Spring break is a vacation period in early spring at universities and schools which started during the 1930s in the United States and is observed in some other Western countries. Spring break is associated with extensive gatherings and riotous partying in warm climate locations such as Daytona Beach and Cancun, attended regardless of participants' educational standings; as a holiday it is variously known as Easter vacation, Easter holiday, April break, spring vacation, mid-term break, study week, reading week, reading period, or Easter week, depending on regional conventions. Spring break is an academic tradition in various western countries, scheduled for different periods depending on the state and sometimes the region. In Japan, the spring break starts with the end of the academic year in March and ends on April 1 with the beginning of a new academic year. In Kuwait, the spring break is between the two academic or school semesters in December or January, but could last until early February.
It is a 2 or 3-week break, there is no fixed date for it, as the date is adjusted in accordance with the Lunar or Hijri calendar, as it is the case for all Arab and Muslim nations. In South Korea, the spring break starts in mid-February and ends on March 1 with the beginning of a new academic year. In the Czech Republic, only primary and secondary school students have a spring break; the break is one week long and the date of the break differs from county to county to avoid overcrowding of the break destinations in the Czech Republic. The counties are divided into six groups, each group containing counties evenly distributed across the country; the first group starts the holiday on the first Monday of February, the last group starts the holiday five weeks later. The last group of counties becomes the first one to have the spring break the next year. Before 2017, the spring break in Georgia was an Easter holiday, lasting from Thursday to Tuesday in the Holy Week. In 2017, the new Minister of Education and Science of Georgia Aleksandre Jejelava made a new reform by which, students of preschools, elementary & high schools as well as colleges and universities get six days of holiday in March, lasting from March 8 to March 15, for people to go on winter vacations or do other activities.
In Germany, universities schedule a semester break of five to eight weeks around March. The Whitsun holidays around late May or early June are considered a spring break. In Greece, spring break takes place during the one after it. In Lithuania, spring break takes place one week before Easter and one day after it, all school students have this vacation. Primary school students have another week of holidays after Easter. In Portugal, spring break is known as "Easter Holidays" and it gives two weeks to all students around the country. Before 1917 there was an Easter Break in schools. In the Soviet Union, spring break was always from 24 to 31 of March. Now, many schools in Russia still have the spring break, but the exact date is decided by the school itself. In the majority of cases it is set in the middle of April; the public holidays in May, connected with Labour day, can be an accurate equivalent of the spring break. Slovakia gives a week-long break to its elementary school and secondary school students in the months of February and March.
The break is one week long and the date of the break differs from county to county to avoid overcrowding of the break destinations in the Slovak Republic. The counties are divided into three groups, the first group starts the holiday on the end of February, the last group starts the holiday two weeks later. There is, as well, another shorter Easter break which starts on Holy Thursday and ends on next Tuesday. In Spain, there is not a spring break. Instead, the Holy Week is celebrated and students have holidays during these days; the Easter break in the United Kingdom is from one to two and a half weeks for primary and high schools, for two to four weeks for university students, fits around Easter. Canada gives a one or two week-long break to its elementary school and secondary school students in the month of March, with the time varying from province to province. In Canada, spring Break for post-secondary students is called'reading week' or'reading break,' depending on the duration. However, the formal title of Mid-term Break has been the preferred generic term.
Reading Week in Canada occurs in the month of February coinciding with Family Day. In Jamaica, the spring break starts in the first week of Good Friday; the break may range from one week to two weeks times two. This break starts depending on which month the Easter holiday begins, April. In Mexico, spring break takes place during the one after it. In the United States, spring break at universities and colleges can occur from March to April, depending on term dates and when Easter holiday falls. Spring break is about one week long, but many K–12 institutions in the United States schedule a one-week-long break known as "Easter Break," "Easter Holidays", or "Easter Vacation", as they take place in the weeks before or after Easter. However, in the states of Massach
Generation X or Gen X is the demographic cohort following the baby boomers and preceding the Millennials. Demographers and researchers use birth years ranging from the early-to-mid 1960s to the early 1980s. Generation Xers were children during a time of shifting societal values and as children were sometimes called the "latchkey generation", due to reduced adult supervision as children compared to previous generations, a result of increasing divorce rates and increased maternal participation in the workforce, prior to widespread availability of childcare options outside the home; as adolescents and young adults, they were dubbed the "MTV Generation". In the 1990s they were sometimes characterized as slackers and disaffected; some of the cultural influences on Gen X youth were the musical genres of grunge and hip hop music, indie films. In midlife, research describes them as active and achieving a work–life balance; the cohort has been credited with entrepreneurial tendencies. The term Generation X has been used at various times throughout history to describe alienated youth.
