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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Genomic imprinting

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon that causes genes to be expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. Genes however, can be imprinted. Partial imprinting happens when alleles from both parents are differently expressed rather than complete expression and complete suppression of one parents allele. Forms of genomic imprinting have been demonstrated in fungi and animals; as of 2014, there are about 150 imprinted genes known in about half that in humans. Genomic imprinting is an inheritance process independent of the classical Mendelian inheritance, it is an epigenetic process that involves DNA methylation and histone methylation without altering the genetic sequence. These epigenetic marks are established in the germline of the parents and are maintained through mitotic cell divisions in the somatic cells of an organism. Appropriate imprinting of certain genes is important for normal development. Human diseases involving genomic imprinting include Angelman syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome and male infertility.

In diploid organisms, the somatic cells possess two copies of the genome, one inherited from the father and one from the mother. Each autosomal gene is therefore represented by two copies, or alleles, with one copy inherited from each parent at fertilization. For the vast majority of autosomal genes, expression occurs from both alleles simultaneously. In mammals, however, a small proportion of genes are imprinted, meaning that gene expression occurs from only one allele; the expressed allele is dependent upon its parental origin. For example, the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor 2 is only expressed from the allele inherited from the father; the term "imprinting" was first used to describe events in the insect Pseudococcus nipae. In Pseudococcids both the male and female develop from a fertilised egg. In females, all chromosomes remain functional. In embryos destined to become males, one haploid set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatinised after the sixth cleavage division and remains so in most tissues.

That imprinting might be a feature of mammalian development was suggested in breeding experiments in mice carrying reciprocal chromosomal translocations. Nucleus transplantation experiments in mouse zygotes in the early 1980s confirmed that normal development requires the contribution of both the maternal and paternal genomes; the vast majority of mouse embryos derived from parthenogenesis and androgenesis die at or before the blastocyst/implantation stage. In the rare instances that they develop to postimplantation stages, gynogenetic embryos show better embryonic development relative to placental development, while for androgenones, the reverse is true. For the latter, only a few have been described. No occurring cases of parthenogenesis exist in mammals because of imprinted genes. However, in 2004, experimental manipulation by Japanese researchers of a paternal methylation imprint controlling the Igf2 gene led to the birth of a mouse with two maternal sets of chromosomes, though it is not a true parthenogenone since cells from two different female mice were used.

The researchers were able to succeed by using one egg from an immature parent, thus reducing maternal imprinting, modifying it to express the gene Igf2, only expressed by the paternal copy of the gene. Parthenogenetic/gynogenetic embryos have twice the normal expression level of maternally derived genes, lack expression of paternally expressed genes, while the reverse is true for androgenetic embryos, it is now known that there are at least 80 imprinted genes in humans and mice, many of which are involved in embryonic and placental growth and development. Hybrid offspring of two species may exhibit unusual growth due to the novel combination of imprinted genes. Various methods have been used to identify imprinted genes. In swine, Bischoff et al. 2009 compared transcriptional profiles using short-oligonucleotide microarrays to survey differentially expressed genes between parthenotes and control fetuses. An intriguing study surveying the transcriptome of murine brain tissues revealed over 1300 imprinted gene loci by RNA-sequencing from F1 hybrids resulting from reciprocal crosses.

The result however has been challenged by others who claimed that this is an overestimation by an order of magnitude due to flawed statistical analysis. In domesticated livestock, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in imprinted genes influencing foetal growth and development have been shown to be associated with economically important production traits in cattle and pigs. At the same time as the generation of the gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos discussed above, mouse embryos were being generated that contained only small regions that were derived from either a paternal or maternal source; the generation of a series of such uniparental disomies, which together span the entire genome, allowed the creation of an imprinting map. Those regions which when inherited from a single parent result in a discernible phenotype contain imprinted gene. Further research showed that within these regions there were numerous imprinted genes. Around 80% of imprinted genes are found in clusters such as these, called imprinted domains, sugges

Citation signal

In law, a citation or introductory signal is a set of phrases or words used to clarify the authority of a legal citation as it relates to a proposition. It is used in citations to present authorities and indicate how those authorities relate to propositions in statements. Legal writers use citation signals to tell readers how the citations support their propositions, organizing citations in a hierarchy of importance so the reader can determine the relative weight of a citation. Citation signals help a reader to discern meaning or usefulness of a reference when the reference itself provides inadequate information. Citation signals have different meanings in different U. S. citation-style systems. The two most prominent citation manuals are The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation and the ALWD Citation Manual; some state-specific style manuals provide guidance on legal citation. The Bluebook citation system is the most comprehensive and the most used system by courts, law firms and law reviews.

