A generation II reactor is a design classification for a nuclear reactor, refers to the class of commercial reactors built until the end of the 1990s. Prototypical generation II reactors include the PWR, CANDU, BWR, AGR, older VVER and RBMK; these are contrasted to generation I reactors, which refer to the early prototype of power reactors, such as Shippingport, Magnox/UNGG, AMB, Fermi 1, Dresden 1. The last commercial Gen I power reactor was located at the Wylfa Nuclear Power Station and ceased operation at the end of 2015; the nomenclature for reactor designs, describing four'generations', was proposed by the US Department of Energy when it introduced the concept of generation IV reactors. The designation generation II+ reactor is sometimes used for modernized generation II designs built post-2000, such as the Chinese CPR-1000, in competition with more expensive generation III reactor designs; the modernization includes improved safety systems and a 60-year design life. Generation II reactor designs had an original design life of 30 or 40 years.
This date was set as the period. However, many generation II reactor are being life-extended to 50 or 60 years, a second life-extension to 80 years may be economic in many cases. By 2013 about 75% of still operating U. S. reactors had been granted life extension licenses to 60 years. Fukushima Daiichi's three destroyed reactors are Mark I Boiling water reactors designed by General Electric. In 2016, unit 2 at the Watts Bar Nuclear Generating Station came online and is to be the last generation II reactor to become operational in the United States. List of reactor types Nuclear Reactors Knowledge Base at IAEA Gen IV at US DOE
Operation Pocket Money was the title of a U. S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial mining campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam from 9 May 1972, during the Vietnam War, its purpose was to halt or slow the transportation of supplies and materials for the Nguyen Hue Offensive, an invasion of the Republic of Vietnam, by forces of the People's Army of Vietnam, launched on 30 March. Pocket Money was the first use of naval mines against North Vietnam. Nearly 85 percent of North Vietnam's import tonnage came through the port of Haiphong. Naval mining had been considered, but always rejected because of the risk of provoking intervention by the Soviet Union or the People's Republic of China. United States withdrawal of military forces began in June 1969; the U. S. was unwilling to suffer the humiliation of accelerating withdrawal as Quảng Trị Province began to collapse before the North Vietnamese Easter offensive. On 4 May Joint Chiefs of Staff chairman Thomas Hinman Moorer ordered Chief of Naval Operations Elmo Zumwalt to plan a naval mining mission under the code name of Pocket Money.
The operation was timed to coincide with a televised speech by President Richard Nixon at 21:00 8 May. The opening phase of the mining mission was assigned to USS Coral Sea. Carrier Air Wing Commander Roger Sheets planned the mission with air wing mine warfare officer Lieutenant Commander Harvey Ickle, VA-22 operations officer, United States Marine Corps Captain Charlie Carr, who would be bombardier-navigator in the lead plane establishing the critical attack azimuth and timing the mine releases. Three A-6 Intruders would carry 1,000-pound Mk-52 magnetic mines to be dropped in Haiphong's inner channel, six Navy A-7 Corsair IIs would carry 500-pound Mk-36 acoustic mines to be dropped in the outer portion of the channel; each plane would carry four mines. The Mk-52 mines were 80 inches long and 19 inches in diameter, they were parachute-retarded and intended to be fitted with an aerodynamic nose cap during transport. There were 37 foreign-flag ships in Haiphong: 16 Soviet, 5 Chinese, 5 Somalian, 4 British, 3 Polish, 2 Cuban, 1 East German.
The mines were set with a series time fuze delay of 72 hours to allow these neutral ships time to leave port, another series time fuze would disable the mine after 180 days. Guided missile cruisers USS Long Beach and USS Chicago moved north from the PIRAZ station off Hon Mat to within 40 miles of Haiphong to protect aircraft mining Haiphong harbor at low altitude. To avoid exposing F-4 Phantom fighters to North Vietnamese ground-based anti-aircraft defenses, these cruisers patrolling offshore were given a free-fire zone for RIM-8 Talos missiles to engage defending MiG fighters approaching the coast from Phúc Yên and Kép airfields near Hanoi. A free-fire zone above 1,000 feet was proposed for the cruisers at a planning meeting aboard Coral Sea. Commander Sheets lowered the free fire zone floor to 500 feet because the minelaying aircraft would stay under that ceiling and he had never seen MiGs above a few thousand feet; as Rear Admiral Rembrandt C. Robinson, Commander of the Seventh Fleet Cruisers and Destroyers and his staff were returning from the meeting to his flagship USS Providence at 22:45 on 8 May, the Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King carrying them lost power while approaching the flagship.
The helicopter rolled overboard. The Admiral drowned with his chief of staff and operations officer. Only the staff aviation officer and helicopter crew survived by realizing, in the darkness, that the helicopter was inverted, they were hunting for the door on the wrong side of the cabin. On 9 May 1972, a Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star made an early morning launch from Da Nang Air Base to support the operation. USS Kitty Hawk launched seventeen aircraft for a diversionary airstrike against the Nam Dinh railroad siding; the Kitty Hawk airstrike found bad weather over the primary target and struck the secondary targets of Thanh at 08:40 and Phu Qui at 08:45. At daylight on the 9th, a destroyer force struck the Haiphong Harbor air defense batteries with a 30-minute bombardment from their 5-inch guns, which preceded the aerial mining; the strike force was commanded by Captain Robert Pace, who succeeded Admiral Robinson, consisted of the USS Richard S. Edwards, Berkeley and Myles C. Fox Template:USS Charles P.
Cecil DD-835 The VMA-224 A-6A Intruders left Coral Sea at 08:40 with A-7E Corsairs from VA-22 and VA-94 and a single EKA-3B Skywarrior for electronic countermeasures support. Chicago set general quarters at 08:40, within minutes launched two Talos missiles at two MiGs in a holding pattern awaiting air control vectors on the approaching bombers. One MiG was destroyed. Coral Sea bombers began releasing mines at 08:59. Sheets radioed the carrier at 09:01 to verify. Coral Sea forwarded the message to the White House. Nixon had been speaking to avoid jeopardizing the mission. All entrances to North Vietnamese ports will be mined to prevent access to these ports and North Vietnamese naval operations from these ports. United States forces have been directed to take appropriate measures within the international and claimed territorial waters of North Vietnam to interdict the delivery of supplies. Rail and all communications will be cut off to the maximum exte
Jason Ernest Szuminski is a former right-handed Major League Baseball pitcher who has the distinction of being the first athlete from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the only United States Air Force reservist to play in Major League Baseball. After a standout career at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Newport Gulls of the NECBL, Szuminski was a 27th round draft pick in the 2000 Major League Baseball draft by the Chicago Cubs, was signed by Cubs' scout Tom Shafer, he obtained his degree at MIT in Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, thus making him a "rocket scientist." Szuminski spent his rookie season in 2000 splitting time between the Cubs rookie league affiliate in Arizona and the short-season Single A Lansing Lugnuts. He finished the season with an impressive combined record of 5-2 with the 2 squads and a combined ERA of 2.76 in 62 innings pitched. In 2001, Szuminski would spend the entire season with Lansing going 4-3 with a 6.44 ERA in 36.1 innings out of the bullpen.
Jason was promoted to the Cubs high Single A team, The Daytona Cubs for the 2002 season. He responded with a solid 5-2 record and a 5.12 ERA in 39 appearances, most of which, were again out of the bullpen. In 2003 Szuminski would play at all 3 levels of minor league baseball, splitting time again with the Daytona Cubs of Single A, as well as the Double A West Tennessee Diamond Jaxx and the Triple A Iowa Cubs, he put forth a great season combining for a 9-5 record with a 2.78 ERA in a total of 97 innings pitched. He would make a total of 45 appearances, 40 of which were in relief and recorded 2 saves. At the end of the 2003 season he was a Rule 5 draft pick by the San Diego Padres in and earned a spot on the 25-man major league roster for the 2004 season through a strong showing in spring training. Szuminski made his Major League debut on April 11, 2004. In his first major league appearance, a nationally televised Sunday night game against the San Francisco Giants, Szuminski pitched a scoreless inning, in the process recording the third out against home run champion Barry Bonds on a long fly ball to the warning track.
During his brief stint in the majors, Szuminski, on account of his military background, was selected to toss out the ceremonial first pitch for the Padres on their first "Military Appreciation Night" to honor the large armed forces community in the San Diego area. Due the Padres' early-season successes, Szuminski, a long reliever out of the bullpen, saw limited game action. In May 2004, he was dropped from the Padres' 25-man roster and returned to the Cubs after incurring just 37 days of major league service. While he was finishing the year with the Cubs' Triple-A affiliate in Iowa, Szuminski injured his throwing shoulder and was released by the organization, he was 3-2 with Iowa with a 4.94 ERA prior to his release. He has since been out of baseball. Szuminski is still an active Air Force reservist having obtained the rank of Captain, he obtained his MBA from Stanford University and is employed as a Vice President at JP Morgan Chase in San Francisco. He is engaged to be married to Molly Selfridge, a pediatric oncology nurse practitioner.
Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference
Scammonden Reservoir is a water reservoir in West Yorkshire, England. The area of the water surface when the reservoir is full is 42 hectares; the level of the bellmouth overflow above sea level is 252 metres. The reservoir holds 7800 million litres, its length is 1.4 kilometres. Scammonden Dam is part of the M62 motorway between junctions 22 and 23, the only such structure in Britain, its construction by the Ministry of Transport and Huddersfield Corporation Waterworks required the passing of the Huddersfield Corporation Act 1965. The motorway dam spans the Deanhead Valley in the Pennines between Huddersfield and Rochdale and the main contractor for the project was Sir Alfred McAlpine & Sons. Deanhead village was submerged and many buildings demolished to make way for the reservoir but the church remains and its vicarage is used by the sailing club. Both the church and adjacent school were at risk of slipping down the hillside into the dam and were not used after 1971 when the motorway opened.
The church was renovated in 2002 and the old schoolhouse has been converted into a private dwelling. Surveying began in November 1961 and the route of the carriageway was determined in mid 1963. Excavation in the Deanhead Valley commenced the following year and for the dam in 1966; this required the removal of 713,000 cubic metres of peat bog to reach the solid rock base nearly 13 metres below ground level. Material excavated elsewhere on the line of the motorway, clay from cuttings between Lofthouse and Gildersome, 3.4 million cubic metres from the Deanhead excavations was used to build the dam's embankment, 625 metres in length and 63.1 metres above the original valley floor. The 3.6 million cubic metre embankment is 435 metres wide at 55 metres at road level. Scammonden Water is 51.8 metres at its deepest point and water is drawn-off through a 2.5 kilometre tunnel driven southwards to supply Huddersfield. The overflow bellmouth, next to the valve shaft superstructure, discharges water to the valley below via a tunnel in the valley on the reservoir's eastern side.
The reservoir started to fill in July 1969 and the area was landscaped and parking and other facilities were provided. The motorway, dependent on the completion of the dam, was opened to traffic on 20 December 1970 and opened by HM Queen Elizabeth II who unveiled a plaque near the valve tower of Scammonden Water on 14 October 1971; the reservoir is home to Scammonden Water Sailing Club or SWSC. The sailing club has the exclusive rights to the water, which means that the activities on the water are either dingy cruising or racing. Other activities take place under the auspices of the scouts. Huddersfield Scout Sailing is a Royal Yachting Association Training Centre run by volunteers for scouts and guides. There is a scouting activity centre located at the water's edge which holds the boat workshop for scout sailing. Gray, Tony; the Road to Success: Alfred McAlpine 1935–1985. Rainbird Publishing. M62. Boundary to Pole Moor West Yorkshire in 360°! Scammonden reservoir Yorkshire Water – Scammonden Reservoir
The Royal Newcastle Hospital was, for nearly 190 years, the main hospital in the Australian city of Newcastle. The hospital stood on a hill overlooking the Pacific Ocean and the Hunter River port of Newcastle, New South Wales, from 1817 until 2007; the hospital grew in step with Newcastle from its founding as a penal coal port. The first hospital on the site was built for convicts, they were followed by generations of patients and supporters who were involved with an expanding seaport hospital and its many campuses. The hospital in turn had a powerful influence on the East End of central Newcastle and portside communities and on people's wellbeing throughout the Hunter Valley. During the mid to late twentieth century, under visionary medical superintendent, Chris McCaffrey, the hospital became a major centre for innovation in Australian Health Care, introducing reforms in specialist medical care and records keeping. By 2007, the year the ‘Royal’ closed, this was one of the oldest and best-known hospitals in Australia.
Redevelopment of the hospital site began in 2008 and, with the exception of the North Wing and the nurses' homes, much of the site was replaced by apartments. The hospital re-opened in the Royal Newcastle Centre at the site of the John Hunter Hospital in New Lambton Heights. Susan Marsden assisted by Cynthia Hunter The Royal: a castle grand, a purpose noble. A history of the Royal Newcastle Hospital 1817-2005 Newcastle: Hunter New England Area Health Service, 2005 ISBN 0-646-44897-8 Susan Marsden The Seaport Hospital 1817-2007 Sydney: Mirvac Pty Ltd, 2010 ISBN 978-0-646-52965-3 "Royal Newcastle Hospital: the passing of an icon"; the Medical Journal of Australia. 17 October 2005. Retrieved 1 April 2009
Aleiodes is a genus of the family Braconidae of parasitoid wasps described by Constantin Wesmael in 1838. They are known as mummy-wasps; the female attacks caterpillars of various species, including many pests such as Gypsy moths and tent caterpillars, deposits eggs in the caterpillars. The eggs hatch and the wasp larva feeds on the caterpillar, leaving a hardened caterpillar skin, or mummy; the wasp pupates within the mummy and the adult breaks out, leaving a small hole in the husk of the caterpillar. There are thousands of species, including: Aleiodes cacuangoi named after Dolores Cacuango Aleiodes colberti named after Stephen Colbert Aleiodes coxalis Aleiodes dangerlingi named after Dan Gerling Aleiodes elleni named after Ellen DeGeneres Aleiodes falloni named after Jimmy Fallon Aleiodes frosti named after Robert Frost Aleiodes gaga named after Lady Gaga Aleiodes heterogaster type species of genus Aleiodes kingmani named after Eduardo Kingman Aleiodes shakirae named after Shakira Aleiodes stewarti named after Jon Stewart Aleiodes tashimai Wesmael, Constantin.
"Monographie de Braconides de Belgigue". Nouvelles Memoires de l'Academie Royale de Bruxelles. 11: 1–167. "Shakira, Robert Frost and other famous people get wasps named after them". "Genus Aleiodes - Mummy-wasps". BugGuide. Shimbori, Eduardo Mitio. "Twenty-four new species of Aleiodes Wesmael from the eastern Andes of Ecuador with associated biological information". ZooKeys: 1–81. Doi:10.3897/zookeys.405.7402. PMC 4023268. PMID 24843275. Fortier, Joseph C.. "A Revision of the Tetrasphaeropyx Ashmead Lineage of the Genus Aleiodes Wesmael". Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 2256: 1–126. Doi:10.11646/zootaxa.2256.1.1. ISBN 978-1-86977-417-2