiers have been killed in various hostile engagements or as a result of friendly fire, 6 have been killed in non-combat related incidents, bringing the number of Danish fatalities to 43, being the highest loss per capita within the coalition forces. Denmark has since participated in Operation Ocean Shield, the 2011 military intervention in Libya and the American-led intervention in the Syrian Civil War; the purpose and task of the armed forces of Denmark is defined in Law no. 122 of February 27, 2001 and in force since March 1, 2001. It defines six tasks, its primary purpose is to prevent conflicts and war, preserve the sovereignty of Denmark, secure the continuing existence and integrity of the independent Kingdom of Denmark and further a peaceful development in the world with respect to human rights.
Its primary tasks are: NATO participation in accordance with the strategy of the alliance and repel any sovereignty violation of Danish territory, defence cooperation with non-NATO members Central and East European countries, international missions in the area of conflict prevention, crises-control, peacemaking, participation in Total Defence in cooperation with civilian resources and maintenance of a sizable force to execute these tasks at all times. Total Defence is "the use of all resources in order to maintain an organized and functional society, to protect the population and values of society"; this is achieved by combining the military, Home Guard, Danish Emergency Management Agency and elements of the police. The concept of total defence was created following Word War 2, where it was clear that the defence of the country could not only rely on the military, but there need to be other measures to ensure a continuation of society; as a part of the Total Defence, all former conscripts can be recalled to duty, in order