The Resistance medal was a decoration bestowed by the French Committee of National Liberation, based in the United Kingdom, during World War II. It was established by a decree of General Charles de Gaulle on 9 February 1943 "to recognize the remarkable acts of faith and of courage that, in France, in the empire and abroad, have contributed to the resistance of the French people against the enemy and against its accomplices since 18 June 1940"; the Resistance medal was awarded to 38,288 living persons and 24,463 posthumously. These awards were both for membership in the Free French forces and for participation in the metropolitan clandestine Resistance during the German occupation of France in World War II. Higher deeds were rewarded with the Ordre de la Libération. Proposals for the medal ceased to be accepted on 31 March 1947. For acts that occurred in Indochina, that date was moved back to 31 December 1947; the medal was awarded to 18 communities and territories, 21 military units, to 15 other organizations including convents, high schools, hospitals that distinguished themselves.
The Resistance medal is awarded by the Chief of a Fighting France to French individuals and communities: who took an active part since 18 June 1940 in the resistance against Axis forces and their accomplices on French soil or in a territory under French sovereignty. The Resistance medal may be revoked by decree following any act contrary to honour or integrity, whether committed prior to or after bestowal of the medal; the Resistance medal is a 37mm in diameter circular medal struck from bronze. Its concave obverse bears at center a vertical Cross of Lorraine with the relief semi circular inscription of the date of General de Gaulle's appeal of 18 June 1940 in Roman numerals "XVIII. VI. MCMXL" bisected by the lower part of the cross; the reverse bears the relief image of an unfurling ribbon bearing the relief inscription in Latin "PATRIA NON IMMEMOR" translating into "THE NATION DOES NOT FORGET". The suspension is cast as an integral part of the medal; the medal hangs from a 36mm wide black silk moiré ribbon with six vertical red stripes of varying widths, 3mm wide edge stripes, two 1mm wide central stripes 2mm apart, two 1mm wide stripes 6mm from the central stripes.
A 28mm in diameter rosette is on the ribbon of the Officer of the Resistance medal. Resistance leader Jean Pierre-Bloch Resistance member Josephine Baker Resistance member Albert Haar Resistance member Andrzej Kuśniewicz Resistance member Georges Caussanel Resistance member Jane Vialle Resistance member lieutenant Henry Andraud Resistance member Marcel Dufriche Resistance member Édouard Le Jeune, former Senator Resistance leader Colonel Émile Coulaudon Resistance leader Capitaine Adrien Pommier Admiral Philippe Auboyneau Lieutenant General Marcel Bigeard Foreign Legion general Bernard Saint-Hillier Foreign Legion Lieutenant Colonel Pierre Jeanpierre French paratrooper André Zirnheld Writer, resistance member André Malraux Irish playwright, novelist Samuel Beckett Resistance leader Pierre Kahn-Farelle Politician, resistance member general Pierre de Bénouville Resistance member doctor Charles Cliquet Resistance member Jeanne L'Herminier Free French soldier general François Binoche Resistance Leader Camille Nicolas Free French Forces and Office of Strategic Services Captain René Joyeuse Diplomat Louis Alexis Étienne Bonvin Resistance member Émile Bollaert Resistance leader Edmond Proust Free French soldier warrant officer Walter Grand Resistance leader Joseph Dubar Free French navy admiral Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu Resistance member, captain in the French military, French art historian and "Monuments Men" member Rose Valland.
Fearless NZ woman Nancy Wake aka The White Mouse Grenoble resistance member Jean Pain Free French aviator lieutenant Gérard Claron Free French aviator captain Louis Flury-Hérard Resistance leader general Aubert Frère Captain, mayor of Saint-Rambert-en-Bugey, Michel Temporal Resistance member Pierre Guillou Free French aviator Pierre Brisdoux Galloni d'Istria Resistance leader Fernand Zalkinow Resistance member colonel Émile Bonotaux Resistance member brigadier general Georges Journois Abbot René Bonpain Resistance leader Pierre Brossolette Resistance leader Pierre Kaan Resistance member Léger Fouris Resistance member Gabriel Plançon Resistance member rabbi Samuel Klein Resistance member Laurent Matheron Resistance leader Marc Haguenau Resistance member Georges Lamarque Resistance leader rear admiral Jacques Trolley de Prévaux Resistance member Jean Chaffanjon Resistance member Pierre Chaffanjon Resistance member Robert Duterque Oyonnax commune University of Strasbourg Montceau-les-Mines commune Lalande de Bourg-en-Bresse high school 6th Engineers Regiment Preparatory Military School of Autun Marsoulas commune Caniac-du-Causse commune Miribel commune Béthincourt commune Meximieux commune 1st Line Infantry Regiment Terrou commune Nantua commune Notre-Dame de Timadeuc abbey Submarine Surcouf 13th Demi-Brigade of the Foreign Legion 1st Marines Regiment City of Brest Caen commune Free French Forces French Resistance Milice Liberation of France Maquis La Commission nationale de la Médaille de la Résistance
Born to immigrant parents, he grew up poverty and experienced social exclusion. Fr. Joseph Wresinski established major landmarks throughout his life in the fight against the worst forms of poverty, in collaboration with the poor themselves and other partners, he developed a blueprint for a civilisation without exclusion based on his work in the field of human activity, a civilisation with the contributions of all people, for the benefit of all. Wresinski was ordained as a Catholic priest in 1946. In 1956, he was assigned by his bishop to be chaplain for 250 families placed in emergency housing in Noisy-le-Grand. A year in response to this, he founded the International Movement ATD Fourth World in 1957, he authored the report Grande pauvreté et précarité économique et sociale, commissioned by the French Economic and Social Council, adopted by this Council, of which he was a member. This report paved the way for substantial work undertaken by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, the European Union, the Council of Europe.
It paved the way for the law against social exclusion, adopted by France in July 1998. In 1987, Fr. Wresinski launched the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty recognised by the United Nations General Assembly. Initial text of this article was excerpted from Redefining Human Rights-Based Development: The Wresinski Approach to Partnership With the Poorest UN Document ESA/DSPD/BP3 December 1999 Division for Social Policy and Development Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNITED NATIONS, NEW YORK
The French Resistance was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War. Resistance cells were small groups of armed men and women, who, in addition to their guerrilla warfare activities, were publishers of underground newspapers, providers of first-hand intelligence information, maintainers of escape networks that helped Allied soldiers and airmen trapped behind enemy lines; the men and women of the Resistance came from all economic levels and political leanings of French society, including émigrés, students, conservative Roman Catholics, citizens from the ranks of liberals and communists. The French Resistance played a significant role in facilitating the Allies' rapid advance through France following the invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944, the lesser-known invasion of Provence on 15 August, by providing military intelligence on the German defences known as the Atlantic Wall and on Wehrmacht deployments and orders of battle.
The Resistance planned and executed acts of sabotage on the electrical power grid, transport facilities, telecommunications networks. It was politically and morally important to France, both during the German occupation and for decades afterward, because it provided the country with an inspiring example of the patriotic fulfillment of a national imperative, countering an existential threat to French nationhood; the actions of the Resistance stood in marked contrast to the collaboration of the French regime based at Vichy, the French people who joined the pro-Nazi Milice française and the French men who joined the Waffen SS. After the landings in Normandy and Provence, the paramilitary components of the Resistance were organised more formally, into a hierarchy of operational units known, collectively, as the French Forces of the Interior. Estimated to have a strength of 100,000 in June 1944, the FFI grew and reached 400,000 by October of that year. Although the amalgamation of the FFI was, in some cases, fraught with political difficulties, it was successful, it allowed France to rebuild the fourth-largest army in the European theatre by VE Day in May 1945.
Following the Battle of France and the second French-German armistice, signed near Compiègne on 22 June 1940, life for many in France continued more or less at first, but soon the German occupation authorities and the collaborationist Vichy régime began to employ brutal and intimidating tactics to ensure the submission of the French population. Although the majority of civilians neither collaborated nor overtly resisted, the occupation of French territory and the Germans' draconian policies inspired a discontented minority to form paramilitary groups dedicated to both active and passive resistance. One of the conditions of the armistice was; this burden amounted to about 20 million German Reichsmarks per day, a sum that, in May 1940, was equivalent to four hundred million French francs. Because of this overvaluation of German currency, the occupiers were able to make fair and honest requisitions and purchases while, in effect, operating a system of organized plunder. Prices soared, leading to widespread food shortages and malnutrition among children, the elderly, members of the working class engaged in physical labour.
Labour shortages plagued the French economy because hundreds of thousands of French workers were requisitioned and transferred to Germany for compulsory labour under the Service du Travail Obligatoire. The labour shortage was worsened by the fact that a large number of the French were held as prisoners of war in Germany. Beyond these hardships and dislocations, the occupation became unbearable. Onerous regulations, strict censorship, incessant propaganda and nightly curfews all played a role in establishing an atmosphere of fear and repression; the sight of French women consorting with German soldiers infuriated many French men, but sometimes it was the only way they could get adequate food for their families. As reprisals for Resistance activities, the authorities established harsh forms of collective punishment. For example, the increasing militancy of communist resistance in August 1941 led to the taking of thousands of hostages from the general population. A typical policy statement read, "After each further incident, a number, reflecting the seriousness of the crime, shall be shot."
During the occupation, an estimated 30,000 French civilian hostages were shot to intimidate others who were involved in acts of resistance. German troops engaged in massacres such as the Oradour-sur-Glane massacre, in which an entire village was razed and every resident murdered because of persistent resistance in the vicinity. In early 1943, the Vichy authorities created a paramilitary group, the Milice, to combat the Resistance, they worked alongside German forces. The group collaborated with the Nazis, was the Vichy equivalent of the Gestapo security forces in Germany, their actions were brutal and included torture and execution of Resistance suspects. After the liberation of France in the summer of 1944, the French executed many of the estimated 25,000 to 35,000 miliciens for their collaboration. Many of
Saint-Jean-de-Valériscle is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. Communes of the Gard department INSEE
Nikolaus "Klaus" Barbie was an SS and Gestapo functionary during the Nazi era. He was known as the "Butcher of Lyon" for having tortured French prisoners of the Gestapo while stationed in Lyon, France. After the war, United States intelligence services employed him for his anti-Marxist efforts and helped him escape to Bolivia, in South America; the West German Intelligence Service recruited him. Barbie is suspected of having had a hand in the Bolivian coup d'état orchestrated by Luis García Meza in 1980. After the fall of the dictatorship, Barbie no longer had the protection of the government in La Paz and in 1983 was extradited to France, where he was convicted of crimes against humanity, he died of cancer in prison on 25 September 1991. Nikolaus "Klaus" Barbie was born on 25 October 1913 in Godesberg renamed Bad Godesberg, today part of Bonn; the Barbie family came in the Saar near the French border. It is that his patrilineal ancestors were French Roman Catholics named Barbier who left France at the time of the French Revolution.
In 1914, his father named Nikolaus, was conscripted to fight in the First World War. He returned an bitter man, he was wounded in the neck at Verdun and captured by the French, whom he hated, he never recovered his health. He became an alcoholic; until 1923, when he was 10, Klaus Barbie attended the local school. Afterwards, he attended a boarding school in Trier, was relieved to be away from his abusive father. In 1925, the entire Barbie family moved to Trier. In June 1933, Barbie's younger brother, died at the age of eighteen of chronic illness; that year, their father died. The death of his father derailed plans for the 20-year-old Barbie to study theology, or otherwise become an academic, as his peers had expected. While unemployed, Barbie was conscripted into the Reichsarbeitsdienst. On 26 September 1935, aged 22, he joined the SS, began working in the Sicherheitsdienst, the SS security service, which acted as the intelligence-gathering arm of the Nazi Party. On 1 May 1937, he became member 4,583,085 of the Nazi Party.
After the German conquest and occupation of the Netherlands, Barbie was assigned to Amsterdam. In 1942 he was sent to France, in the Occupied Zone. In November of the same year, at the age of 29, he was assigned to Lyon as the head of the local Gestapo, he established his headquarters at the Hôtel Terminus in Lyon, where he tortured adult and child prisoners. He became known as the "Butcher of Lyon"; the daughter of a French Resistance leader based in Lyon said her father was beaten and skinned alive, that his head was immersed in a bucket of ammonia. Historians estimate, he arrested Jean Moulin, one of the highest-ranking members of the French Resistance and his most prominent captive. In 1943, he was awarded the Iron Cross by Adolf Hitler for his campaign against the French Resistance and the capture of Moulin. In April 1944, Barbie ordered the deportation to Auschwitz of a group of 44 Jewish children from an orphanage at Izieu, he rejoined the SiPo-SD of Lyon in its retreat to Bruyères, where he led an anti-partisan attack in Rehaupal in September 1944.
In 1947, Barbie was recruited as an agent for the 66th Detachment of the U. S. Army Counterintelligence Corps; the U. S. used other Nazi Party members to further anti-Communist efforts in Europe. They were interested in British interrogation techniques which Barbie had experienced firsthand, the identities of SS officers the British were using for their own ends; the CIC housed him in a hotel in Memmingen, he reported on French intelligence activities in the French zone of occupied Germany because they suspected that the French had been infiltrated by Communists. The French discovered that Barbie was in U. S. hands and, having sentenced him to death in absentia for war crimes, made a plea to John J. McCloy, U. S. High Commissioner for Germany, to hand him over for execution, but McCloy refused. Instead, the CIC helped him flee to Bolivia assisted by "ratlines" organized by U. S. intelligence services, by Croatian Roman Catholic clergy, including Father Krunoslav Draganović. The CIC asserted that Barbie knew too much about the network of German spies the CIC had planted in various European Communist organizations, were suspicious of Communist influence within the French government, but their protection of Barbie may have been as much to avoid the embarrassment of having recruited him in the first place.
In 1965, Barbie was recruited by the West German foreign intelligence agency Bundesnachrichtendienst, under the codename "Adler" and the registration number V-43118. His initial monthly salary of 500 Deutsche Mark was transferred in May 1966 to an account of the Chartered Bank of London in San Francisco. During his time with the BND, Barbie made at least 35 reports to the BND headquarters in Pullach. Barbie emigrated to Bolivia, where he lived well under the alias Klaus Altmann, it was easier and less embarrassing for him to find employment there than in Europe, he enjoyed excellent relations with high-ranking Bolivian officials, including Bolivian dictators Hugo Banzer and Luis García Meza Tejada. "Altmann" was known for his German anti-communist stances. While engaged in arms-trade operations in Bolivia, he was appointed to the rank of lieutenant colonel within the Bolivian Armed Forces. Barbie was identified as being in Peru in 1971 by the Klarsfelds who came across a secret document that reveal
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte and retained by all French governments and régimes. The order's motto is Honneur et Patrie, its seat is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée d'Orsay, on the left bank of the Seine in Paris; the order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier, Commandeur, Grand officier, Grand-croix. During the French Revolution, all of the French orders of chivalry were abolished, replaced with Weapons of Honour, it was the wish of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul, to create a reward to commend civilians and soldiers. From this wish was instituted a Légion d'honneur, a body of men, not an order of chivalry, for Napoleon believed that France wanted a recognition of merit rather than a new system of nobility. However, the Légion d'honneur did use the organization of the old French orders of chivalry, for example the Ordre de Saint-Louis; the insignia of the Légion d'honneur bear a resemblance to those of the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon.
Napoleon created this award to ensure political loyalty. The organization would be used as a façade to give political favours and concessions; the Légion d'honneur was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional "cohorts" and a grand council. The highest rank was not a Grand Cross but a Grand aigle, a rank that wore the insignia common to a Grand Cross; the members were paid, the highest of them generously: 5,000 francs to a grand officier, 2,000 francs to a commandeur, 1,000 francs to an officier, 250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, "You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led... Do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning? Never; that is good only for the scholar in his study. The soldier needs glory, rewards." This has been quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led." The order was the first modern order of merit. Under the monarchy, such orders were limited to Roman Catholics, all knights had to be noblemen.
The military decorations were the perks of the officers. The Légion d'honneur, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted; the new legionnaire had to be sworn into the Légion d'honneur. It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion d'honneur is a secular institution; the badge of the Légion d'honneur has five arms. In a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted; this decoration, a cross on a large sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand aigle, in 1814 as the Grand cordon. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, award of the Légion d'honneur gave right to the title of "Knight of the Empire"; the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the Légion d'honneur among his family and his senior ministers.
This collar was abolished in 1815. Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun, Sister Anne Biget; the Légion d'honneur was visible in the French Empire. The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time; the king of Sweden therefore declined the order. Napoleon's own decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the Zeughaus in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow. Louis XVIII changed the appearance of the order. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000 members; the images of Napoleon and his eagle were removed and replaced by the image of King Henry IV, the popular first king of the Bourbon line. Three Bourbon fleurs-de-lys replaced the eagle on the reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In 1816, the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the legionnaires became knights.
The king decreed. The Légion d'honneur became the second-ranking order of knighthood of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit. Following the overthrow of the Bourbons in favour of King Louis Philippe I of the House of Orléans, the Bourbon monarchy's orders were once again abolished and the Légion d'honneur was restored in 1830 as the paramount decoration of the French nation; the insignia were drastically altered. In 1847, there were 47,000 members, yet another revolution in Paris brought a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the founder, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was elected president and he restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852, the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin, an old revolutionary of the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the order. On 2 December 1851, President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte staged a coup d'état with the help of the armed forces, he made himself Emperor of the French one year on 2 December 1852, after a successful plebiscite.
An Imperial crown was added. During Napoleon III's reign, the first American was admitted
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012