House of the Centenary
The House of the Centenary was the house of a wealthy resident of Pompeii, preserved by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. The house was discovered in 1879, was given its modern name to mark the 18th centenary of the disaster. Built in the mid-2nd century BC, it is among the largest houses in the city, with private baths, a nymphaeum, a fish pond, two atria; the Centenary underwent a remodeling around 15 AD, at which time the bath complex and swimming pool were added. In the last years before the eruption, several rooms had been extensively redecorated with a number of paintings. Although the identity of the house's owner eludes certainty, arguments have been made for either Aulus Rustius Verus or Tiberius Claudius Verus, both local politicians. Among the varied paintings preserved in the House of the Centenary is the earliest known depiction of Vesuvius, as well as explicit erotic scenes in a room that may have been designed as a private "sex club". For the purposes of archaeological and historical study, Pompeii is divided into nine regions, each of which contains numbered blocks.
Within a block, doorways are numbered in counter-clockwise order. It belongs to the luxurious "tufa" period of Pompeiian architecture, characterized by the use of fine-grained gray volcanic tufa, quarried around Nuceria. Of the two atria, the grander one leads to the most decorated rooms; the smaller atrium might have been for private service access. The triclinium or dining room was situated so that the guest of honor could view the enclosed garden; the dining room itself was decorated with vertical stalks entwined with tendrils on which birds perch, with leaf-adorned candelabra in the panels between. The house had its own bakery, located in a cellar under the service quarters on the west side. A graffito in the latrine uses the rare word cacaturit found once in the Epigrams of Martial. Another records a slave's bid for freedom: "Officiosus escaped on November 6 of the consulate of Drusus Caesar and M. Junius Silanus", it has been suggested that one secluded room, decorated with explicit scenes of female-male intercourse, functioned as a private "sex club."
Guests would have entered the smaller, more private atrium passed down a corridor and through a triclinium and antechamber to reach it. A few similar rooms in Pompeiian houses suggest that the intention was to create the ambience of a brothel in a home, for parties at which participants played the roles of prostitute or client, or for which actual prostitutes were hired to entertain guests. A small opening oddly positioned in the wall may have been an aperture for voyeurism. Other scholars categorize Room 43 as a bedroom, which featured erotic imagery, find it unnecessary to conclude that sexual entertainment was offered to guests there; the House of the Centenary is known for its large and diverse collection of paintings in the Third and Fourth Pompeiian styles. The garden nymphaeum is a rich example of combining painting with architectural elements to create the ambience of a country villa. A body of water filled with a variety of fish and marine animals was "dramatically" painted on the parapet that encircled the four walls of the nymphaeum.
The lower part of the wall is painted to look like a balustrade with ivy growing on it, with birds and lizards below. Fountains with sphinx bases are painted within garden scenes to the sides, the wall around the entrance depicts game parks. Below the steps and above the garden pool, there was a painting of a river god crowned with reeds, no longer visible; the composition has been characterized as a "grotesque potpourri", an assemblage of elements desirable because they represent the country villa lifestyle. Here and in decorated spaces in Pompeii, the owner is concerned with displaying size and quantity and not a harmonious whole; the room to the north of the peristyle featured delicate ivy and stylized flowering vines as decoration. Ducks and lotus leaves appear together as decorative motifs. Grapes and viticulture appear throughout the house, as in a scene of cupids gathering grapes; the hunting paintings are by the Pompeiian painter Lucius. Mythological subjects include Theseus as victor over the Minotaur and Silenus, Hercules and Telephus, of Orestes and Pylades before Thoas.
Another room features Selene and Endymion, a Venus Piscatrix, "floating nymphs." A painting in the house's lararium, a shrine to the household gods the Lares, depicts Vesuvius as it may have looked before the eruption, with a single vineyard-covered peak instead of the double-peak profile of today. Although some scholars reject the single-peak hypothesis, the painting is regarded as the earliest known representation of the volcano if it should not be taken as a record of what Vesuvius looked like. Literary sources describe Vesuvius as covered in grape vines before the eruption. Plutarch says that vines had grown on it in the 1st century BC, when Spartacus and his fellow slaves had taken refuge there and cut them down to make rope ladders; the description by the poet Martial evokes the painting, which shows vines on the slopes in quincunx arrangement: Here Vesuvius is shaded green with vines. The unusual depiction of Bacchus gives him a body c
In ancient Roman religion, the Di Penates or Penates were among the dii familiares, or household deities, invoked most in domestic rituals. When the family had a meal, they threw a bit into the fire on the hearth for the Penates, they were thus associated with Vesta, the Lares, the Genius of the paterfamilias in the "little universe" of the domus. Like other domestic deities, the Penates had a public counterpart. An etymological interpretation of the Penates would make them in origin tutelary deities of the storeroom, Latin penus, the innermost part of the house, where they guarded the household's food, wine and other supplies; as they were associated with the source of food, they became a symbol of the continuing life of the family. Cicero explained that they "dwell inside, from which they are called penetrales by the poets"; the 2nd-century AD grammarian Festus defined penus, however, as "the most secret site in the shrine of Vesta, surrounded by curtains." Macrobius reports the theological view of Varro that "those who dig out truth more diligently have said that the Penates are those through whom we breathe in our inner core, through whom we have a body, through whom we possess a rational mind."
The Penates of Rome had a temple on the Velia near the Palatine. Dionysius of Halicarnassus says it housed statues of two youths in the archaic style; the public cult of the ancestral gods of the Roman people originated in Lavinium, where they were closely linked with Vesta. One tradition identified the public Penates as the sacred objects rescued by Aeneas from Troy and carried by him to Italy. They, or rival duplicates, were housed in the Temple of Vesta in the Forum, thus the Penates, unlike the localized Lares, are portable deities. Archaeological evidence from Lavinium shows marked Greek influence in the archaic period, Aeneas was venerated there as Father Indiges. At the new year, Roman magistrates first sacrificed to Capitoline Jupiter at Rome, traveled to Lavinium for sacrifices to Jupiter Indiges and Vesta, a ceremonial visit to the "Trojan" Penates
Battle of Actium
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece. Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antony's fleet was supported by the power of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt. Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his power over its dominions, he adopted the title of Princeps and some years was awarded the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate. This became the name by which he was known in times; as Augustus, he retained the trappings of a restored Republican leader, but historians view this consolidation of power and the adoption of these honorifics as the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire. The alliance among Octavian, Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus known as the Second Triumvirate, was renewed for a five-year term in 38 BC.
However, the triumvirate broke down when Octavian saw Caesarion, the professed son of Julius Caesar and Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, as a major threat to his power. This occurred when Mark Antony, the other most influential member of the triumvirate, abandoned his wife, Octavian's sister Octavia Minor. Afterwards he moved to Egypt to start a long-term romance with Cleopatra, becoming the de facto stepfather to Caesarion; such an affair was doomed to become a political scandal. Antony was perceived by Octavian and the majority of the Roman Senate as the leader of a separatist movement that threatened to break the unity of the Roman Republic. Octavian's prestige and, more the loyalty of his legions had been boosted by Julius Caesar's legacy of 44 BC, by which 19-year-old Octavian was adopted as Caesar's only son and the sole legitimate heir of his enormous wealth. Antony had been the most important and most successful senior officer in Caesar's army and, thanks to his military record, claimed a substantial share of the political support of Caesar's soldiers and veterans.
Both Octavian and Antony had fought against their common enemies in the civil war that followed the assassination of Caesar. After years of loyal cooperation with Octavian, Antony started to act independently arousing his rival's suspicion that he was vying to become sole master of Rome; when he left Octavia Minor and moved to Alexandria to become Cleopatra's official partner, he led many Roman politicians to believe that he was trying to become the unchecked ruler of Egypt and other eastern kingdoms while still maintaining his command over the many Roman legions in the East. As a personal challenge to Octavian's prestige, Antony tried to get Caesarion accepted as a true heir of Caesar though the legacy did not mention him. Antony and Cleopatra formally elevated Caesarion 13, to power in 34 BC, giving him the vague but alarming title of "King of the Kings". Being a son of Caesar, such an entitlement was felt as a threat to Roman republican traditions, it was believed that Antony had once offered a diadem to Caesar.
Thereafter, Octavian started a propaganda war, denouncing Antony as an enemy of Rome, asserting that he was seeking to establish a personal monarchy over the entire Roman Empire on behalf of Caesarion, circumventing the Roman Senate. It was said that Antony intended to move the capital of the empire to Alexandria; as the Second Triumvirate formally expired on the last day of 33 BC, Antony wrote to the Senate that he did not wish to be reappointed. He hoped that he might be regarded by them as their champion against the ambition of Octavian, whom he presumed would not be willing to abandon his position in a similar manner; the causes of mutual dissatisfaction between the two had been accumulating. Antony complained that Octavian had exceeded his powers in deposing Lepidus, in taking over the countries held by Sextus Pompeius and in enlisting soldiers for himself without sending half to him. Octavian complained. During 32 BC one-third of the Senate and both consuls allied with Antony; the consuls had determined to conceal the extent of Antony's demands.
Gnaeus Ahenobarbus seems to have wished to keep quiet, but Gaius Sosius on 1 January made an elaborate speech in favor of Antony, would have proposed the confirmation of his act had it not been vetoed by a tribune. Octavian was not present, but at the next meeting made a reply of such a nature that both consuls left Rome to join Antony. After staying with his allies at Samos, Antony moved to Athens, his land forces, in Armenia, came down to the coast of Asia and embarked under L. Canidius Crassus. Octavian was not behind in his strategic preparations. Military operations began in 31 BC, when his general Agrippa captured Methone, a Greek town allied to Antony. However, by the publication of Antony's will, put into his hands by the traitor Plancus and by letting it be known in Rome what preparations were going on at Samos and how Antony was acting as the agent of Cleopatra, Octavian p
In architecture, an atrium is a large open air or skylight covered space surrounded by a building. Atria were a common feature in Ancient Roman dwellings, providing light and ventilation to the interior. Modern atria, as developed in the late 19th and 20th centuries, are several stories high and having a glazed roof or large windows, located beyond the main entrance doors. Atria are a popular design feature because they give their buildings a "feeling of space and light." The atrium has become a key feature of many buildings in recent years. Atria are popular with building designers and building developers. Users like atria because they create a dynamic and stimulating interior that provides shelter from the external environment while maintaining a visual link with that environment. Designers enjoy the opportunity to create new types of spaces in buildings, developers see atria as prestigious amenities that can increase commercial value and appeal. Fire control is an important aspect of contemporary atrium design due to criticism that poorly designed atria could allow fire to spread to a building's upper stories more quickly.
Another downside to incorporating an atrium is that it creates unused vertical space which could otherwise be occupied by additional floors. In a domus, a large house in Ancient Roman architecture, the atrium was the open central court with enclosed rooms on all sides. In the middle of the atrium was the impluvium, a shallow pool sunken into the floor to catch rainwater from the roof; some surviving examples are beautifully decorated. The opening in the ceiling above the pool called for some means of support for the roof, it is here where one differentiates between five different styles of atrium; as the centrepiece of the house, the atrium was the most lavishly-furnished room. It contained the little chapel to the ancestral spirits, the household safe and sometimes a bust of the master of the house; the term was used for a variety of spaces in public and religious buildings forms of arcaded courtyards, larger versions of the domestic spaces. Byzantine churches were entered through such a space.
The 19th century brought the industrial revolution with great advances in iron and glass manufacturing techniques. Courtyards could have horizontal glazing overhead, eliminating some of the weather elements from the space and giving birth to the modern atrium. One of the main public spaces at Federation Square, in Melbourne, Australia, is called The Atrium and is a street-like space, five stories high with glazed walls and roof; the structure and glazing pattern follow the system of fractals used to arrange the panels on the rest of the facades at Federation Square. In Nashville, Tennessee, U. S. the Opryland Hotel hosts 4 different large atria, spanning 9 acres of glass ceiling in total, in the hotel above the gardens of: Delta, Garden-Conservatories, Magnolia. As of 2016, the Burj Al Arab hotel in Dubai, has the world's tallest atrium at 180 metres; the Luxor Hotel, in Las Vegas, has the largest atrium in the world at 29 million cubic feet. Cavaedium Quadrangle Roth, Leland M.. Understanding Architecture: Its Elements History and Meaning.
Oxford, UK: Westview Press. P. 520. ISBN 0-06-430158-3
Daemon (classical mythology)
Daemon is the Latin word for the Ancient Greek daimon, which referred to a lesser deity or guiding spirit such as the daemons of ancient Greek religion and mythology and of Hellenistic religion and philosophy. The word is derived from Proto-Indo-European *daimon "provider, divider", from the root *da- "to divide". Daimons were seen as the souls of men of the golden age acting as tutelary deities, according to entry δαίμων at Liddell & Scott. Daemons are benevolent or benign nature spirits, beings of the same nature as both mortals and deities, similar to ghosts, chthonic heroes, spirit guides, forces of nature, or the deities themselves. According to Hesiod's myth, "great and powerful figures were to be honoured after death as a daimon…" A daimon is not so much a type of quasi-divine being, according to Burkert, but rather a non-personified "peculiar mode" of their activity. In Hesiod's Theogony, Phaëton becomes an incorporeal daimon or a divine spirit, for example, the ills released by Pandora are deadly deities, not daimones.
From Hesiod the people of the Golden Age were transformed into daimones by the will of Zeus, to serve mortals benevolently as their guardian spirits. The daimones of venerated heroes were localized by the construction of shrines, so as not to wander restlessly, were believed to confer protection and good fortune on those offering their respects. One tradition of Greek thought, which found agreement in the mind of Plato, was of a daimon which existed within a person from their birth, that each individual was obtained by a singular daimon prior to their birth by way of lot. In the Old Testament, evil spirits appear in Kings. In the Septuagint, made for the Greek-speaking Jews of Alexandria, the Greek ángelos translates the Hebrew word mal'ak, while daimoníos, which carries the meaning of a natural spirit, less than divine, translates the Hebrew word shedim as well as the word se'irim in some verses and words for idols, describes the being Asmodeus in the Book of Tobit; the use of daimōn in the New Testament's original Greek text caused the Greek word to be applied to the Judeo-Christian concept of an evil spirit by the early second century AD.
Homer's use of the words theoí and daímones suggests. Writers developed the distinction between the two. Plato in Cratylus speculates that the word daimōn is synonymous to daēmōn, however, it is more daiō. In Plato's Symposium, the priestess Diotima teaches Socrates that love is not a deity, but rather a "great daemon", she goes on to explain that "everything daemonic is between divine and mortal", she describes daemons as "interpreting and transporting human things to the gods and divine things to men. In Plato's Apology of Socrates, Socrates claimed to have a daimonion that warned him—in the form of a "voice"—against mistakes but never told him what to do; the Platonic Socrates, never refers to the daimonion as a daimōn. By this term he seems to indicate the true nature of the human soul, his newfound self-consciousness. Paul Shorey sees the daimonion not as an inspiration but as "a kind of spiritual tact checking Socrates from any act opposed to his true moral and intellectual interests."Regarding the charge brought against Socrates in 399, Plato surmised "Socrates does wrong because he does not believe in the gods in whom the city believes, but introduces other daemonic beings…" Burkert notes that "a special being watches over each individual, a daimon who has obtained the person at his birth by lot, is an idea which we find in Plato, undoubtedly from earlier tradition.
The famous, paradoxical saying of Heraclitus is directed against such a view:'character is for man his daimon'". In the ancient Greek religion, daimon designates not a specific class of divine beings, but a peculiar mode of activity: it is an occult power that drives humans forward or acts against them. Since daimon is the veiled countenance of divine activity, every deity can act as daimon. A special knowledge of daimones is claimed by Pythagoreans, whereas for Plato, daimon is a spiritual being who watches over each individual, is tantamount to a higher self, or an angel. While Plato is called ‘divine’ by Neoplatonists, Aristotle is regarded as daimonios, meaning ‘an intermediary to deities' – therefore Aristotle stands to Plato as an angel to a deity. For Proclus, daimones are the intermediary beings located between the celestial objects and the terrestrial inhabitants; the Hellenistic Greeks divided daemons into good and evil categories: agathodaímōn, from agathós, kakodaímōn, from kakós.
They resemble the jinni of Arab folklore, in their humble efforts to help mediate the good and ill fortunes of human life, they resemble the Christian guardian angel and adversarial demon, respectively. Eudaimonia, the state of having a eudaemon, came to mean "well-being" or "happiness"; the comparable Roman concep
The Latin term praetorium — or prœtorium or pretorium — signified a general's tent within a Roman castra, castellum, or encampment. It derived from the name of one of the praetor. Praetor was the title of the highest-ranking civil servant in the Roman Republic, but became a position directly below the rank of consul; the general's war council would meet within this tent, thus acquiring an administrative and juridical meaning, carried over into the Byzantine Empire, where the praitōrion was the residence of a city's governor. The term was used for the emperor's headquarters and other large residential buildings or palaces; the name would be used to identify the praetorian camp and praetorian troops stationed in Rome. A general's bodyguard was known as the cohors praetoriae, out of which developed the Praetorian Guard, the emperor's bodyguard. Due to the number of uses for the word praetorium, describing can be difficult. A praetorium could be a large building, a permanent tent structure, or in some cases be mobile.
Since the praetorium originated as the officer's quarters it could be a tent, but was a large structure. The important design aspect of the praetorium is not symmetry, but rather proportion of one element to another; the Praetorium was constructed around two open courts, which correspond to the atrium and peristyle of the Roman house. Most praetoriums had areas surrounding them delegated for exercise and drills conducted by the troops; the area ahead of the camp would be occupied by the tents housing the commander's soldiers. They were made with brick, covered with many arches and columns. Within the praetorium Roman officers would be able to conduct official business within special designed and designated areas. A Praetorium would display information regarding the sportulae of its region carved directly into the walls of its main public areas; this would be located near the office of the financial procurator. In the New Testament, praetorium refers to the palace of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect of Judea, believed to have been in one of the residential palaces built by Herod the Great for himself in Jerusalem, which at that time was the residence of his son, king Herod II.
According to the New Testament, this is where Jesus Christ was condemned to death. The Bible refers to the Praetorium as the "common hall", the "governor's house", the "judgment hall", "Pilate's house", the "palace"; as well, Paul was held in Herod's Praetorium. Notes Praetorium at Housesteads along Hadrian's Wall International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Praetorium Agrippinae Bible Study - The Praetorium
Juno was an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. A daughter of Saturn, she is the wife of Jupiter and the mother of Mars, Vulcan and Juventas, she is the Roman equivalent of queen of the gods in Greek mythology. Her Etruscan counterpart was Uni, she was said to watch over the women of Rome; as the patron goddess of Rome and the Roman Empire, Juno was called Regina and was a member of the Capitoline Triad, centered on the Capitoline Hill in Rome. Juno's own warlike aspect among the Romans is apparent in her attire, she is shown armed and wearing a goatskin cloak. The traditional depiction of this warlike aspect was assimilated from the Greek goddess Athena, who bore a goatskin, or a goatskin shield, called the'aegis'; the name Juno was once thought to be connected to Iove as Diuno and Diove from *Diovona. At the beginning of the 20th century, a derivation was proposed from iuven-, through a syncopated form iūn-; this etymology became accepted after it was endorsed by Georg Wissowa.
Iuuen- is related to Latin aevum and Greek aion through a common Indo-European root referring to a concept of vital energy or "fertile time". The iuvenis is he. In some inscriptions Jupiter himself is called Iuuntus, one of the epithets of Jupiter is Ioviste, a superlative form of iuuen- meaning "the youngest". Iuventas, "Youth", was one of two deities who "refused" to leave the Capitol when the building of the new Temple of Capitoline Jove required the exauguration of deities who occupied the site. Juno is the equivalent to the Greek goddess for love and marriage. Juno is the Roman goddess of marriage. Ancient etymologies associated Juno's name with iuvare, "to aid, benefit", iuvenescere, "rejuvenate", sometimes connecting it to the renewal of the new and waxing moon implying the idea of a moon goddess. Juno's theology is one of the most complex and disputed issues in Roman religion. More than other major Roman deities, Juno held a large number of significant and diverse epithets and titles representing various aspects and roles of the goddess.
In accordance with her central role as a goddess of marriage, these included Cinxia. However, other epithets of Juno are less thematically linked. While her connection with the idea of vital force, fullness of vital energy, eternal youthfulness is now acknowledged, the multiplicity and complexity of her personality have given rise to various and sometimes irreconcilable interpretations among modern scholars. Juno is the divine protectress of the community, who shows both a sovereign and a fertility character associated with a military one, she was present in many towns of ancient Italy: at Lanuvium as Sespeis Mater Regina, Tibur, Veii as Regina, at Tibur and Falerii as Regina and Curitis and Norba as Lucina. She is attested at Praeneste, Ardea, Gabii. In five Latin towns a month was named after Juno. Outside Latium in Campania at Teanum she was Populona, in Umbria at Pisaurum Lucina, at Terventum in Samnium Regina, at Pisarum Regina Matrona, at Aesernia in Samnium Regina Populona. In Rome she was since the most ancient times named Lucina and Regina.
It is debated whether she was known as Curitis before the evocatio of the Juno of Falerii: this though seems probable. Other epithets of hers that were in use at Rome include Moneta and Caprotina, Fluonia or Fluviona, the last ones associated with the rites of purification and fertility of February, her various epithets thus show a complex of mutually interrelated functions that in the view of Georges Dumézil and Vsevolod Basanoff can be traced back to the Indoeuropean trifunctional ideology: as Regina and Moneta she is a sovereign deity, as Sespeis and Moneta she is an armed protectress, as Mater and Curitis she is a goddess of the fertility and wealth of the community in her association with the curiae. The epithet Lucina is revealing since it reflects two interrelated aspects of the function of Juno: cyclical renewal of time in the waning and waxing of the moon and protection of delivery and birth; the ancient called her Covella in her function of helper in the labours of the new moon. The view that she was a Moon goddess though is no longer accepted by scholars, as such a role belongs to Diana Lucifera: through her association with the moon she governed the feminine physiological functions, menstrual cycle and pregnancy: as a rule all lunar deities are deities of childbirth.
These aspects of Juno mark the worldly sides of her function. She is thus associated to all beginnings and hers are the kalendae of every month: at Laurentum she was known as Kalendaris Iuno. At Rome on the Kalends of every month the pontifex minor invoked her, under the epithet Covella, when from the curia Calabra announced the date of the nonae. On the same day the regina sacrorum sacrificed to Juno a white lamb in the Regia, she is associated with Janus, the god of passages and beginnings who after her is named Iunonius. Some scholars view this concentration of multiple functions