Voluntary return or voluntary repatriation is the return of an illegal immigrant or over-stayer, a rejected asylum seeker, a refugee or displaced person, an unaccompanied minor, sometimes a second-generation immigrant, unable or unwilling to remain in the host country and who volunteers to return to their country of origin, or that of their ancestors. The terms are used in different contexts and can refer to: The voluntary return of asylum seekers who no longer want to wait for a decision on their asylum application or who have changed their mind about the application and rather want to go back to their country of origin. Destitute migrants, such as homeless people, who cannot afford the journey back home; some homelessness charities provide funding for these journeys. The "voluntary" return of rejected asylum seekers or irregular migrants to their countries of origin. Leaving voluntarily in this context can be somewhat euphemistic, as the alternative is immigration detention and eventual deportation.
The most preferred of the UNHCR's three durable solutions for refugees because it is what most refugees seek. Once the reasons for being displaced or having fled have disappeared and it is safe again to live in this country refugees are free to go back to their country of origin; the so-called returnees are still people of concern to the UNHCR and are, as such, under their legal protection. The UNHCR is monitoring returnee operations and offers support to returnees after they have arrived in their countries of origin; some voluntary return programmes offer assisted voluntary return and some voluntary return is spontaneous and independent without assistance. The concept of voluntary repatriation was first developed in the 1969 Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, it was agreed that: "The sending state, in collaboration with the receiving state, must make adequate arrangements for the safe return of refugees who request repatriation, while the country of origin must facilitate their resettlement and grant them the full rights and privileges of nationals of the country, subject them to the same obligations."
The UNHCR and the hosting countries encourage the refugees to return voluntarily. The 1969 Refugee Convention expects states of origin to advertise repatriation, by using the news and media as well as Organisation of African Unity, in order to invite refugees back home; the host countries are expected to spread such information and to ensure it is received. However, the information, spread about the improved and safer situation in the country of origin may be exaggerated, blurred or untrue and refugees may be encouraged to return home before the dangers and risks are removed; as refugees are protected from deportation by the 1951 Refugee Convention some host countries may indirectly force them to leave by decreasing refugees' living standards and living conditions or by spreading lies about them to make them feel less welcome. This is similar to self-deportation. In some countries, the IOM's programmes of “voluntary assisted returns” have been criticized; the “voluntary” nature of these returns, put forward in the media coverage of IOM interventions is considered as questionable, for instance in Libya.
According to the UNHCR, for whom “voluntariness is more than an issue of principle”, if people's rights “are not recognized, if they are subject to pressures and restrictions and confined to closed camps, they may choose to return, but this is not an act of free will”. Some countries offer financial support to refugees and rejected asylum seekers in order to facilitate the process of starting a new life in their country of origin; this could be considered as residency buyouts. The UNHCR and the IOM offer assistance to refugees who want to return voluntarily and to other people in need of support for returning to their home countries; this includes administrative, logistical and reintegration support. Many developed countries provide assistance and voluntary return programmes independent from the IOM and the UNHCR. Support includes paying for the journey. Support may include financial support so that returnees can make sustainable investments and can build their lives again. Connecting people with networks and groups in the country of origin so that they will get support from local organisations.
When one takes part in assisted voluntary return programs, the applicant is giving up their claim as a refugee or asylum-seeker. Many times this includes a five year travel ban restricting the individual from returning to the host country, similar to deportation. According to interviews with IOM workers and files on return migrants who took part in their program, it is not uncommon for return migrants to feel pressured into applying to AVR programs due to financial hardships, lack of employment, fear of deportation, etc.. Belgium – Return and Emigration of Asylum Seekers Ex Belgium programme: This program is open to asylum seekers and third-country nationals who want to return to their country of origin or to voluntarily emigrate to a third world country; as this program is voluntary, one can retract their application if they change their mind. Applicants are offered travel support, including counselling prior to departure, assistance during their flight and travel cost. Applicants are offered some monetary compensation to get them to their home from the airport.
Financial support is offered to aid in the reintegration process funded by the European Return Fund. Denmark – with a history of financially incentivising the voluntary return of immigrants, Denmark raised the amount to 100,000 kroner per person in 2009. Peter Skaarup, deputy leader
The Kunduz airlift refers to the evacuation of thousands of top commanders and members of the Taliban and their Pakistani advisers including Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence agents and army personnel, other Jihadi volunteers and sympathizers, from the city of Kunduz, Afghanistan, in November 2001 just before its capture by U. S. and United Front of Afghanistan forces during the War in Afghanistan. As described in several reports, the Taliban and Al-Qaeda combatants were safely evacuated from Kunduz and airlifted by Pakistan Air Force cargo aircraft to Pakistan Air Force bases in Chitral and Gilgit in Northern Areas. According to the Los Angeles Times, during the siege of Kunduz, U. S. and Northern Alliance forces had declared that they would treat foreign fighters of the Taliban more than their Afghan counterparts. The Northern Alliance had earlier witnessed Pakistani and Arab involvement in several massacres perpetrated by the Taliban in Afghanistan. Pakistani leaders feared that revenge killings of Pakistanis in Kunduz could lead to unrest and instability in their country and therefore decided to evacuate their forces before the U.
S. and Northern Alliance ground forces moved into Kunduz. The revelation that the U. S. had acquiesced to the escape of individuals including the top leadership of the Taliban and Al Qaeda was a controversial and politically contentious topic within the United States and her aligned partners, that sparked off a debate in the western media and elicited denials of knowledge of this event from top Bush administration officials including Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. Although numerous articles mentioning such an ongoing airlift of Pakistani and other combatants from Kunduz appeared around that time in several international newspapers, the first reference to the specific term Airlift of Evil appeared in a column on the website of the MSNBC news network, it is thought that the U. S. administration agreed to the airlift in an attempt to appease Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf. This Pakistani evacuation of fighters belonging to the Taliban, Al Qaeda and the ISI is detailed in the BBC documentary Secret Pakistan: Double Cross and Backlash.
More details of the event emerged in the 2008 book Descent into Chaos by the investigative journalist Ahmed Rashid: One senior intelligence analyst told me, "The request was made by Musharraf to Bush, but Cheney took charge—a token of, handling Musharraf at the time. The approval was not shared with anyone at State, including Colin Powell, until well after the event. Two planes were involved, they took off from air bases in Chitral and Gilgit in Kashmir's Northern Areas, landed in Kunduz, where the evacuees were waiting on the tarmac. Hundreds and as many as one thousand people escaped. Hundreds of ISI officers, Taliban commanders, foot soldiers belonging to the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and Al Qaeda personnel boarded the planes. What was sold as a minor extraction turned into a major air bridge; the frustrated U. S. SOF who watched it from the surrounding high ground dubbed it "Operation Evil Airlift." Another senior U. S. diplomat told me afterward, "Musharraf fooled us because after we gave approval, the ISI may have run a much bigger operation and got out more people.
We just don't know. At the time nobody wanted to hurt Musharraf; the real question is. In one of Hillary Clintons emails, discussing the senate report on the Tora Bora escape of Bin Laden, Sidney Blumenthal talks about the Kunduz airlift as being ordered by Cheney/Rumsfeld. Gary Berntsen, the head of the CIA armed operation in eastern Afghanistan, is a major source for the report. I am in contact with him and have heard his entire story at length, key parts of which are not in his book, "Jawbreaker," or in the Senate report. In particular, the story of the Kunduz airlift of the bulk of key AQ and Taliban leaders, at the request of Musharaff and per order Cheney/Rumsfeld, is absent
The Pashtuns known as ethnic Afghans and Pathans, are an Iranian ethnic group who live in Pakistan and Afghanistan in South-Central Asia. They speak the Pashto language and adhere to Pashtunwali, a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct; the ethnogenesis of the Pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, who may be their early ancestors. Their history is spread amongst the present-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, centred on their traditional seat of power in that region. Globally, the Pashtuns are estimated to number around 50 million, but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979; the majority of the Pashtuns live in the region regarded as Pashtunistan, split between the two countries since the Durand Line border was formed after the Second Anglo-Afghan War. There are significant Pashtun diaspora communities in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan, in particular in the cities of Karachi and Lahore.