Most citation signals are placed in front of the citation. In the paragraph When writing a legal argument, it is important to refer to primary sources. To assist readers in locating these sources, it is desirable to use a standardized citation format. See Harvard Law Review Association, The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. Note, that some courts may require any legal papers that are submitted to them to conform to a different citation format; the signal is "see generally", which indicates that The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation provides background information on the topic. When writers do not signal a citation, the cited authority states the proposition, is the source of the cited quotation or identifies an authority referred to in the text; this signal, an abbreviation of the Latin exempli gratia, means "for example". It tells the reader; this signal may be used in combination with other signals, preceded by an italicized comma. The comma after e.g. is not italicized when attached to another signal at the end, but is italicized when e.g. appears alone.

Examples: Parties challenging state abortion laws have disputed in some courts the contention that a purpose of these laws, when enacted, was to protect prenatal life. See, e.g. Abele v. Markle, 342 F. Supp. 800, appeal docketed, No. 72-56. Hiring undocumented laborers is a widespread industry practice. E.g. Transamerica Ins. Co. v. Bellefonte Ins. Co. 548 F. Supp. 1329, 1331. "Accord" is used when two or more sources state or support the proposition, but the text quotes only one. Legal writers use accord to indicate that the law of one jurisdiction is in accord with that of another jurisdiction. Examples: "ervousness alone does not justify extended detention and questioning about matters not related to the stop." United States v. Chavez-Valenzuela, 268 F.3d 719,725. "... The term'Fifth Amendment' in the context of our time is regarded as being synonymous with the privilege against self-incrimination". Quinn v. United States, 349 U. S. 155, 163, 75 S. Ct. 668, 99 L. Ed. 964. Rptr. 180, 184, 188. "See" indicates that the cited authority supports, but does not directly state, the proposition given.

Used to no signal, to indicate that the proposition follows from the cited authority. It may be used to refer to a cited authority which supports the proposition. For example, before 1997 the IDEA was silent on the subject of private school reimbursement, but courts had granted such reimbursement as "appropriate" relief under principles of equity pursuant to 20 U. S. C. § 1415. See Burlington, 471 U. S. at 370, 105 S. Ct. 1996. S. C. § 1415. This indicates that the cited authority constitutes additional material which supports the proposition less directly than that indicated by "see" or "accord". "See also" may be used to introduce a case supporting the stated proposition, distinguishable from previously-cited cases. It is sometimes used to refer readers to authorities supporting a proposition when other supporting authorities have been cited or discussed. A parenthetical explanation of the source's relevance, after a citation introduced by "see also", is encouraged. For example, "... Omitting the same mental element in a similar weapons possession statute, such as RCW 9.41.040 indicates that the omission was purposeful and that strict liability was intended.

See State v. Alvarez, 74 Wash. App. 250, 260, 872 P.2d 1123 (omission of "course of conduct

James Hardy (sailor)

Sir James Gilbert Hardy OBE AASA is an Australian winemaker and businessman, noted for his yachting achievements. A descendant of the South Australian winemaker Thomas Hardy, James Hardy was born at Seacliff, South Australia on 20 November 1932, his father, Tom Mayfield Hardy, appointed chairman and managing director of Thomas Hardy and Sons in 1924, was one of those killed near Mount Dandenong on 25 October 1938 in the crash of the plane "Kyeema". Tom Hardy was a noted sailor, associated with the yacht Nerida at the Royal South Australian Yacht Squadron. Hardy was educated at Brighton Primary School, St. Peter's College and the South Australian Institute of Technology. On leaving school, he spent two years share farming at Port Vincent, South Australia joined the family wine company Thomas Hardy and Sons in 1953, working as a shipping clerk, he served as Sales Supervisor from 1957 to 1961 as Regional Director for the Eastern States of Australia, when he and his family moved permanently to Sydney with a residence at Manly.

He was appointed chairman in 1981 and non-executive director in 1992 when it merged to become BRL Hardy Wine Company. A renowned world champion yachtsman, Hardy represented Australia at two Olympic Games, skippered three America's Cup challenges, competed in four Admiral's Cup Ocean Racing Championships. Hardy has served 25 years on the executive committee of the Neurosurgical Research Foundation of South Australia He was Chair of the Federal Government's Natural Heritage Trust Advisory Committee for 8 years He is a former Chairman of the Landcare Foundation. In 1975, in recognition of his contribution to sailing and the community, he was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire. In 1981 he was invested a Knight Bachelor for services to yachting. In 1994, Hardy was inducted into the America's Cup Hall of Fame. In 2000 he was awarded the Australian Sports Medal, he was Chairman of Sydney's Australia Day Regatta, serving from 2004 until 2011, is a patron of numerous organizations and charities.

Hardy married Anne Christine Jackson on 29 December 1956. They had two sons: David Ponder Hardy Richard James Hardy Hardy is an active Freemason and was initiated into the Lodge City of Sydney No. 952 in 1962. He served as Worshipful Master of his mother lodge in 1971. In 1976, he was appointed as Deputy Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, an office he served for two years. Lodge Sir James Hardy No. 1046, on the register of the United Grand Lodge of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory is named after Hardy in his honour. The lodge was consecrated on 21 May 2011 and Hardy still maintains active membership in the lodge

Fauzia Gailani

Fauzia Gailani was elected to represent Herat Province in Afghanistan's Wolesi Jirga, the lower house of its National Legislature, in 2005. She won 16,885 votes, more than any other candidate in Herat. Prior to her election Fauzia, a mother of six, had established a chain of fitness centers, she belongs to the Gailani ethnic Pashtun family of Afghanistan. Fauzia has spoken out against violence against women, has spoken out forced marriages for girls, she herself was forced to marry, at thirteen years of age. She was quoted following the murder of Nadia Anjuman, a young Afghan poet whose husband was arrested for her death after admitting hitting her following an argument; the Congressional Research Service described Fauzia as one of the independent representatives whose support the Hamid Karzai administration was struggling to win. Media related to Fauzia Gailani at Wikimedia Commons

Johan Malcolm

Richard Johan Anders Malcolm-Hansen, known as Johan Malcolm, is an English-born Danish cricketer. He is a right-handed batsman and a right-arm offbreak bowler who has played internal cricket for Denmark and first-class cricket for Loughborough University and Leicestershire County Cricket Club, he first played for the Danish cricket team in 2005 in the 2005 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy and continued playing for the side until 2007/08. He played for Kent Second XI between 2003 and 2007 in both the Second Eleven Championship and Second Eleven Trophy and plays in the Kent Cricket League for Beckenham Cricket Club. Malcolm played in Denmark's 2005 ICC Trophy campaign. During 2007 he made his first-class cricket debut, for Loughborough UCCE against Yorkshire before joining Leicestershire on an MCC sponsored internship for the 2008 season, he played four matches for the Leicestershire First XI, two in the County Championship and two in the 2008 Pro40 List A cricket competition. He left the county at the end of the 2008 season.

Johan Malcolm at ESPNcricinfo

Moshe Ron

Moshe Ron is an Israeli materials scientist, specializing in metal hydrides. Moshe Ron was born in Poland, his family escaped to USSR before World War II. He started his academic education in soviet Central Asia during the war. After the war he spent two years at Cyprus, he got his degree from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He made research of Mössbauer effect in metals. Moshe Ron was organizer and scientific supervisor of Laboratory of Hydrogen Energy at Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, he contributed a lot into development of heat pumps based on use of metal hydrides. His research was supported by Stuttgart University. M. Ron. J. Less-Common Metals 104, 259. M. Ron et al. Israeli Patenr # 55403. M. Ron and Y. Josephy. Z. Phys. Chem. N. F. 147, 241. M. Ron and Y. Josephy. Z. Phys. Chem. N. F. 164, 1478. M. Ron and Y. Josephy. Proceed. "International Workshop on Metal Hydrides for Thermodyn. Devices". 1988, Germany. M. Ron. " A Vehicle Driven by Hydrogen within a City and Air Conditioned". Study, submitted to Daimler - Benz, 1993.

E. Bershadski, A. Klyuch and M. Ron. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 20 p. 29. M. Ron, E. Bershadsky and Y. Josephy. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 17, 623. M. Ron. US Patent # 4,507,263 1985. Y. Yosephy, Y. Eisenberg, S. Peretz, A. Ben-David and M. Ron. J. Less-Common Metals 104, 297. E. Bershadsky, Y. Josephy and M. Ron. J. Less-Common Metals 153, 65