Economy of Italy
The economy of Italy is the 3rd-largest national economy in the eurozone, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and the 12th-largest by GDP. The country is a member of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the G7. Italy is the eighth largest exporter in the world with $514 billion exported in 2016 and its closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 59% of its total trade. The largest trading partners, in order of market share, are Germany, United States, United Kingdom, and Spain. According to the Human Development Index, the country enjoys a high standard of living. Italy owns the worlds third-largest gold reserve, and is the third net contributor to the budget of the European Union, Italy is the largest market for luxury goods in Europe and the countrys private wealth is one of the largest in the world. Despite these important achievements, the economy today suffers from structural and non-structural problems. After strong GDP growth in 1945–1990, the last two decades average annual growth rates lagged below the EU average, Italy was hit hard by the late-2000s recession.
The stagnation in economic growth, and the efforts to revive it with massive government spending from the 1980s onwards. After the unification, industrialization was largely artisanal, and located in the former political capitals, the resulting Italian diaspora concerned nearly 26 million Italians, the most part immigrated in the period 1880–1914, and it is considered the biggest mass migration of contemporary times. During the Great War, the Italian Royal Army increased in size and this came at a terrible cost, by the end of the war, Italy had lost 700,000 soldiers and had a budget deficit of billions of lira. Italy emerged from World War I in a poor and weakened condition, the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922, at the end of a period of social unrest. However, once Mussolini acquired a firmer hold of power, laissez-faire and free trade were progressively abandoned in favour of government intervention, in 1929, Italy was hit hard by the Great Depression. A number of mixed entities were formed, whose purpose it was to bring representatives of the government.
These representatives discussed economic policy and manipulated prices and wages so as to both the wishes of the government and the wishes of business. This economic model based on a partnership between government and business was extended to the political sphere, in what came to be known as corporatism. At the same time, the foreign policy of Mussolini led to an increasing military expenditure. After the invasion of Ethiopia, Italy intervened to support Francos nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, by 1939, Italy had the highest percentage of state-owned enterprises after the Soviet Union
Wind power in Italy
Wind power in Italy, at the end of 2015, consisted of more than 1,847 wind turbines with a total installed capacity of 8,958 megawatts. Wind power contributed 5. 4% of Italy electricity generation in 2015, Italy is ranked as the worlds ninth producer of wind power. Prospects for Italian wind energy beyond 2016 are very uncertain, in 2010, the energy from the 487 active plants accounted for 19% of the renewable energy produced in Italy. The total energy produced in 2010 was 8,787 GWh, in 2001, the European Commission issued its Directive on Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources. The Directive set a goal for Italy to obtain at least 25% of its electricity from renewables by 2010, the 1999 Italian ‘White Book’ targeted to install 2,500 MW of wind power capacity by 2010, Italy exceeded this in 2007. The Italian government targeted 12,000 MW by 2020, given that Italys recent growth in wind power capacity has been about 30% annually, the target appears reachable by 2015. Italy introduced a renewable energy system in 2002, and uses green certificates to ensure that power producers and importers produce specified percentages of electricity from renewables.
Renewable energy under the system must come from new or repowered plants which began operating after April 1,1999. The table shows the increase in installed wind power capacity in recent years
A catamaran is a multi-hulled watercraft featuring two parallel hulls of equal size. It is a craft, deriving its stability from its wide beam. Being ballast-free and therefore lighter than a monohull, catamarans often have a draft than comparably-sized monohulls. The two hulls combined often have a smaller hydrodynamic resistance than comparable monohulls, requiring less power from either sails or motors. The catamarans wider stance on the water can reduce both heeling and wave-induced motion, as compared with a monohull, and can give reduced wakes, Catamarans range in size from small to large. The structure connecting a catamarans two hulls ranges from a simple frame strung with webbing to support the crew to a bridging superstructure incorporating extensive cabin and/or cargo space, Catamarans from Polynesia and Maritime Southeast Asia became the inspiration for modern catamarans. Catamaran-type vessels were first developed as early as 1500 BCE by the Polynesian peoples and these early examples were likely related to outrigger canoes and consisted of two canoes bound together with a wooden frame, sometimes accompanied by a sail.
Despite their simplicity they were effective, allowing seafaring Polynesians to voyage to distant Pacific islands. Catamarans were seldom constructed in the West before the 19th century, the word catamaran is derived from the Tamil word, which means logs bound together. The 17th-century English adventurer and privateer William Dampier encountered the Tamil people of southeastern India during his first circumnavigation of the globe and he was the first to write in English about the primitive watercraft he observed in use there. In his 1697 account of his trip, A New Voyage Round the World, he wrote and these are but one Log, or two, sometimes of a sort of light Wood. So small, that they carry but one Man, whose legs, the unusual design met with skepticism and was not a commercial success. The design remained relatively unused in the West for almost 160 years until the early 19th-century, Crisp described it as a fast sailing fine sea boat, she traded during the monsoon between Rangoon and the Tenasserim Provinces for several years.
Later that century, the American Nathanael Herreshoff constructed a sailing boat of his own design. The craft, raced at her maiden regatta on June 22,1876 and her debut demonstrated the distinct performance advantages afforded to catamarans over the standard monohulls. It was as a result of event, the Centennial Regatta of the New York Yacht Club, that catamarans were barred from regular sailing classes. In 1936 Eric de Bisschop built a Polynesian double canoe in Hawaii, in 1939, he published his experiences in a book, which was translated into English in 1940. The Prout Brothers and Francis, experimented with catamarans in 1949 and converted their 1935 boat factory in Canvey Island and their Shearwater catamarans won races easily against the monohulls
Port of Genoa
The Port of Genoa is the major Italian seaport on the Mediterranean Sea. With a trade volume of 51.6 million tonnes, it is the busiest port of Italy by cargo tonnage. The port is used as a dismantling station and has been named as the port where the Costa Concordia is to be dismantled.5 million cars and 250,000 trucks. A third cruise terminal is currently under construction in the area of Ponte Parodi. There are two lighthouses, the historical Lanterna,76 metres tall, and the small lighthouse of Punta Vagno. The marina of the Exhibition centre
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
The Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia is a scientific research centre based in Genoa. Its main goal is the advancement of science, in Italy and worldwide, through projects and discoveries oriented to applications, some account IIT as the best Italian scientific research centre. In November 2016, the Nature Index journal named Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia among the list of the top 100 scientific centres running successful international collaborations, IIT was established by Italian government in 2003, and it started to work in October 2005. It receives around €90 million per year from the Italian Government, the founders decided to create it in Genoa because of the presence of the branches of important hi-tech companies such as Siemens and Ansaldo STS. Its structure and management is inspired by Max Planck Institut in Germany, for there are no tenure track positions. The contract renewal is granted if the researcher reaches his or her scientific goals. Contrary to other institutes such as universities or Italian National Research Council.
One of the goals of IIT is to carry on projects able to produce real-life applications. Therefore, scientific projects are not oriented to reach theoretical discoveries, the most famous application developed and delivered by IIT is the humanoid robot iCub. IIT dedicates a complete facility to the study and the development of this robot, in 2014, IIT released BlindPad, an electronic device for blind people, developed by IIT researchers in collaboration with Istituto David Chiossone in Genoa. In 2015, IIT produced an application for an artificial hand. In June 2015, another of IITs robot named Walkman, participated to the pre-eminent DARPA Robotics Challenge, in 2016, IIT won the robotics grasping challenge at the IEEE/RJS International Conference On Intelligent Robots and Systems in South Korea. The Scientific Plan 2009–2011 is the evolution of the 2005–2008 plan, to date the research infrastructure of IIT in Genoa has been completed. These activities, will be supported by an integrated multiscale computation activity, integrated Multiscale Computational Technology, developing advanced modeling of complex systems of interest to the above platforms.