A recent Pashtun diaspora has developed in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in the United Arab Emirates. The Pashtuns are a significant minority group in Pakistan, where they constitute the second-largest ethnic group or about 15% of the population; as the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, Pashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. During the Delhi Sultanate era, the 15th–16th century Lodi dynasty replaced the preexisting rulers in North India until Babur deposed the Lodi dynasty. Other Pashtuns fought the Safavids and Mughals before obtaining an independent state in the early 18th century, which began with a successful revolution by Mirwais Hotak followed by conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani; the Barakzai dynasty played a vital role during the Great Game from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires. The Pashtuns are the world's largest segmentary lineage ethnic group. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400.
There have been many notable Pashtun people throughout history: Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, while Bacha Khan was a Pashtun independence activist against the rule of the British Raj. Some others include Malala Yousafzai, Shah Rukh Khan, Zarine Khan, Imran Khan, Farhad Darya, Abdul Ahad Mohmand, Ahmad Zahir, Zakir Husain, Hamid Karzai, Ashraf Ghani, Mullah Mohammed Omar; the vast majority of the Pashtuns are found in the traditional Pashtun homeland, located in an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan, which includes Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern part of Balochistan. Additional Pashtun communities are located in Western and Northern Afghanistan, the Gilgit–Baltistan and Kashmir regions and northwestern Punjab province, Pakistan. There are sizeable Muslim communities in India, which are of Pashtun ancestry. Throughout the Indian subcontinent, they are referred to as Pathans. Smaller Pashtun communities are found in the countries of the Middle East, such as in the Khorasan Province of Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, North America and Australia.
Important metropolitan centres of Pashtun culture include Peshawar, Quetta, Mardan and Jalalabad. In Pakistan, the city of Karachi in Sindh province has the largest Pashtun diaspora communities in the world, with as much as 7 million Pashtuns living in Karachi according to some estimates. Several cities in Pakistan's Punjab province have sizeable Pashtun populations, in particular Lahore. About 15% of Pakistan's nearly 200 million population is Pashtun. In Afghanistan, they are the largest ethnic group and make up between 42–60% of the 32.5 million population. The exact figure remains uncertain in Afghanistan, affected by the 1.3 million or more Afghan refugees that remain in Pakistan, a majority of which are Pashtuns. Another one million or more Afghans live in Iran. A cumulative population assessment suggests a total of around 49 million individuals all across the world. A prominent institution of the Pashtun people is the intricate system of tribes; the Pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Kandahar, Peshawar and Kabul have grown due to the influx of rural Pashtuns.
Despite this, many people still identify themselves with various clans. The tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabar, is divided into kinship groups called khels, in turn divided into smaller groups, each consisting of several extended families called kahols. Pashtun tribes are divided into four'greater' tribal groups: the Sarbani, the Bettani, the Gharghashti, the Karlani. Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago. Since the 2nd millennium BC, cities in the region now inhabited by Pashtuns have seen invasions and migrations, including by Ancient Indian peoples, Ancient Iranian peoples, the Medes and Ancient Macedonians in antiquity, Hephthalites, Turks and others. In recent times, people of the Western world have explored the area as well. Most historians acknowledge that the origin of the Pashtuns is some
Not to be confused with Torkham, Pakistan. Torkham is city and a major border crossing between Pakistan and Afghanistan, located along international border between the two countries, it connects Nangarhar province of Afghanistan with Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is the busiest port of entry between the two countries, serving as a major transporting and receiving site. Highway 7 connects Torkham to Kabul through Jalalabad. On the Pakistani side, the border crossing is at the end of the N-5 National Highway, which connects it to Peshawar in the east and further connects it to Islamabad by other routes; the Afghan Border Police and Pakistan's Frontier Corps are the main agencies for controlling Torkham. They are backed by the Afghan Armed Forces. There is some presence of NATO forces on the Afghan side of the crossing; the American Forward Operating Base Torkham is located a few miles from the crossing in Nangarhar province. Torkham belongs to the Momand Dara district of Nangarhar.
The location has been used throughout history by Afghan and Turkic caravans, including marching armies of powerful empires. Most of these were on their way to Northern India, passing through Peshawar and Lahore; some of the well known regional historical figures who are believed to have passed through Torkham are Chandragupta Maurya, Hsüan-tsang, Jayapala, Al-Biruni, Ibn Battuta, Humayun, Nader Shah, Ahmad Shah Durrani, Zaman Shah Durrani, Dost Mohammad Khan, Akbar Khan. Over much of the last century, there have been proposals to extend the Khyber rail service to Afghanistan and beyond, passing through Jalalabad; these proposals have the support of the current Afghan government. In recent years and Afghanistan signed a Memorandum of understanding for going ahead with the laying of rail tracks between the two countries. Work on the proposed project was supposed to start in 2010. In November 2001 the New York Times reported. Ali was an anti-Taliban militia leader, it was reported that Hazrati Ali had joined forces with two other militia leaders, Mawlawi Yunis Khalis, Ezatullah, to set up a regional provisional government.
On the Pakistani side, Torkham lies at the end of the N-5 National Highway. It is connected to city of Peshawar in the east. Transported goods arrive to Tokham from the port city of Karachi in Sindh province. Torkham is 5 kilometres west of the summit of the Khyber Pass, it lies on the most important supply route for US-led NATO forces in Afghanistan. Pakistan's government sometimes block supplies due to the American use of drone strikes in Pakistan. In April 2006 the Afghan Border Police began requiring travelers crossing the border at Torkham to possess valid travel documents. Pakistan has completed the construction of border gate, crossing terminal and other associated infrastructure on its side of Torkham border by July 2016. Border gate has been named as Bab-i-Pakistan and the crossing terminal has been named "Shaheed Major Ali Jawad Changezi terminal" after the officer lost his life in skirmishes against the Afghan security forces at the same border and in the clashes that resulted from the construction of this gate.
The flag hosting ceremony has started just like the one at Wagah border crossing with India. Now no one will be allowed to cross border without proper documentations to check the infiltration of terrorists from Pakistan into Afghanistan. Work on the construction of the gate and associated facilities began in 2014 but kept getting delayed because of Afghan reservations and abrupt clashes. Pakistan plans to have similar border control measures at all six major crossing points between the two countries on the 2,600km-long porous border. With an influence from the local steppe climate, Torkham features a hot semi-arid climate; the average temperature in Torkham is 20.3 °C, while the annual precipitation averages 407 mm. June is the driest month with an average rainfall of 8 mm, while the wettest month is March, with an average 82 mm of precipitation. June is the hottest month of the year with an average temperature of 31.0 °C. The coldest month January has an average temperature of 8.4 °C. Landi Kotal Khyber train safari Landi Khana railway station Spin Boldak Zaranj Islam Qala Torghundi Hairatan Sher Khan Bandar Demogan Durand Line Ghulam Khan تورخم کې له محصول نه تېښته او افغانستان ته د مالونو غیر قانوني رالېږدول on YouTube, May 23, 2017, Radio Mashaal. پر تورخم تګ راتګ کم شوی دی on YouTube, December 3, 2016, BBC Pashto.
Pakistan Enforces New Border Crossing Regulation on Afghans on YouTube, June 2, 2016, Voice of America. Afghanistan and Pakistan reopen Torkham border crossing on YouTube, May 14, 2016, Al Jazeera English. Torkham Gate Reopening VOA Aashna TV on YouTube, May 14, 2016, Voice of America. Images of Torkham found at Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System
The Taliban insurgency began shortly after the group's fall from power following the 2001 War in Afghanistan. The Taliban forces are fighting against the Afghan government led by President Hamid Karzai, now led by President Ashraf Ghani, against the US-led International Security Assistance Force; the insurgency has spread to some degree over the Durand Line border to neighboring Pakistan, in particular the Waziristan region and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Taliban conduct low-intensity warfare against Afghan National Security Forces and their NATO trainers. Regional countries Pakistan and Iran, are accused of funding and supporting the insurgent groups; the leader of the Taliban is Hibatullah Akhundzada. The allied Haqqani Network, Hezbi Islami, smaller al Qaeda groups have been part of the insurgency, they use terrorist attacks in which their victims are Afghan civilians. According to reports by the United Nations and others, the insurgents were responsible for 75-80% of civilian casualties between 2009 and 2011.
After the May 2011 death of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, many prominent Afghan figures were assassinated by the insurgents, including Mohammed Daud Daud, Ahmed Wali Karzai, Jan Mohammad Khan, Ghulam Haider Hamidi, Burhanuddin Rabbani and others. In response to this, major operations were started inside Afghanistan against the insurgents; these are intended to force them to the negotiation table. While the pre-2001 Taliban suppressed opium production, the current insurgency "relies on opium revenues to purchase weapons, train its members, buy support." In 2001, Afghanistan produced only 11% of the world's opium. Today it produces 93% of the global crop, the drug trade accounts for half of Afghanistan's GDP. On 28 July 2009, Richard Holbrooke, the United States special envoy for Afghanistan and Pakistan, said that money transfers from Western Europe and the Gulf States exceeded the drug trade earnings and that a new task force had been formed to shut down this source of funds; the United States Agency for International Development is investigating the possibility that kickbacks from its contracts are being funneled to the Taliban.
A report by the London School of Economics claimed to provide the most concrete evidence yet that the Pakistani intelligence agency ISI is providing funding and sanctuary to the Taliban on a scale much larger than thought. The report's author Matt Waldman spoke to nine Taliban field commanders in Afghanistan and concluded that Pakistan's relationship with the insurgents ran far deeper than realized; some of those interviewed suggested that the organization attended meetings of the Taliban's supreme council, the Quetta Shura. A spokesman for the Pakistani military dismissed the report, describing it as "malicious". In March 2010, after the ousting of the Taliban from the area of Marja in the Southern Afghan province Helmand in the Operation Moshtarak, the American and NATO commanders were confronted with the dilemma of on the one hand the need for "winning the hearts and minds" of the local population as well as on the other hand the necessity of the eradication of poppies and the destruction of the opium economy.
Since opium is the main source of existence of 60 to 70 percent of the farmers in Marja, American Marines were ordered to ignore the crops to avoid trampling their livelihood. In November 2010, a report with the results of an opinion poll of the Western aid group Oxfam indicated that 83 percent of the Afghan population does not consider the Taliban militants, but poverty and government corruption as the main causes of war in their country. After thirty years of war, the country remains one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world, it is one of the most corrupt. Unemployment stands at 35 percent and more than half of the population lives below the poverty line. On top of that, violence seemed to culminate since U. S.-backed Afghan forces ousted the Taliban in late 2001. Nearly half of those surveyed said corruption and bad government were the main reasons for the ongoing war. 12 percent said. A study from August 2017 illustrates that the corruption of the Afghan state is an important source of local legitimacy for the Taliban.
Since the start of 2006 Afghanistan has been facing a wave of attacks by improvised explosives and suicide bombers after NATO took command of the fight against insurgents in spring 2006. Afghan President Hamid Karzai publicly condemned the methods used by the western powers. In June 2006 he said: And for two years I have systematically and on a daily basis warned the international community of what was developing in Afghanistan and of the need for a change of approach in this regard… The international community reassess the manner in which this war against terror is conducted Insurgents were criticized for their conduct. According to Human Rights Watch and other attacks on Afghan civilians by the Taliban, are reported to have "sharply escalated in 2006" with "at least 669 Afghan civilians were killed in at least 350 armed attacks, most of which appear to have been intentionally launched at civilians or civilian objects." 131 of insurgent attacks were suicide attacks which killed 212 civilians, 46 Afghan army and police members, 12 foreign soldiers.
The United Nations estimated that for the first half of 2011, the civilian deaths rose by 15% and reached 1462, the worst death toll since the beginning of the war and despite the surge of foreign troops. June: 6 June: A roadside bombing leaves 2 American soldiers killed, the
Geneva is the second-most populous city in Switzerland and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Canton of Geneva; the municipality has a population of 200,548, the canton has 495,249 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France. Within Swiss territory, the commuter area named "Métropole lémanique" contains a population of 1.26 million. This area is spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, in the neighbouring canton of Vaud. Geneva is a global city, a financial centre, a worldwide centre for diplomacy due to the presence of numerous international organizations, including the headquarters of many agencies of the United Nations and the Red Cross. Geneva hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world, it is where the Geneva Conventions were signed, which chiefly concern the treatment of wartime non-combatants and prisoners of war.
In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the world's fifteenth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, fifth in Europe behind London, Zürich and Luxembourg. In 2019 Geneva was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer together with Zürich and Basel; the city has been referred to as the world's most compact metropolis and the "Peace Capital". In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world. Geneva was ranked third in purchasing power in a global cities ranking by UBS in 2018; the city was mentioned in Latin texts, by Caesar, with the spelling Genava from the Celtic *genawa- from the stem *genu-, in the sense of a bending river or estuary. The medieval county of Geneva in Middle Latin was known as pagus major Genevensis or Comitatus Genevensis. After 1400 it became the Genevois province of Savoy; the name takes various forms in modern languages, Geneva in English, French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra, Romansh: Genevra.
The city shares the origin of * genawa "estuary", with the Italian port city of Genoa. Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the Helvetii tribe, when the Romans took it in 121 BC, it became Christian under the Late Roman Empire, acquired its first bishop in the 5th century, having been connected to the Bishopric of Vienne in the 4th. In the Middle Ages, Geneva was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, when it was granted a charter giving it a high degree of self-governance. Around this time, the House of Savoy came to at least nominally dominate the city. In the 15th century, an oligarchic republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council. In the first half of the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation reached the city, causing religious strife, during which Savoy rule was thrown off and Geneva allied itself with the Swiss Confederacy. In 1541, with Protestantism on the rise, John Calvin, the Protestant Reformer and proponent of Calvinism, became the spiritual leader of the city and established the Republic of Geneva.
By the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own. France tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, which inspired the failed Geneva Revolution of 1782, an attempt to win representation in the government for men of modest means. In 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, Geneva was admitted to the Swiss Confederation. In 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of many international organizations. Geneva is located at 46°12' North, 6°09' East, at the south-western end of Lake Geneva, where the Rhône flows out, it is surrounded by three mountain chains, each belonging to the Jura: the Jura main range lies north-westward, the Vuache southward, the Salève south-eastward. The city covers an area of 15.93 km2, while the area of the canton is 282 km2, including the two small exclaves of Céligny in Vaud.
The part of the lake, attached to Geneva has an area of 38 km2 and is sometimes referred to as petit lac. The canton has only a 4.5-kilometre-long border with the rest of Switzerland. Of 107.5 km of border, 103 are shared with France, the Département de l'Ain to the north and west and the Département de la Haute-Savoie to the south and east. Of the land in the city, 0.24 km2, or 1.5%, is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.5 km2, or 3.1%, is forested. The rest of the land, 14.63 km2, or 91.8%, is built up, 0.49 km2, or 3.1%, is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km2, or 0.1%, is wasteland. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 3.4%, housing and buildings made up 46.2% and transportation infrastructure 25.8%, while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 15.7%. Of the agricultural land, 0.3% is used for growing crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.2 % is composed of lakes and 2.9 % streams. The altitude of Geneva is 373.6 metres, corresponds to the altitude of
The Delhi Sultanate was a sultanate based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty; the sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongols, enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent; the sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent. This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire and Mewar asserting independence, new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.
During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world. The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture, increased growth rates in India's population and economy, the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language; the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's devastating invasions of India in the 13th and 14th centuries. However, the Delhi Sultanate caused large scale destruction and desecration of temples in the Indian subcontinent. In 1526, the Sultanate was succeeded by the Mughal Empire; the context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes.
This can be traced back to the 9th century, when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East, where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes, raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks. Soon, Turks were becoming Islamicized. Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves rose up to become rulers, conquered large parts of the Muslim world, establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan, before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent, it is part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled, agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium.
By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia. Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of a Turkic Mamluk military slave, who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030. Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab; the wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni. The raids did not extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms; the Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173. He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world. Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.
Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia by that time. Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others. After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves, the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi. Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak origin, due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk dynasty. Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years, from 1206 to 1210. After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish. Iltutmish's power was precarious, a number of Muslim amirs challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power, his rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, this led to a series of wars.
Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He