Dragon's Lair 3D: Return to the Lair
Dragon's Lair 3D: Return to the Lair is an action-adventure video game released in 2002 by Dragonstone Software. The game is based on Cinematronics' 1983 laserdisc arcade game Dragon's Lair, follows a similar story. Many of the characters and locations from the 1983 original make appearances in the game, along with new puzzles and enemies. Animator and director Don Bluth, who produced the cartoon animation for the arcade original produced two new animated sequences for the opening and ending of the game; the game uses cel shading to mimic the distinctive style of the original. The game is the first in the series to host non-restricted movement for the player. A linear exploration of the castle is broken up with boss fights, many of which are characters from the original arcade game, but not all. Many of the rooms seen in the original are seen again. New mechanics are introduced by the Dragon Essences. Health and Mana meters are introduced and can be given upgrades throughout the game. A crossbow is introduced and is used as an alternative weapon and resourceful object for puzzles.
Treasure is brought into the game to act as optional challenges to complete. The story starts as the Princess Daphne is captured by the dragon Singe commanded by the wizard Mordroc. Dirk sees this as he is riding his horse and unsuccessfully tries to rescue her. Daphne is taken through a portal, but leaves behind an amulet that allows her to talk to Dirk as he works his way through the castle withholding her. Daphne explains to Dirk how the wizard has become powerful and would be undefeatable without the help of the Dragon Essences: magical objects that grant their users abilities and are each guarded by the strongest beings in the castle. Dirk manages to find the princess and goes into battle with Singe mirroring the original arcade's version of the fight; as the knight walks away with the princess in his arms, he notices a different reflection in a nearby crystal and drops her to find that she is a dark alter-ego version of himself in disguise. The evil Dirk laughs at the hero for falling for his trap and goes on to explain how he is one of the beings holding an essence and that long ago, those who held the essences grew corrupt, thus a civil war between the forces broke out.
Dirk defeats the alter-ego and goes onto gather the rest of the essences, but as he gains a magical set of arrows that are the only weapon capable of dispatching the wizard, Daphne begins to chastise Dirk for picking them up. Soon after, it is revealed that the Daphne speaking to Dirk up to this point was Mordroc impersonating her. Dirk travels to where the princess is held captive and duels the wizard, who transforms into a dragon, he is defeated by the magical arrows and the knight saves the princess. The game received "mixed or average reviews" on all platforms according to video game review aggregator Metacritic. In late 2004, Digital Leisure released Dragon's Lair III; this was based on footage taken from Dragon's Lair 3D, but using a control system closer to the original and akin to their DVD version of the original Dragon's Lair. Reviews of this version were negative, with CheatCentral noting: "In a nutshell, they've taken footage of someone playing Dragon's Lair 3D and turned it into an interactive cartoon, much like the original Dragon's Lair.
You would be hard-pressed to tell that this was an interactive version of DL3D." Dragon's Lair 3D: Return to the Lair on IMDb Dragon's Lair 3D: Return to the Lair at MobyGames Dragon's Lair 3D: Return to the Lair at Giant Bomb
Ethnic Cleansing (video game)
Ethnic Cleansing is a first-person shooter video game for Microsoft Windows computers, created by the American White supremacist organization National Alliance on January 21, 2002. As part of a "Race War", the player controls a neo-Nazi skinhead or a Klansman and is tasked with killing stereotypical African-American and Jewish enemies, ending with then-Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. Using the Genesis3D engine, the National Alliance created the game to be provocative and to support their white supremacist message; the game has been controversial, with the Anti-Defamation League taking particular issue. It was planned to be followed by a long line of sequels, but only one, titled White Law, has been released. Ethnic Cleansing is a short-length first-person shooter set in a single level; the player can select a Skinhead, or a Klansman to control. They run through a ghetto, compared to New York City and shoot African-Americans and Mexicans, before descending into a subway system to kill Jews.