ICub Darpa Robotics Challenge University of Genoa Genoa IIT. it – official website NatureIndex. com - Profile of Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat propelled partly or entirely by sails smaller than a sailing ship. Distinctions in what constitutes a sailing boat and ship vary by region, although sailboat terminology has varied across history, many terms have specific meanings in the context of modern yachting. A great number of sailboat-types may be distinguished by size, hull configuration, keel type, purpose and configuration of masts, and sail plan. Once a common racing configuration, today it gives versatility to cruising boats, a catboat has a single mast mounted far forward and does not carry a jib. Most modern designs have only one sail, the mainsail, however, a dinghy is a type of small open sailboat commonly used for recreation, sail training, and tending a larger vessel. They are popular in youth sailing programs for their short LOA, simple operation and they have three sails, the mainsail and spinnaker. Ketches are similar to a sloop, but there is a shorter mast astern of the mainmast. The second mast is called the mizzen mast and the sail is called the mizzen sail, a ketch can be Cutter-rigged with two head sails. A schooner has a mainmast taller than its foremast, distinguishing it from a ketch or a yawl, a schooner can have more than two masts, with the foremast always lower than the foremost main.
Traditional topsail schooners have topmasts allowing triangular topsails sails to be flown above their gaff sails, the most common modern sailboat is the sloop, which features one mast and two sails, typically a Bermuda rigged main, and a headsail. This simple configuration is very efficient for sailing into the wind, a smaller headsail is easier for a short-handed crew to manage. A yawl is similar to a ketch, with a mizzen mast carried astern the rudderpost more for balancing the helm than propulsion. Traditional sailboats are monohulls, but multi-hull catamarans and trimarans are gaining popularity, monohull boats generally rely on ballast for stability and usually are displacement hulls. This stabilizing ballast can, in boats designed for racing, be as much as 50% of the weight of the boat and it creates two problems, one, it gives the monohull tremendous inertia, making it less maneuverable and reducing its acceleration. Secondly, unless it has built with buoyant foam or air tanks, if a monohull fills with water.
Multihulls rely on the geometry and the stance of the multiple hulls for their stability. Indeed, multihulls are designed to be as light-weight as possible and this absence of ballast results in some very real performance gains in terms of acceleration, top speed, and maneuverability. The lack of ballast makes it easier to get a multihull on plane, reducing its wetted surface area and thus its drag. The absence of drag improves wind precision
Geothermal power in Italy
Geothermal power accounts for about 1. 6-1. 8% of the total electric energy production in Italy and is about 7% of the total renewable energy produced in 2010. The total energy from Geothermal was 5,660 GWh in 2015, Italy is the sixth country by geothermal installed capacity. There are 33 active geothermal plants with a capacity of 772 MW. All the plants are in Tuscany in the provinces of Grosseto, the province of Pisa alone contributes for more than half of the national production. In the 20th century, demand for electricity led to the consideration of geothermal power as a generating source, prince Piero Ginori Conti tested the first geothermal power generator on 4 July 1904 in Larderello, in the province of Pisa. It successfully lit four light bulbs, later, in 1911, the worlds first commercial geothermal power plant was built there. Experimental generators were built in countries in the 1920s. On May 30,2012, Enel Green Power announces the entry service of the completely new geothermal power station Rancia 2 in the town of Radicondoli.
The plant, which has a net installed capacity of 17 MW, the remaking of the central Rancia 2 falls within the group business plan 2012-2016, which envisages an investment package of around 500 million euros for development of geothermal plants in Tuscany. While the update of Rancia 1 and Le Prata are in progress, renewable energy in Italy Solar power in Italy Wind power in Italy Hydroelectricity in Italy Biofuel in Italy List of renewable energy topics by country Electricity sector in Italy
Italian Space Agency
The Italian Space Agency is a government agency established in 1988 to fund and coordinate space exploration activities in Italy. Nationally, ASI is responsible for drafting the National Aerospace Plan and ensuring it is carried out. ASIs main headquarters are located in Rome and the agency has control over three operational centres. The Centre for Space Geodesy located in Matera in Italy, as well as these ASI has access to its own spaceport, the Broglio Space Centre on the coastal sublittoral of Kenya, currently used only as a communications ground station. In 2008 ASIs annual budget was approximately €820 m and directly employed around 200 workers. Following a decision by the Council of Ministers, Enrico Saggese became president of the agency on July 3,2009, to quit on February 2014 amid a corruption scandal, fabrizio Tuzi presently is the organisations general manager. Luigi Gussalli, astronautics pioneer since the ‘20s, corresponded with international space scientists such as Oberth and he invented a double-reaction jet engine, developed multi-stage rockets, suggested a Moon mission and solar radiation powered spaceships.
Luigi Crocco, son of Gaetano Arturo, a renowned scientist in aerodynamics theory. Aurelio Robotti, expert on rocket fuels, father of the first Italian liquid-fuelled rocket. Luigi Broglio, the unanimously recognized father of Italian astronautics, sometimes referred to as the “Italian von Braun”, carlo Buongiorno, Broglio’s pupil and the first director general of ASI. This plan, conceived by Luigi Broglio, led to the San Marco programme of Italian-built satellites beginning with the launch of Italy’s first satellite, San Marco 1, from Wallops Island. The San Marco project since 1967 was focused on the launching of satellites by Scout rockets from a mobile rigid platform located close to the equator. This station, composed of 3 oil platforms and two logistical support boats, was installed off the Kenya coast, close to the town of Malindi, Italy would launch further satellites in the series using the American Scout rockets like the original, but from its own spaceport. Both of these would merge to form the European Space Agency on April 30,1975, further work would continue under the direction of the National Research Council including the launch of an indigenous telecoms/research satellite called SIRIO-1 in 1977.
A planned follow-up mission SIRIO-2 was destroyed in the Ariane 1 L-05 launch failure, ASI’s first large scientific satellite mission was BeppoSAX, developed in collaboration with the Netherlands and launched in 1996. Named after Giuseppe “Beppo” Occhialini, an important figure in Italian high-energy physics, following on from this ASI developed another high-energy astronomical satellite, AGILE for gamma ray astronomy, launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation in 2007. A particular innovation was the use of an instrument to measure both Gamma rays and hard X-rays. ASI has collaborated on major international space exploration missions including, Cassini-Huygens
A yacht /ˈjɒt/ is a recreational boat or ship. In modern use of the term, yachts differ from working ships mainly by their leisure purpose, there are two different classes of yachts and power boats. With the rise of the steamboat and other types of powerboat, sailing vessels in general came to be perceived as luxury, the term came to encompass large motor boats for primarily private pleasure purposes as well. Yacht lengths normally range from 10 metres up to dozens of meters, a luxury craft smaller than 12 metres is more commonly called a cabin cruiser or simply a cruiser. A superyacht generally refers to any yacht above 24 m and a megayacht generally refers to any yacht over 50 metres and this size is small in relation to typical cruise liners and oil tankers. A few countries have a special flag worn by recreational boats or ships, although inspired by the national flag, the yacht ensign does not always correspond with the civil or merchant ensign of the state in question. Yacht ensigns differ from merchant ensigns in order to signal that the yacht is not carrying cargo that requires a customs declaration, carrying commercial cargo on a boat with a yacht ensign is deemed to be smuggling in many jurisdictions.
Until the 1950s, almost all yachts were made of wood or steel, although wood hulls are still in production, the most common construction material is fibreglass, followed by aluminium, carbon fibre, and ferrocement. The use of wood has changed and is no longer limited to traditional board-based methods, wood is mostly used by hobbyists or wooden boat purists when building an individual boat. Apart from materials like carbon fibre and aramid fibre, spruce veneers laminated with epoxy resins have the best weight-to-strength ratios of all boatbuilding materials. Sailing yachts can range in length from about 6 metres to well over 30 metres. Most privately owned yachts fall in the range of about 7 metres -14 metres, in the United States, sailors tend to refer to smaller yachts as sailboats, while referring to the general sport of sailing as yachting. Within the limited context of racing, a yacht is any sailing vessel taking part in a race. Many modern racing yachts have efficient sail-plans, most notably the Bermuda rig.
This capability is the result of a sail-plan and hull design oriented towards this capability, day sailing yachts are usually small, at under 6 metres in length. Sometimes called sailing dinghies, they often have a keel, centreboard. Most day sailing yachts do not have a cabin, as they are designed for hourly or daily use and not for overnight journeys. They may have a cabin, where the front part of the hull has a raised solid roof to provide a place to store equipment or to offer shelter from wind or spray
The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km.
The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer.
In Ottoman Turkish, it has been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum