click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Genitourinary system

The genitourinary system, or urogenital system, are the organs of the reproductive system and the urinary system. These are grouped together because of their proximity to each other, their common embryological origin and the use of common pathways, like the male urethra; because of their proximity, the systems are sometimes imaged together. The term "apparatus urogenitalis" was used in Nomina Anatomica but is not used in the current Terminologia Anatomica; the urinary and reproductive organs are developed from the intermediate mesoderm. The permanent organs of the adult are preceded by a set of structures that are purely embryonic and that, with the exception of the ducts, disappear entirely before the end of fetal life; these embryonic structures are on either side: the pronephros, the mesonephros and the metanephros of the kidney, the Wolffian and Müllerian ducts of the sex organ. The pronephros disappears early; some of the tubules of the mesonephros form part of the permanent kidney. Disorders of the genitourinary system includes a range of disorders from those that are asymptomatic to those that manifest an array of signs and symptoms.

Causes for these disorders include congenital anomalies, infectious diseases, trauma, or conditions that secondarily involve the urinary structure. To gain access to the body, pathogens can penetrate mucous membranes lining the genitourinary tract. Urogenital malformations include: Hypospadias Epispadias Labial fusion VaricoceleAs a medical specialty, genitourinary pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the urinary tract, male genital tract and testes. However, medical disorders of the kidneys are within the expertise of renal pathologists. Genitourinary pathologists work with urologic surgeons. Reproductive system Male urogenital development 3D animation on YouTube Female urogenital development 3D animation on YouTube

St. Mary's Cathedral (Minneapolis)

St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral known as the Cathedral of the Protection of the Holy Virgin, is a cathedral of the Orthodox Church in America and the Diocese of the Midwest, located in Minneapolis, United States, it is one of only two Orthodox churches in Northeast Minneapolis, of 16 local Orthodox churches in the Twin Cities. The cathedral is dedicated to the feast of the Protection of the Virgin Mary, celebrated annually on October 1; the parish community has been at its present location since 1887 when faithful immigrants from Slovakia, Carpatho-Rus, Ukraine built their first church of wood. The present congregation includes third and fourth generation descendants of the original founders, along with men and women from across the greater Twin Cities region from all nationalities and backgrounds. Through the years, many of today's parishioners have converted to Orthodox Christianity, reflecting the diversity of Orthodoxy and residents of Minnesota. In 1904, the structure burned to the ground, members decided to build the larger steel and stone structure in continuous use to the present day.

Designed in the popular Russian Baroque style of the period by local Twin Cities architect Victor Cordella the design reflects the Dormition Orthodox Cathedral in Omsk, Russia, a popular style in the early 20th century for Russian churches. The present cathedral in Minneapolis was consecrated in 1906 by Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow. Monks from the Trinity-St. Sergius Monastery carved iconostasis. St. Tikhon was elected Patriarch of Moscow and glorified as a New-Martyr, a missionary builder of the Orthodox Church in North America. Now in its second century, the Cathedral structure underwent comprehensive exterior restoration efforts to ensure its stability and usability for future generations; the first phase of new interior icons were installed in 2012 and the second phase was completed in 2015. It is hoped that additional icons will be added in the coming years, further enriching the vibrant liturgical life for those who call St. Mary’s home; the first officiating priest at the future cathedral was Saint Alexis Toth, canonized in 1994.

He was at St Mary's from 1889 to 1893. He came into conflict with the local Roman Catholic bishop, John Ireland, who disapproved of a widower becoming a priest, but succeeded in establishing the congregation within what would become the Orthodox Church in America Diocese of the Midwest; the original wooden church burned down in 1904.

Allen House (Shrewsbury, New Jersey)

Allen House is located in Shrewsbury, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. The house was built c. 1710 and was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 8, 1974. The house is one of several houses owned and operated as a historic house museum by the Monmouth County Historical Association. National Register of Historic Places listings in Monmouth County, New Jersey List of museums in New Jersey List of the oldest buildings in New Jersey Media related to Allen House at Wikimedia Commons Historic American Buildings Survey No. NJ-228, "Allen Homestead, Broad Street & Sycamore Avenue, Monmouth County, NJ", 11 photos, 19 measured drawings, 4 data pages Monmouth County Historical Association

Light tube

Light tubes are physical structures used for transmitting or distributing natural or artificial light for the purpose of illumination, are examples of optical waveguides. In their application to daylighting, they are often called tubular daylighting devices, sun pipes, sun scopes, or daylight pipes. Light pipes may be divided into two broad categories: hollow structures that contain the light with reflective surfaces, transparent solids that contain the light by total internal reflection; the principles governing the flow of light through these devices are those of nonimaging optics. Manufacturing custom designed Infrared light pipes, hollow waveguides and homogenizers is non-trivial; this is because these are tubes lined with a polished infrared reflective coating of Laser Gold, which can be applied thick enough to permit these tubes to be used in corrosive atmospheres. Laser Black can be applied to certain parts of light pipes to absorb IR light; this is done to limit IR light to only certain areas of the pipe.

While most light pipes are produced with a round cross-section, light pipes are not limited to this geometry. Square and hexagonal cross-sections are used in special applications. Hexagonal pipes tend to produce the most homogenized type of IR Light; the pipes do not need to be straight. Bends in the pipe have little effect on efficiency. Known as a "tubular skylight" or "tubular daylighting device", this is the oldest and most widespread type of light tube used for daylighting; the concept was developed by the ancient Egyptians. The first commercial reflector systems were patented and marketed in the 1850s by Paul Emile Chappuis in London, utilising various forms of angled mirror designs. Chappuis Ltd's reflectors were in continuous production until the factory was destroyed in 1943; the concept was patented in 1986 by Solatube International of Australia. This system has been marketed for widespread commercial use. Other daylighting products are on the market under various generic names, such as "SunScope", "solar pipe", "light pipe", "light tube" and "tubular skylight".

A tube lined with reflective material leads the light rays through a building, starting from an entrance-point located on its roof or one of its outer walls. A light tube is not intended for imaging, thus image distortions pose no problem and are in many ways encouraged due to the reduction of "directional" light; the entrance point comprises a dome, which has the function of collecting and reflecting as much sunlight as possible into the tube. Many units have directional "collectors", "reflectors" or Fresnel lens devices that assist in collecting additional directional light down the tube. A set-up in which a laser cut acrylic panel is arranged to redirect sunlight into a horizontally or vertically orientated mirrored pipe, combined with a light spreading system with a triangular arrangement of laser cut panels that spread the light into the room, was developed at the Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane. In 2003, Veronica Garcia Hansen, Ken Yeang, Ian Edmonds were awarded the Far East Economic Review Innovation Award in bronze for this development.

Light transmission efficiency is greatest if the tube is straight. In longer, angled, or flexible tubes, part of the light intensity is lost. To minimize losses, a high reflectivity of the tube lining is crucial. At the end point, a diffuser spreads the light into the room. To further optimize the use of solar light, a heliostat can be installed which tracks the movement of the sun, thereby directing sunlight into the light tube at all times of the day as far as the surroundings´ limitations allow with additional mirrors or other reflective elements that influence the light path; the heliostat can be set to capture moonlight at night. Optical fibers can be used for daylighting. A solar lighting system based on plastic optical fibers was in development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004; the system was installed at the American Museum of Science and Energy, Tennessee, USA, in 2005, brought to market the same year by the company Sunlight Direct. However, this system was taken off the market in 2009.

In view of the small diameter of the fibers, an efficient daylighting set-up requires a parabolic collector to track the sun and concentrate its light. Optical fibers intended for light transport need to propagate as much light as possible within the core. Optical fibers are used in the Bjork system sold by Parans Solar Lighting AB; the optic fibers in this system are made of PMMA and sheathed with Megolon, a halogen-free thermoplastic resin. A system such as this, however, is quite expensive; the Parans system consists of three parts. A collector, fiber optic cables and luminaires spreading the light indoors. One or more collectors is placed on or near the building on a place where they will have good access of direct sunlight; the collector consists of lenses mounted in aluminum profiles with a covering glass as protection. These lenses concentrates the sunlight down in the fiber optic cables; the collectors are modular which means they come with either 4,6,8,12 or 20 cables depending on the need.

Every cable can have an individual length. The fibre optic cables transport the natural light 100 meters in and through the property while retaining both a high level of light quality and light intensity. Examples of im

Ermenegildo Florit

Ermenegildo Florit was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Florence from 1962 to 1977, was elevated to the cardinalate in 1965. Ermenegildo Florit was born in Fagagna, attended the seminary in Udine, the Pontifical Roman Seminary, the Pontifical Biblical Institute and Pontifical Lateran University in Rome. Before finishing his studies in 1927, he was ordained to the priesthood on 11 April 1925. Florit served as a professor and the Dean of Theology and Vice-Rector at the Pontifical Lateran University, while doing pastoral work in Rome. In 1951, he was made a canon of St. Mark's Basilica and, on 21 August, a Domestic Prelate of His Holiness. On 12 July 1954, Florit was appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Florence and Titular Archbishop of Hierapolis in Syria, he received his episcopal consecration on the following 12 September from Cardinal Clemente Micara, with Archbishop Luigi Traglia and Bishop Emilio Pizzoni serving as co-consecrators, in the Lateran Basilica.

Florit succeeded the late Elia Dalla Costa as Archbishop of Florence on 9 March 1962, attended the Second Vatican Council until 1965. During the Council, he was involved with the drafting of its document on Divine Revelation. Pope Paul VI created him Cardinal-Priest of Regina Apostolorum in the consistory of 22 February 1965. In 1968, the Cardinal engaged in a dispute with the popular Florentine priest Enzo Mazzi, whose rebellious attitude the former saw as a threat to "ecclesiastical unity". Resigning as Florence's archbishop on 3 June 1977, Florit was one of the cardinal electors who participated in the conclaves of August and October 1978, which selected Popes John Paul I and John Paul II respectively, he died in Florence, at age 84, is buried in the Basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore. Florit once had surgery performed on his eye. Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Catholic-Hierarchy

Caney Creek (Matagorda Bay)

Caney Creek is a river in Texas that begins northwest of Wharton, flows southeast, empties into the Gulf of Mexico near Sargent. The major waterway to the west is the Colorado River while the next major waterway to the east is the San Bernard River. Caney Creek rises 1 mile south of Matthews in Colorado County "within the maze of irrigation canals, dead-water sloughs, old stream channels" at the northern edge of Wharton County. From there, Caney Creek flows 155 miles southeast before discharging into the Intracoastal Waterway a distance of 5.5 miles southeast of Sargent. Thousands of years ago, the Colorado River flowed through the Caney Creek channel before diverting into its present course. In fact, Caney Creek merges with the Colorado River about 1.0 mile above Glen Flora and leaves the Colorado just below than town. The creek's wide meanders identify it as a old stream. Caney Creek is intermittent until the Matagorda County line when other streams empty into it, making it a continuously flowing waterway.

The land along the stream is used for cattle ranching. After passing through Wharton, Caney Creek runs east and southeast on the south side of FM 1301; the stream runs through Boling-Iago goes south along FM 1301 to Pledger. From there, Caney Creek flows in a southerly direction on the west side of FM 1728 and passes to the east of Van Vleck; the creek passes east of Caney. From there to its mouth, the stream follows FM 457. Caney Creek flows southeast past Cedar Lane where Linnville Bayou joins it just below the FM 521 bridge; the creek passes through Hawkinsville and Sargent on its way to the Gulf of Mexico. It first intersects the Intracoastal Waterway before emptying into the East Matagorda Bay. Caney Creek Tidal, Caney Creek above Tidal, San Bernard River, Linnville Bayou, Hardeman Slough, Live Oak Bayou are streams within the Brazos-Colorado Coastal Basin; the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality and the Environmental Institute of Houston maintain water quality monitoring stations on the Caney Creek and Linnville Bayou watersheds.

Caney Creek was first called Canebrake Creek because it had thick cane growth along its banks in the days before Anglo settlers cleared it away. The rich alluvial soil along the creek was noted by surveyor Elias R. Wightman, one of the Old Three Hundred, his report attracted Anglo-American settlers in the 1820s. Stephen F. Austin's colonists burned the canebrake to help enrich the soil. Sugar production became so successful that soon large homes were built so that one area was known as Plantation Row. In 1825, Robert Harris Williams was supposed to have built the first cotton gin in Texas along the banks of Caney Creek. During the American Civil War the local Confederate commander John B. Magruder fortified the mouth of Caney Creek, in January and February 1864 these defenses repelled a Federal naval attack; when no Union soldiers appeared, the 4,000–6,000 Confederate defenders were moved to other locations. Caney Creek from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved September 1, 2018. Johnston, Steven.

"Caney Creek Watershed: Brazos-Colorado Coastal Basin". Houston Galveston Area Council. Archived from the original on September 3, 2018. Retrieved September 2, 2018. List of rivers of Texas USGS Hydrologic Unit Map - State of Texas "1304 Caney Creek Tidal". Houston Galveston Area Council. 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2018. "Brazos-Colorado Coastal Basin Watersheds: Protecting Recreational Uses". Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. 2018. Retrieved September 2, 2018