The player reaches the "Yiddish Control Center", where a fictionalized version of Ariel Sharon Prime Minister of Israel, is directing plans for world domination. He carries a rocket launcher; the head-up display contains a counter of remaining ammunition. The game's soundtrack consists of white power rock music; the game's art assets and sound effects feature racial stereotypes: when shot, black enemies make monkey noises and Jewish enemies are dressed as Haredim rabbis and shout "oy vey!". Mexican characters shout "I need to take a siesta now". In addition, black enemies are drawn to resemble apes and some wear T-shirts with the lettering "NIGZ", while Mexican enemies wear sombreros. Ethnic Cleansing was developed by members of the National Alliance, an American white supremacist organization, published by Resistance Records, its subsidiary record label that specializes in white power music, it was developed for Microsoft Windows personal computers using Eclipse Entertainment's open-source game engine Genesis3D along with the Reality Factory development kit.
The source code was not changed from the original. Instead, the developers plugged in images and sounds that they had created in available editing programs. Shaun Walker, the chairman of the National Alliance, explained to the United Press that the intent was to produce a racially provocative video game and promote racial segregation. National Alliance founder William Luther Pierce, who appears in the game to discuss an "upcoming white revolution", considered video games to be another medium to promote his organization's messages. Resistance released the game on Martin Luther King, Jr. Day of 2002, it was priced at USD $14.88, a reference to the white supremacist Fourteen Words slogan and the neo-Nazi numerical code "88". While it received little attention from the mainstream media, the game was controversial among Americans on both sides of the political spectrum; the Anti-Defamation League, an anti-racist organization that covers anti-Semitism, publicized the existence of the game and unsuccessfully lobbied the developers of Genesis3D to change their licensing conditions to prohibit the use of the engine to develop racist games.
They lobbied the Interactive Digital Software Association to encourage its members to adopt such policies. The game's reception from critics was negative. David Leonard of PopMatters described the game's graphics and "playability". While not approving of the game's message, he argued that it was only the latest in a long line of racist video games that included the likes of Grand Theft Auto III, NFL Street, Freedom Fighters. In January 2003, Stuff named Ethnic Cleansing the 40th most controversial video game of all time; the staff opined that only "very stupid children" would be susceptible to its message and that it would make players feel like "small-minded assholes". Complex and UGO ranked it as the single most racist video game in history. UGO staff writer K. Thor Jensen called it "profoundly stupid". Pierce estimated that "a couple thousand" copies of the game had been sold within a month of its release and that 90 percent of consumers were white teenage boys; the National Alliance and Resistance Records released a similar game, White Law, in June 2003.
It starred an Irish-American police officer taking up arms to protect his territory from racial minorities. It has been compared to Freedom Fighters, though it was based on the events of Pierce's novel The Turner Diaries; the National Alliance no more have surfaced. ADL article
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Activision Publishing, Inc. is an American video game publisher based in Santa Monica. It serves as the publishing business for its parent company, Activision Blizzard, consists of several subsidiary studios; as of January 2017, Activision is one of the largest third-party video game publishers in the world and was the top publisher for 2016 in the United States. The company was founded as Activision, Inc. in October 1979 in Sunnyvale, California, by former Atari game developers, upset at how they were treated at Atari, to develop their own games for the popular Atari 2600 home video game console. Activision was recognized as the first independent third-party video game developer; the 1983 video game crash, in part created by too many new companies trying to follow in Activison's footsteps without the expertise of Activision's founders, hurt Activision's position in console games, forcing them to diversify into games for home computers, including the acquisition of Infocom. After a management shift, with CEO Jim Levy replaced by Bruce Davis, the company renamed itself as Mediagenic and branched out into business software applications.
Mediagenic fell into debt, the company was bought for around US$500,000 by Bobby Kotick and a small group of investors around 1991. Kotick instituted a full rework of the company to cover its debts, dismissing most of its staff, moving the company to Los Angeles, reincorporated under the Activision name. Building on existing assets, the Kotick-led Activision pursued more publishing opportunities, after recovering from the former debt, started acquiring numerous studies and intellectual properties over the 1990s and 2000s, among these being the Call of Duty and Guitar Hero series. Activision Holdings acquires studios. In 2008, Activision's parent merged with Vivendi Games, the parent company of Blizzard Entertainment, formed Activision Blizzard, with Kotick as its CEO. Within this structure, Activision serves to manage numerous third-party studios and publish all of the parent company's games outside of those created by Blizzard. By 1979, Nolan Bushnell had sold Atari, Inc. to Warner Communications and had left the company over several disagreements with the direction Warner wanted to take the company with the popular Atari 2600 game console.
Bushnell's replacement as CEO, Ray Kassar, showed little respect to developers, giving them no financial compensation for games that did well, would not allow developers' names be credited with games for fear they would be procured by other game companies. David Crane, one of Atari's programmers, recalled a memo sent by Kassar that listed the best-selling cartridges from the previous year to help guide game ideas. Crane had considered that for those games that he was responsible for had brought in over US$20 million for the company but he was still only receiving a US$20,000 salary. Crane, along with Larry Kaplan, Alan Miller and Bob Whitehead became vocal about the lack of recognition within the company and became known as the "Gang of Four"; the group met with Kassar in May 1979 to demand that the company treat developers as record labels treated musicians, with royalties and their names on game boxes. Kaplan, who called the others "the best designers for the in the world", recalled that Kassar called the four men "towel designers" and claimed that "anybody can do a cartridge".
The four made the decision to soon leave Atari and start their own business, but were not sure how to go about it. Some developers had left Atari, only to be hired back as contractors doubling their pay rate, but the four wanted something more ambitious. In 1979, the concept of third-party developers did not exist; as software for video game consoles were published by makers of the systems for which the games were designed. The four decided to create their own independent game development company, they were directed by their attorney to Jim Levy, at the time working for GRT Records to raise venture capital to go into the manufacture of cassette tape drives for early home computers. Levy listened to their plans, agreed with its direction, helped the four to secure about US$1 million in capital from Sutter Hill Ventures. By August and Miller had left Atari, with Whitehead and Kaplan joining them shortly after. Activision was formally founded on October 1, 1979, with Levy serving as CEO; the company was named "Computer Arts, Inc." while they considered a better title.
While the four had thought of the name VSync, Inc. there was fear that the public would not understand or known how to say it. The four's departure from Atari created a major dent in Atari's developer staff, Atari pursued legal action from 1980 to 1982 to try to shut down Activision, claiming the four had stolen trade secrets; the lawsuit was settled by 1982, with Activision agreeing to pay royalties to Atari but otherwise legitimizing the third-party development model. The four were aided by their knowledge of the Atari 2600 to be able to develop their cartridges as well as software tricks with the console in making their own games, trying to make them visually distinctive from Atari-produced games; each developed their own title, about one a year over the first few years of the company. To further distinguish themselves, Activision's boxes were brightly-colored, predominately used an in-game screenshot on the back cover so consumers would be aware of what they were getting. Instruction manuals for games devoted a least one page to credit the developer.
Additionally, for nearly all of Activision's games through 1983, the instruction manual included instructions for sending the
First-person shooter engine
A first-person shooter engine is a video game engine specialized for simulating 3D environments for use in a first-person shooter video game. First-person refers to the view. Shooter refers to games which revolve around wielding firearms and killing other entities in the game world, either non-player characters or other players; the development of the FPS graphic engines is characterized by a steady increase in technologies, with some breakthroughs. Attempts at defining distinct generations lead to arbitrary choices of what constitutes a modified version of an'old engine' and what is a new engine; the classification is complicated as game engines blend new technologies. Features considered advanced in a new game one year. Games with a combination of both older and newer features are the norm. For example, Jurassic Park: Trespasser introduced physics to the FPS genre, which did not become common until around 2002. Red Faction featured something still not common in engines years later. Game rendering for this early generation of FPS were from the first-person perspective and with the need to shoot things, however they were made up using Vector graphics.
There are two possible claimants for the first Maze War and Spasim. Maze War was developed in 1973 and involved a single player making his way through a maze of corridors rendered using a fixed perspective. Multiplayer capabilities, where players attempted to shoot each other, were added and were networked in 1974. Spasim was developed in 1974 and involved players moving through a wire-frame 3D universe. Spasim could be played by up to 32 players on the PLATO network. Developed in-house by Incentive Software, the Freescape engine is considered to be one of the first proprietary 3D engines to be used for computer games, although the engine was not used commercially outside of Incentive's own titles; the first game to use this engine was the puzzle game Driller in 1987. Games of this generation are regarded as Doom clones, they were not capable of full 3D rendering, but used ray casting 2.5D techniques to draw the environment and sprites to draw enemies instead of 3D models. However these games began to use textures to render the environment instead of simple wire-frame models or solid colors.
Hovertank 3D, from id Software, was the first to use this technique in 1990, but was still not using textures, a capability, added shortly after on Catacomb 3D with the Wolfenstein 3D engine, used for several other games. Catacomb 3D was the first game to show the player's hand on-screen, furthering the implication of the player into the character's role. Wolfenstein 3D engine was still primitive, it did not apply textures to the floor and ceiling, the ray casting restricted walls to a fixed height, levels were all on the same plane. Though it was still not using true 3D, id Tech 1, first used in Doom and again from id Software, removed these limitations, it first introduced the concept of binary space partitioning. Another breakthrough was the introduction of multiplayer abilities in the engine. However, because it was still using 2.5D, it was impossible to look up and down properly in Doom, all Doom levels were two-dimensional. Due to the lack of a z-axis, the engine did not allow for room-over-room support.
Doom's success spawned several games using the same engine or similar techniques, giving them the name Doom clones. The Build engine, used in Duke Nukem 3D removed some of the limitations of id Tech 1, such as the Build engine being able to have support for room-over-room by stacking sectors on top of sectors, however the techniques used remained the same. In the mid-1990s, game engines recreated true 3D worlds with arbitrary level geometry. Instead of sprites the engines used textured polygonal objects. FromSoftware released King's Field, a full polygon free roaming first-person real-time action title for the Sony PlayStation in December 1994. Sega's 32X release Metal Head was a first-person shooter mecha simulation game that used texture-mapped, 3D polygonal graphics. A year prior, Exact released the Sharp X68000 computer game Geograph Seal, a 3D polygonal first-person shooter that employed platform game mechanics and had most of the action take place in free-roaming outdoor environments rather than the corridor labyrinths of Wolfenstein 3D.
The following year, Exact released its successor for the PlayStation console, Jumping Flash!, which used the same game engine but adapted it to place more emphasis on the platforming rather than the shooting. The Jumping Flash! Series continued to use the same engine. Dark Forces, released in 1995 by LucasArts, has been regarded as one of the first "true 3-D" first-person shooter games, its engine, the Jedi Engine, was one of the first engines to support an environment in three dimensions: areas can exist next to each other in all three planes, including on top of each other. Though most of the objects in Dark Forces are sprites, the game does include support for textured 3D-rendered objects. Another game regarded as one of the first true 3D first-person shooter is Parallax Software's 1994 shooter Descent; the Quake engine used fewer animated sprites and used true 3D geometry and lighting, using elaborate techniques such as z-buffering to speed up the rendering. Quake was the first true-3D game to use a special map design system to preprocess and pre-render the 3D environment: the 3D environment in which the game took place was simplified d
Neocron is a 2002 post-apocalyptic cyberpunk massively multiplayer online role playing game developed by Reakktor Media GmbH and published by cdv Software Entertainment. It is considered the first cyberpunk-genre MMORPG, is designed to integrate elements of first-person shooter games, it has been called a MMO first-person shooter, but most consider it a hybrid of MMORPG and first-person shooter, the WWII Online as the first MMOFPS. Its 2004 sequel, Neocron 2: Beyond Dome of York, was slated to be an expansion pack and released separately under a new publisher, 10tacle Studios AG. Following a brief transitional period where Neocron players were encouraged to transfer their characters to Neocron 2, the Neocron servers were closed while the Neocron 2 servers continue to run to this day; the player character may be chosen from four distinct classes. Available are genetically engineered super soldiers, the slight, yet dexterous and intelligent "Spy", the psionically focused and physically underpowered "Psi Monk" as well as the "Private Eye" referred to as a Jack of All Trades for its ability to use aspects of all the other classes.
The player may assign "skill points" into specific abilities, e.g. Construction, Research and Rifles. Any character or class can use the most basic forms of these, but to master any one of them requires a large commitment in skill points. Jobs range from the notorious hacker, who dives into the alternate reality of Hacknet, technicians who research or construct items and weapons, to the common grunt, who fights alongside his clan for the outposts, spread around the wastelands The game takes place in a post-apocalyptic 28th century. In the mid-22nd century, tensions rose between an expanded Chinese Empire and a joint European/North American Federation of the Free World; the unexplained apparent destruction of the first Chinese interstellar colony ship resulted in China launching devastating nuclear strikes with stealth missiles. In retaliation, the American president gave the command to counter strike with cold fusion long-range missiles. World War III started on February 17, 2143, it took over three centuries for the most rudimentary civilization to return.
By the mid-26th century two great cities had risen from the ashes, thanks in large part to the "Ceres Project”. An MIT project in the early 21st century aimed at storing every aspect of human knowledge on holodisk, it had been taken over by the American military in response to the murder of the project leader. 500 years both cities are now but shadows of their former selves: Neocron is diminished thanks to a succession of coups d'état as well as a mass exodus to Irata III, a colony 80 light years away formed by the missing Chinese colony ship, Dome of York suffers from losing a devastating war with Neocron. Neocron received mixed reviews. While some reviewers praised the first-person shooter style interface as "intuitive" or "innovative", others describe combat in Neocron as being "dull" or not at all revolutionary. Official website
Quake II engine
The Quake II engine is a game engine developed by id Software for use in their 1997 first-person shooter Quake II. It is the successor to the Quake engine. Since its release, the Quake II engine has been licensed for use in several other games. One of the engine's most notable features was out-of-the-box support for hardware-accelerated graphics OpenGL, along with the traditional software renderer. Another interesting feature was the subdivision of some of the components into dynamic-link libraries; this allowed both software and OpenGL renderers, which were selected by loading and unloading separate libraries. Libraries were used for the game logic, for two reasons: id could release the source code to allow modifications while keeping the remainder of the engine proprietary. Since they were compiled for specific platforms, instead of an interpreter, they could run faster than Quake's solution, to run the game logic in a limited interpreter; the level format, as with previous id Software engines, used binary space partitioning.
The level environments were lit using lightmaps, a method in which light data for each surface is precalculated and stored as an image, used to determine the lighting intensity each 3D model should receive, but not its direction.id Software released the source code on December 22, 2001 under the terms of the GNU General Public License. Quake II by id Software Quake II Mission Pack: The Reckoning by Xatrix Entertainment Quake II Mission Pack: Ground Zero by Rogue Entertainment Heretic II by Raven Software SiN by Ritual Entertainment SiN: Wages of Sin by Ritual Entertainment Kingpin: Life of Crime by Xatrix Entertainment Soldier of Fortune by Raven Software Daikatana by Ion Storm Anachronox by Ion Storm UFO: Alien Invasion by UFO: Alien Invasion Team Gravity Bone by Blendo Games Warsow by Warsow Team Thirty Flights of Loving by Blendo Games Alien Arena: Warriors of Mars by COR Entertainment Jake2 is a Java port of the Quake II engine's GPL release, it has since been used by Sun as an example of Java Web Start capabilities for games distribution over the Internet.
In 2006, it was used to experiment playing 3D games with eye tracking. The performance of Jake2 is on par with the original C version. List of game engines Quake engine Id Tech 3 Id Tech 4 Id Tech 5 Id Tech 6 First-person shooter engine "Official Quake II engine website". Archived from the original on November 8, 2009. Retrieved August 4, 2007. Official Quake II engine source code, as released at GitHub Official Quake II engine source code, version 3.21 at id Software