Gorget patches are an insignia, paired patches of cloth or metal on the collar of the uniform, that is used in the military and civil service in some countries. Collar tabs sign the rank, the rank of civil service, the military unit, the office or the branch of the armed forces. Gorget patches were originally gorgets, pieces of armour worn to protect the throat, with the disuse of armour they were lost. The cloth patch on the collar however evolved from contrasting cloth used to reinforce the buttonholes at the collar of a uniform coat, the patches were introduced as insignia during the South African War. They have been used ever since, in Austria collar patches of the Federal Army report the rank and the arm of service. They are used in the police, corps colours dominate the basic colours of the rank insignia. In the Austro-Hungarian Army, collar patches with rank insignia, appliquéd on the gorget of uniform coat, or jacket and the battle-dress blouse, were designated Paroli. In the St John Ambulance Australia First Aid Services Branch gorget patches designate State Staff Officers, in Bangladesh Armed Forces officers of the rank of Colonel equivalent and above wear ‘Gorget Patches’.
They are respectively Red, Sky Blue & Black in color, for Colonel and equivalent it exhibits a Shapla. Each flag rank adds a star to it onwards, with the restoration of historical nomenclature and features to the Canadian Army in 2013reinstated insignia included traditional gorget patches for colonels and general officers. For combat branches these are in scarlet with gold embroidery for generals, however the gorget patches worn by senior officers of the Medical Branch are dull cherry, the Dental Branch emerald green and the Chaplain Branch purple. In the French Army collar patches were used on tunics and greatcoats since the eighteenth century, usually in contrasting collars to the collar itself, they came to carry a regimental number or specialist insignia. With the adoption of a new dress uniform for all ranks in the 1980s. Collar patches / gorget patches, are to be worn on the gorget of uniform in German speaking armed forces. However, collar insignia for General officers of the Heer are traditional called Arabesque collar patch, Larish embroidery, Old Prussian embroidery.
In the German Empire, some officers and seamen wore Kragenspiegel, in the Weimar Republic such patches were introduced throughout the army in 1921, where they indicated the rank and the arm of service, but were not used in the navy. Some Nazi-era civil services wore uniforms with collar tabs, similar to the armed forces tabs, new tabs were introduced for the political leaders of the NSDAP, for the new Nazi organisations. The GDR used similar collar tabs to those of the Wehrmacht for its army, Collar tabs were worn by some personnel of the navy
For the use of this Four-star rank in other countries, see General. General is the highest rank of the German Army and German Air Force, as a four-star rank it is the equivalent to the rank of admiral in the German Navy. The rank is rated OF-9 in NATO and it is grade B8 in the pay rules of the Federal Ministry of Defence. On the shoulder there are four golden pips in golden oak leaves. By the 16th century, with the rise of standing armies, feldmarschall was a lower rank at that time, as was Generalwachtmeister. By the 17th and 18th centuries, the rank of general was present in all the militaries of the German states and it was these two militaries that created the concept of the “general staff”, which was often manned entirely by members of the nobility. To be a general often implied membership in the noble class, during the Napoleonic Wars, the ranks of German generals were established in four grades, beginning with Generalmajor, followed by Generalleutnant and Generalfeldmarschall. The standard uniforms and insignia, used for over a century, the title of General included the officers branch of service, leading to the titles of General der Infanterie, General der Kavallerie and General der Artillerie.
During the German Empire, the insignia of German generals was established as a heavy golden shoulder board with up to four pips denoting seniority as a general, the rank of Generalfeldmarschall displayed a crossed set of marshals batons on the shoulder board. German generals began wearing golden ornaments on their collars, in contrast to the collar worn by elite units. The grade of general in the rank of a field marshal was introduced in the Prussian/Imperial army in 1871. It was bestowed on senior generals usually holding the appointment of an army inspector, the shoulder board rank was crossed batons with three pips. The rank of supreme general proper was created in 1901, in the Prussian army, the rank of field marshal could be awarded only to active officers in wartime if they had won a battle or stormed a fortress. At the same time, the insignia for supreme general with the rank of field marshal was changed to four pips without batons. Heer 1 Generalfeldmarschall 2 Generalfeldmarschall,3 Generaloberst,4 General of the branch,5 Generalleutnant, Luftwaffe 1 Reichsmarschall, Hermann Göring 2 Generalfeldmarschall,3 Generalfeldmarschall,4 Generaloberst,5 General of the branch,6 Generalleutnant, and 7 Generalmajor.
The German rank of General saw its widest usage during World War II, due to the massive expansion of the German armed forces, a new “wave” of generals was promoted in the 1930s that would lead Germany into war. The post of the Reichsmarschall was the highest military ranking that a German could reach, the post was held solely by Hermann Göring. Göring happened to serve as the head of the Luftwaffe and was responsible for handling Germanys war economy, in 1936, Hitler revived the rank of field marshal
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations air forces or marines. The term general is used in two ways, as the title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank. It originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, the adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of General is known in countries as a four-star rank. However different countries use different systems of stars for senior ranks and it has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank currently in use in a number of armies. The various grades of general officer are at the top of the rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in military forces are typically known as field officers or field-grade officers. There are two systems of general ranks used worldwide. In addition there is a system, the Arab system of ranks. Variations of one form, the old European system, were used throughout Europe.
It is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth. The other is derived from the French Revolution, where ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a general or a colonel general rank. The rank of marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank. Many countries actually used two brigade command ranks, which is why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major, confusion arises because a lieutenant is outranked by a major. Originally the serjeant major was, the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general, the distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was eventually dropped from both titles, creating the modern rank titles
The Bundeswehr is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities. The States of Germany are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, the Bundeswehr is divided into a military part and a civil part with the armed forces administration. The military part of the defense force consists of the Heer, Luftwaffe, Streitkräftebasis, Zentraler Sanitätsdienst. In addition the Bundeswehr has approximately 27,600 reserve personnel. 2%, the Bundeswehr are in the process of integrating smaller NATO members Brigades into divisions of the German army. The Bundeswehr is to play a role as anchor army for smaller NATO states. 2 of 3 Royal Netherlands Army Brigades are now under German Command, in 2014 the 11th Airmobile Brigade, was integrated into the German Division of fast forces. Also the Dutch 43rd Mechanized Brigade, will be integrated into the 1st Panzer Division of the German army, with the integration starting at the beginning of 2016, and the unit becoming operational at the end of 2019.
The Dutch-German military cooperation are seen as an example for setting up a European defense union, the Czech Republics 4th Rapid Deployment Brigade, and Romania’s 81st Mechanized Brigade, will be integrated into Germany’s 10 Armoured Division and Rapid Response Forces Division. The name Bundeswehr was first proposed by the former Wehrmacht general and Liberal politician Hasso von Manteuffel, the Iron Cross is its official emblem. It is a symbol that has an association with the military of Germany. The Schwarzes Kreuz is derived from the black cross insignia of the medieval Teutonic knights, when the Bundeswehr was established in 1955, its founding principles were based on developing a completely new military force for the defence of West Germany. In this respect the Bundeswehr did not consider itself to be a successor to either the Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic or Hitlers Wehrmacht, neither does it adhere to the traditions of any former German military organization. One of the most visible traditions of the modern Bundeswehr is the Großer Zapfenstreich, the FRG reinstated this formal military ceremony in 1952, three years before the foundation of the Bundeswehr.
Today it is performed by a band with 4 fanfare trumpeters and timpani. The Zapfenstreich is only performed during national celebrations or solemn public commemorations and it can honour distinguished persons present such as the German federal president or provide the conclusion to large military exercises. Another important tradition in the modern German armed forces is the Gelöbnis, there are two kinds of oath, for conscripts/recruits it is a pledge but its a solemn vow for full-time personnel. The pledge is made annually on 20 July, the date on which a group of Wehrmacht officers attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler in 1944, recruits from the Bundeswehrs Wachbataillon make their vow at the Bendlerblock in Berlin. This was the headquarters of the resistance but where the officers were executed following its failure
The German Navy is the navy of Germany and part of the unified Bundeswehr, the German Armed Forces. The German Navy was originally known as the Bundesmarine from 1956 until 1995 when Deutsche Marine became the name with respect to the 1990 incorporation of the East German Volksmarine. It is deeply integrated into the NATO alliance and its primary mission is protection of Germanys territorial waters and maritime infrastructure as well as sea lines of communication. Apart from this, the German Navy participates in peacekeeping operations and they participate in Anti-Piracy operations. The German Navy traces its roots back to the Reichsflotte of the era of 1848–52. The Reichsflotte was the first German navy to sail under the black-red-gold flag, in 1956, with West Germanys accession to NATO, the Bundesmarine, as the navy was known colloquially, was formally established. In the same year the East German Volkspolizei See became the Volksmarine, during the Cold war the all of the German Navys combat vessels were assigned to NATOs Allied Forces Baltic Approachess naval command NAVBALTAP.
With the accession of East Germany to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 the Volksmarine along with the whole National Peoples Army became part of the Bundeswehr. Since 1995 the name German Navy is used in international context, as of 16 December 2016, the strength of the navy is 16,137 men and women. A number of forces have operated in different periods. The German Navy is engaged in operations against international terrorism such as Operation Enduring Freedom, presently the largest operation the German Navy is participating in is UNIFIL off the coast of Lebanon. The German contribution to this operation is two frigates, four fast attack craft, and two auxiliary vessels, the naval component of UNIFIL has been under German command. The navy is operating a number of development and testing installations as part of an inter-service, among these is the Centre of Excellence for Operations in Confined and Shallow Waters, an affiliated centre of Allied Command Transformation. The COE CSW was established in April 2007 and officially accredited by NATO on 26 May 2009 and it is co-located with the staff of the German Flotilla 1 in Kiel whose Commander is double-hatted as Director, COE CSW.
The displacement of the navy is 220,000 tonnes, in addition, the German Navy and the Royal Danish Navy are in cooperation in the Ark Project. This agreement made the Ark Project responsible for the strategic sealift of German armed forces where the charter of three roll-on-roll-off cargo and troop ships are ready for deployments. In addition, these ships are kept available for the use of the other European NATO countries. The three vessels have a displacement of 60,000 tonnes
Comparative officer ranks of World War I
The following table shows comparative officer ranks of several Allied and Central powers during World War I. Not all combatant countries are shown in the table, for modern ranks refer to List of comparative military ranks. The highest RAF rank held during this period was lieutenant-general, for transliterations, refer to History of Russian military ranks. Austro-Hungarian ranks are shown in both German and Hungarian, as would have been contemporary practice, military personnel in the Ottoman Empire were assigned different duties according to their capabilities in order to administer the Armed Forces and particularly to be successful in battle. They were given various ranks so that they could conduct relations with each other, the issue of what sort of duties should be allocated to which unit or to which military institution used to be determined by the ranking within the Armed Forces. In Islamic countries, certain degrees, instead of ranks, were given in accordance with the categorization of government duties, in the course of time, these degrees had taken on certain characteristics.
In the Ottoman Empire, besides the ranks that were awarded after passing through stages of promotion. This rank, which continued until the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, was given to civilian administrators who were approved of. After the establishment of the Republic, the Sultanate was abolished, Paymaster of a regiment - Captain of the Right Wing, The rank of the Captain of the Right Wing was very high. The rank of the Adjutant and Paymaster of a regiment was high but such individuals were not from the military class and they dealt with clerical duties. Captain of the Wing - The Captain of the Left Wing-, if he was educated in the regiment, he was called Ağa but if he was the son of a pasha, he was called Bey. Maréchal de France and Amiral de France were as much a dignity of state as a military title, thus British Field Marshals consulted with French Generals in 1914. The elevation of Joffre to Maréchal in 1916 actually marked a diminution of his powers of command, there was no Amiral de France alive during World War I.
Almirante and Marechal were only honorary ranks, not held by anyone during World War I, the Portuguese Army had the particularity of having only a single rank of General Officer. A Portuguese General could be assigned to command from a brigade to the entire Army, like the Portuguese Army, the Serbian Army had only a single rank of General Officer. A Serbian General could be assigned to command from a division to the entire Army, voivode of Serbia was the highest rank in the army of the Kingdom of Serbia. Radomir Putnik held title from beginning of the war since he was promoted in 1912
Generaloberstabsarzt and Admiraloberstabsarzt are the top Joint Medical Service OF8-ranks of the German Bundeswehr. The equivalent to ranks in the Heer is Generalleutnant and in the German Navy the Vizeadmiral. In accordance with traditions in German armed forces, both ranks might be used in Bundeswehr medical service, normally the Bundeswehr Surgeon General of the medical service, or the Chief of Medical Operation´s Command might be assigned. However, in future the Chief position might remain vacant, because the Deputy Surgeon General is mandated to command the Medical Operation´s Command, equivalent to that three-star ranks are Generalleutnant of the Heer or Luftwaffe, and the Vizeadmiral of the Marine. The manner of formal addressing of military surgeons with the rank Generalarzt, Generalstabsarzt or Generaloberstabsarzt is, at the other hand, military surgeons with the rank Admiralarzt, Admiralstabsarzt or Admiraloberstabsarzt is, „Herr/Frau Admiralarzt“. On the shoulder there are three golden stars in golden oak leaves and the career insignia as symbol of the medical standing.
Regarding the Marine, the insignia is in the middle of both sleeves, three centimeters above the cuff strips, and on the shoulder straps between strips and button. Both General of the branch grades Generaloberstabsarzt and Generaloberstabveterinär were the most senior ranks of the medical –, siegfried Handloser was assigned to Generaloberstabsarzt of the German Wehrmacht. He was simultaneous Chief of the Wehrmacht´s Medical Service in Supreme Command of the Wehrmacht as to July 28, curt Schulze was Generaloberstabveterinär of the Wehrmacht. Generaloberstabsarzt and Generaloberstabveterinär of the Wehrmacht were comparable to the General of the branch, as well as to the Obergruppenführer, the equivalent to Generaloberstabsarzt of the Wehrmacht was the Chief of Medical Service of the Kriegsmarine with the rank up to Admiraloberstabsarzt of the Kriegsmarine. The equivalent to the Heeres-Sanitätsinspekteur and Sanitätschef of the Kriegsmarine was in the area of responsibility of the Luftwaffe the Sanitätsinspekteur of the Luftwaffe, ISBN 3-7700-1618-1 Süß, Der Völkskörper im Krieg, Gesundheitspolitik, Gesundheitsverhältnisse und Krankenmord im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland 1939–1945,2003
German Air Force
The German Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Bundeswehr, the armed forces of Germany. With a strength of 28,448 personnel, it is the fourth largest air force within the European Union, after the air forces of the United Kingdom and Italy. Although its budget has been reduced since the end of the Cold War in 1989–1990. The German Air Force was founded in 1956 during the era of the Cold War as the aerial branch of the armed forces of West Germany. The term Luftwaffe that is used for both the historic and the current German air force is the German-language generic designation of any air force, the commander of the German Air Force is Lieutenant General Karl Müllner. In 2015 the Air Force uses eleven air bases, two of which host no flying units, the Air Force has a presence at three civil airports. In 2012, the Air Force had an strength of 28,475 active soldiers and 4,914 reservists. Therefore, on 9 January 1956, a new German Air Force called Luftwaffe was founded as a branch of the new Bundeswehr. S.
-supplied hardware and these included Erich Hartmann, Gerhard Barkhorn, Günther Rall and Johannes Steinhoff. Steinhoff became commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe, with Rall as his immediate successor, another pilot of World War II, Josef Kammhuber, made a significant career in the post-war Luftwaffe, retiring in 1962 as Inspekteur der Luftwaffe. Despite the partial reliance of the new air force on soldiers who had served in the Wehrmachts air arm, the first volunteers of the Luftwaffe arrived at the Nörvenich Air Base in January 1956. In the same year, the Luftwaffe was provided with its first aircraft, in 1957, the Luftwaffe took command of the Army Air Defense Troops based in Rendsburg and began the expansion of its own air defense missile capabilities. The first squadron to be declared operational was the 61st Air Transport Squadron at Erding Air Base, in 1958, the Luftwaffe received its first conscripts. In 1959 the Luftwaffe declared the 11th Missile Group in Kaufbeuren armed with MGM-1 Matador surface-to-surface tactical nuclear cruise missiles operational, the same year Jagdgeschwader 71 equipped with North American F-86 fighters became operational at Ahlhorner Heide Air Base.
All aircraft sported—and continue to sport—the Iron Cross on the fuselage, harking back to the pre-March 1918 days of World War I, in 1963, the Luftwaffe saw its first major reorganization. The two operational Air Force Group Commands – Command North and Command South were both split into two mixed Air Force divisions containing flying and air units and one Support division. In 1960, the Luftwaffe received it first Lockheed F-104 Starfighter jets, the Starfighter remained in service for the entire duration of the Cold War, with the last being taken out of service in 1991. The Luftwaffe received a total of 916 Starfighters,292 of which crashed resulting in the deaths of 116 pilots, the disastrous service record of the Starfighter led to the Starfighter crisis in 1966 as a reaction to 27 Starfighter crashes with 17 casualties in 1965 alone. The West German public referred to the Starfighter as the Witwenmacher, fliegender Sarg, Fallfighter, on 2 September 1966 Johannes Steinhoff, with Günther Rall as deputy, became the new Inspekteur der Luftwaffe
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the rank of sergeant major general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the officer ranks. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the general was called a Generalmajor. Todays Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term, see Rank insignias of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces General de Brigade is the lowest rank amongst general officers in the Brazilian Army. AGeneral de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. In tha Brazilian Air Force, the two-star, three-star and four-star rank are known as Brigadeiro, Major-Brigadeiro, see Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navys rank of rear-admiral, a major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer.
The major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead. In the Canadian Army, the insignia is a wide braid on the cuff. It is worn on the straps of the service dress tunic. On the visor of the cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. Major-generals are initially addressed as general and name, as are all general officers, major-generals are normally entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the general rank is called kindralmajor. The Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, and generalmajor in Swedish and Danish, the French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals, usually of général de corps darmée rank, the position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff. In the French Army, Major General is a position and the general is normally of the rank of corps general
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
For the use of this Two-star rank in other countries, see Major general. Generalmajor, short GenMaj, is the third highest general officer rank in the German Army and this rank is used in the Austrian Armed Forces, but is abbreviated as GenMjr. The rank is rated OF-7 in NATO, and is grade B7 in the pay rules of the Federal Ministry of Defence and it is equivalent to Konteradmiral in the German Navy or to Generalstabsarzt, and Admiralstabsarzt in the Zentraler Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr. On the shoulder there are two golden pips in golden oak leaves. Comparative military ranks of World War I Comparative military ranks of World War II