In the 1950s, Hungarian photographer Robert Capa used Generation X as the title for a photo-essay about young men and women growing up following World War II. The term acquired its modern definition after the release of Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, a 1991 novel written by Canadian author Douglas Coupland. In 1987, Coupland had written a piece in Vancouver Magazine titled "Generation X", "the seed of what went on to become the book". Coupland referenced Billy Idol's band Generation X in the 1987 article and again in 1989, but Coupland has stated that The book's title came not from Billy Idol's band, as many supposed, but from the final chapter of a funny sociological book on American class structure titled Class, by Paul Fussell. In his final chapter, Fussell named an "X" category of people who wanted to hop off the merry-go-round of status and social climbing that so frames modern existence. Billy Idol had attributed the name of his band to the book Generation X, a 1965 book on popular youth culture written by two British journalists, Jane Deverson and Charles Hamblett.
Author William Strauss noted that around the time Coupland's 1991 novel was published the symbol "X" was prominent in popular culture, as the film Malcolm X was released in 1992, that the name "Generation X" ended up sticking. The "X" refers to a desire not to be defined. In the U. S. some called Generation Xers the "baby bust" generation because of the drop in the birth rate following the baby boom. Author Neil Howe noted the delay in naming this demographic cohort saying, "Over 30 years after their birthday, they didn't have a name. I think that's germane." The cohort had been referred to as Post-Boomers, Baby Busters, New Lost Generation, latchkey kids, MTV Generation, the 13th Generation. Generation X is the demographic cohort following the post–World War II baby boom, representing a generational change from the baby boomers. Many researchers and demographers use dates which correspond to the fertility-patterns in the population, which results in a Generation X starting-date of 1965, such as Pew Research Center which uses a range of 1965–1980, Australia's McCrindle Research Center which uses 1965–1979, Gallup which uses 1965–1979.
PricewaterhouseCoopers, a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, describes Generation X employees as those born from 1965 to 1980. Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe define Generation X as those born between 1961 and 1981, they argue that those born between 1961 and 1964 are part of Generation X rather than the Baby Boomers because they are distinct from the Boomers in terms of cultural identity and shared historical experiences. Some researchers use dates similar to Strauss and Howe's such as the University of Michigan's Generation X Report, a quarterly research report from The Longitudinal Study of American Youth, which defines Generation X as those born between 1961 and 1981. Author Jeff Gordinier, in his 2008 book X Saves the World, defines Generation X as those born between 1961 and 1977 but as late as 1980. Canadian author and professor David Foot divides the post-boomer generation into two groups: Generation X, born between 1960 and 1966. Other demographers and researchers use a wide range of dates to describe Generation X, with the beginning birth-year ranging from as early as 1960 to as late as 1965, with the final birth year as late as 1984.
Due in part to the frequent birth-year overlap and resulting incongruence existing between attempts to define Generation X and Millennials, a number of individuals born in the late 1970s or early 1980s see themselves as being on the cusp "between" the two generations. Names given to those born on the Generation X/Millennial cusp years include Xennials, The Lucky Ones, Generation Catalano, the Oregon Trail Generation. A 2010 Census report counted 84 million people living in the U. S. who are defined by birth years ranging from the early 1960s to the early 80s. In a 2012 article for the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, George Masnick wrote that the "Census counted 82.1 million" Gen Xers in the U. S; the Harvard Center uses 1965 to 1984 to define Gen X so that Boomers and Millennials "cover equal 20-year age spans". Masnick concluded that immigration filled in any birth year deficits during low fertility years of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Jon Miller at the Longitudinal Study of American Youth at the University of M
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Giovanni Boccaccio was an Italian writer, correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist. Boccaccio wrote a number of notable works, including The On Famous Women, he wrote his imaginative literature in the Italian vernacular, as well as other works in Latin, is noted for his realistic dialogue which differed from that of his contemporaries, medieval writers who followed formulaic models for character and plot. The details of Boccaccio's birth are uncertain, he was born in a village near Certaldo where his family was from. He was the son of an unknown woman. Boccaccio's stepmother was called Margherita de' Mardoli. Boccaccio grew up in Florence, his father worked for the Compagnia dei Bardi and, in the 1320s, married Margherita dei Mardoli, of a well-to-do family. Boccaccio may have been tutored by Giovanni Mazzuoli and received from him an early introduction to the works of Dante. In 1326, his father was moved with his family to Naples. Boccaccio disliked the banking profession, he persuaded his father to let him study law at the Studium, where he studied canon law for the next six years.
He pursued his interest in scientific and literary studies. His father introduced him to the Neapolitan nobility and the French-influenced court of Robert the Wise in the 1330s. At this time, he fell in love with a married daughter of the king, portrayed as "Fiammetta" in many of Boccaccio's prose romances, including Il Filocolo. Boccaccio became a friend of fellow Florentine Niccolò Acciaioli, benefited from his influence as the administrator, the lover, of Catherine of Valois-Courtenay, widow of Philip I of Taranto. Acciaioli became counselor to Queen Joanna I of Naples and her Grand Seneschal, it seems that Boccaccio enjoyed law no more than banking, but his studies allowed him the opportunity to study and make good contacts with fellow scholars. His early influences included Paolo da Perugia, humanists Barbato da Sulmona and Giovanni Barrili, theologian Dionigi di Borgo San Sepolcro. In Naples, Boccaccio began. Works produced in this period include Il Filostrato and Teseida, The Filocolo, La caccia di Diana.
The period featured considerable formal innovation, including the introduction of the Sicilian octave, where it influenced Petrarch. Boccaccio returned to Florence in early 1341, avoiding the plague of 1340 in that city, but missing the visit of Petrarch to Naples in 1341, he had left Naples due to tensions between Florence. His father had returned to Florence in 1338, his mother died shortly afterward. Boccaccio continued to work, although dissatisfied with his return to Florence, producing Comedia delle ninfe fiorentine in 1341, a mix of prose and poems, completing the fifty-canto allegorical poem Amorosa visione in 1342, Fiammetta in 1343; the pastoral piece "Ninfale fiesolano" dates from this time, also. In 1343, Boccaccio's father remarried to Bice del Bostichi, his children by his first marriage had all died, but he had another son named Iacopo in 1344. In Florence, the overthrow of Walter of Brienne brought about the government of popolo minuto, it diminished the influence of the nobility and the wealthier merchant classes and assisted in the relative decline of Florence.
The city was hurt further in 1348 by the Black Death, which killed some three-quarters of the city's population represented in the Decameron. From 1347, Boccaccio spent much time in Ravenna, seeking new patronage and, despite his claims, it is not certain whether he was present in plague-ravaged Florence, his stepmother died during the epidemic and his father was associated with the government efforts as Minister of Supply in the city. His father died in 1349 and Boccaccio was forced into a more active role as head of the family. Boccaccio began work on The Decameron around 1349, it is probable that the structures of many of the tales date from earlier in his career, but the choice of a hundred tales and the frame-story lieta brigata of three men and seven women dates from this time. The work was complete by 1352, it was one of his last works in Italian. Boccaccio revised and rewrote The Decameron in 1370–1371; this manuscript has survived to the present day. From 1350, Boccaccio became involved with Italian humanism and with the Florentine government.
His first official mission was to Romagna in late 1350. He revisited that city-state twice and was sent to Brandenburg and Avignon, he pushed for the study of Greek, housing Barlaam of Calabria, encouraging his tentative translations of works by Homer and Aristotle. In these years, he took minor orders. In October 1350, he was delegated to greet Francesco Petrarch as he entered Florence and to have Petrarch as a guest at Boccaccio's home, during his stay; the meeting between the two was fruitful and they were friends from on, Boccaccio cal
A paperback known as a softcover or سعيد, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth; the pages on the inside are made of paper. Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, dime novels, airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size. In the U. S. there are "mass-market paperbacks" and larger, more durable "trade paperbacks." In the U. K. there are A-format, B-format, the largest C-format sizes. Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper. Paperbacks can be the preferred medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, newer editions or reprintings of older books.
Since paperbacks tend to have a smaller profit margin, many publishers try to balance the profit to be made by selling fewer hardcovers against the potential profit to be made by selling more paperbacks with a smaller profit per unit. First editions of many modern books genre fiction, are issued in paperback. Best-selling books, on the other hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide; the early 19th century saw numerous improvements in the printing and book-distribution processes, with the introduction of steam-powered printing presses, pulp mills, automatic type setting, a network of railways. These innovations enabled the likes of Simms and McIntyre of Belfast, Routledge & Sons and Ward & Lock to mass-produce cheap uniform yellowback or paperback editions of existing works, distribute and sell them across the British Isles, principally via the ubiquitous W H Smith & Sons newsagent found at most urban British railway stations.
These paper bound volumes were offered for sale at a fraction of the historic cost of a book, were of a smaller format, 110 mm × 178 mm, aimed at the railway traveller. The Routledge's Railway Library series of paperbacks remained in print until 1898, offered the traveling public 1,277 unique titles; the German-language market supported examples of cheap paper-bound books: Bernhard Tauchnitz started the Collection of British and American Authors in 1841. These inexpensive, paperbound editions, a direct precursor to mass-market paperbacks ran to over 5,000 volumes. Reclam published Shakespeare in this format from October 1857 and went on to pioneer the mass-market paper-bound Universal-Bibliothek series from 10 November 1867; the German publisher Albatross Books revised the 20th-century mass-market paperback format in 1931, but the approach of World War II cut the experiment short. It proved an immediate financial success in the United Kingdom in 1935 when Penguin Books adopted many of Albatross' innovations, including a conspicuous logo and color-coded covers for different genres.
British publisher Allen Lane invested his own financial capital to launch the Penguin Books imprint in 1935, initiating the paperback revolution in the English-language book-market by releasing ten reprint titles. The first released book on Penguin's 1935 list was André Maurois' Ariel. Lane intended to produce inexpensive books, he purchased paperback rights from publishers, ordered large print runs to keep unit prices low, looked to non-traditional book-selling retail locations. Booksellers were reluctant to buy his books, but when Woolworths placed a large order, the books sold well. After that initial success, booksellers showed more willingness to stock paperbacks, the name "Penguin" became associated with the word "paperback". In 1939, Robert de Graaf issued a similar line in the United States, partnering with Simon & Schuster to create the Pocket Books label; the term "pocket book" became synonymous with paperback in English-speaking North America. In French, the term livre de poche is still in use today.
De Graaf, like Lane, negotiated paperback rights from other publishers, produced many runs. His practices contrasted with those of Lane by his adoption of illustrated covers aimed at the North American market. To reach an broader market than Lane, he used distribution networks of newspapers and magazines, which had a lengthy history of being aimed at mass audiences; because of its number-one position in what became a long list of pocket editions, James Hilton's Lost Horizon is cited as the first American paperback book. However, the first mass-market, pocket-sized, paperback book printed in the US was an edition of Pearl Buck's The Good Earth, produced by Pocket Books as a proof-of-concept in late 1938, sold in New York City. In World War II, the U. S. military distributed some 122 million "Armed Services Editions" paperback novels to the troops, which helped popularize the format after the war. Through the circulation of the paperback in kiosks and bookstores and intellectual knowledge was able to reach the masses.
This occurred at the same time that the masses were starting to attend university, leading to the student revolts of 1968 prompting open access to knowledge. The paperback book meant that more people were able to and access knowledge and this led to people wanting more and more of it; this accessibility posed a threat to the wealthy by imposing that
The Gap, Inc. known as Gap Inc. or Gap, is an American worldwide clothing and accessories retailer. Gap was founded in 1969 by Donald Fisher and Doris F. Fisher and is headquartered in San Francisco, California; the company operates six primary divisions: Gap, Banana Republic, Old Navy, Hill City, Athleta. Gap Inc. is the largest specialty retailer in the United States, is 3rd in total international locations, behind Inditex Group and H&M. As of September 2008, the company has 135,000 employees and operates 3,727 stores worldwide, of which 2,406 are located in the U. S; the Fisher family remains involved in the company, collectively owning much of its stock. Donald Fisher served as Chairman of the Board until 2004, playing a role in the ouster of then-CEO Millard Drexler in 2002, remained on the board until his death on September 27, 2009. Fisher's wife and their son, Robert J. Fisher serve on Gap's board of directors. Robert succeeded his father as chairman in 2004 and served as CEO on an interim basis following the resignation of Paul Pressler in 2007, before being succeeded by Glenn K. Murphy up until 2014.
On February 1, 2015, Art Peck took over as CEO of Gap Inc. In 1959, Don Fisher, a California commercial real estate broker specializing in retail store location, was a social friend of Walter "Wally" Haas Jr, President of Levi Strauss & Co. Fisher was inspired by the sudden success of'The Tower of Shoes' in an old Quonset Hut in a non-retail industrial area of Sacramento, California; that drew crowds by advertising that no matter what brand, style or size of shoes a woman could want it was at The Tower of Shoes. And knowing that Macy's, the biggest Levi's customer, was running out of the best selling Levi's sizes, colors, Fisher asked Haas to let him copy The Tower of Shoes' business model and apply it to Levi's products. Haas referred Fisher to Bud Robinson, his Director of Advertising, for what Haas assumed would be a quick refusal. Fisher agreed to stock only Levi's apparel in every style and size, all grouped by size, Levi's guaranteed The Gap to be never out of stock by overnight replenishment from Levi's San Jose, California warehouse.
And Robinson offered to pay 50% of The Gap's radio advertising upfront and avoided antitrust laws by offering the same marketing package to any store that agreed to sell nothing but Levi's products. Fisher opened the first Gap store on Ocean Avenue in San Francisco on August 21, 1969. In 1970, Gap opened its second store in San Jose. In 1971, Gap established its corporate headquarters in California with four employees. By 1973, the company had over 25 locations and had expanded into the East Coast market with a store in the Echelon Mall in Voorhees, New Jersey. In 1974, Gap began to sell private-label merchandise. In the 1990s, Gap assumed an upscale identity and revamped its inventory under the direction of Millard Drexler. However, Drexler was removed from his position after 19 years of service in 2002 after over-expansion, a 29-month slump in sales, tensions with the Fisher family. Drexler refused to sign a non-compete agreement and became CEO of J. Crew. One month after his departure, merchandise that he had ordered was responsible for a strong rebound in sales.
Robert J. Fisher recruited Paul Pressler as the new CEO. However, his focus groups failed to recover the company's leadership in its market. In 2007, Gap announced that it would "focus efforts on recruiting a chief executive officer who has deep retailing and merchandising experience ideally in apparel, understands the creative process and can execute strategies in large, complex environments while maintaining strong financial discipline"; that January, Pressler resigned after two disappointing holiday sales seasons and was succeeded by Robert J. Fisher on an interim basis, he began working with the company in 1980 and joined the board in 1990, would assume several senior executive positions, including president of Banana Republic and the Gap units. The board's search committee was led by Adrian Bellamy, chairman of The Body Shop International and included founder Donald Fisher. On February 2, Marka Hansen, the former head of the Banana Republic division, replaced Cynthia Harriss as the leader of the Gap division.
The executive president for marketing and merchandising Jack Calhoun became interim president of Banana Republic. In May, Old Navy laid off 300 managers in lower volume locations to help streamline costs; that July, Glenn Murphy CEO of Shoppers Drug Mart in Canada, was announced as the new CEO of Gap, Inc. New lead designers were brought on board to help define a fashionable image, including Patrick Robinson for Gap Adult, Simon Kneen for Banana Republic, Todd Oldham for Old Navy. Robinson was hired as chief designer in 2007, but was dismissed in May 2011 after sales failed to increase. However, he enjoyed commercial success in international markets. In 2007, Ethisphere Magazine chose Gap from among thousands of companies evaluated as one of 100 "World's Most Ethical Companies."In October 2011, Gap Inc. announced plans to close 189 US stores, nearly 21 percent, by the end of 2013. The company announced it would open its first stores in Brazil in the Fall of 2013. In January 2015, Gap Inc announced plans to close their subsidiary Piperlime in order to focus on their core brands.
The first and only Pip
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa