The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, therefore of any individual, which determines one of its characteristics. The term was coined by the Danish botanist, plant physiologist and geneticist Wilhelm Johannsen in 1903. Genotype is one of three factors that determine phenotype, along with inherited factors, epigenetic factors and non-inherited environmental factors. Not all organisms with the same genotype look or act the same way because appearance and behavior are modified by environmental and growing conditions. Not all organisms that look alike have the same genotype. One's genotype differs subtly from one's genomic sequence, because it refers to how an individual differs or is specialized within a group of individuals or a species. So one refers to an individual's genotype with regard to a particular gene of interest and the combination of alleles the individual carries. Genotypes are denoted with letters, for example Bb, where B stands for one allele and b for another. Somatic mutations which are acquired rather than inherited, such as those in cancers, are not part of the individual's genotype.
Hence and physicians sometimes talk about the genotype of a particular cancer, that is, of the disease as distinct from the diseased. An example of a characteristic determined by a genotype is the petal color in a pea plant; the collection of all genetic possibilities for a single trait are called alleles. Any given gene will cause an observable change in an organism, known as the phenotype; the terms genotype and phenotype are distinct for at least two reasons: To distinguish the source of an observer's knowledge. Genotype and phenotype are not always directly correlated; some genes only express a given phenotype in certain environmental conditions. Conversely, some phenotypes could be the result of multiple genotypes; the genotype is mixed up with the phenotype which describes the end result of both the genetic and the environmental factors giving the observed expression. A simple example to illustrate genotype as distinct from phenotype is the flower colour in pea plants. There are three available genotypes, PP, Pp, pp.
All three have different genotypes but the first two have the same phenotype as distinct from the third. A more technical example to illustrate genotype is the single-nucleotide polymorphism or SNP. A SNP occurs when corresponding sequences of DNA from different individuals differ at one DNA base, for example where the sequence AAGCCTA changes to AAGCTTA; this contains two alleles: C and T. SNPs have three genotypes, denoted generically AA Aa and aa. In the example above, the three genotypes would be CC, CT and TT. Other types of genetic marker, such as microsatellites, can have more than two alleles, thus many different genotypes. Penetrance is the proportion of individuals showing a specified genotype in their phenotype under a given set of environmental conditions; the distinction between genotype and phenotype is experienced when studying family patterns for certain hereditary diseases or conditions, for example, hemophilia. Humans and most animals are diploid; these alleles can be the different, depending on the individual.
With a dominant allele, the offspring is guaranteed to inherit the trait in question irrespective of the second allele. In the case of an albino with a recessive allele, the phenotype depends upon the other allele. An affected person mating with a heterozygous individual there is a 50-50 chance the offspring will be albino's phenotype. If a heterozygote mates with another heterozygote, there is 75% chance passing the gene on and only a 25% chance that the gene will be displayed. A homozygous dominant individual has no risk of abnormal offspring. A homozygous recessive individual has an abnormal phenotype and is guaranteed to pass the abnormal gene onto offspring. In the case of hemophilia, it is sex-linked. Only females can be a carrier; this woman has a normal phenotype, but runs a 50-50 chance, with an unaffected partner, of passing her abnormal gene on to her offspring. If she mated with a man with haemophilia there would be a 75% chance of passing on the gene. Genotyping is the process of elucidating the genotype of an individual with a biological assay.
Known as a genotypic assay, techniques include PCR, DNA fragment analysis, allele specific oligonucleotide probes, DNA sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization to DNA microarrays or beads. Several common genotyping techniques include restriction fragment length polymorphism, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, amplified fragment length polymorphism, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. DNA fragment analysis can be used to determine such disease causing genetics aberrations as microsatellite instability, trisomy or aneuploidy, loss of heterozygosity. MSI and LOH in particular have been associated with cancer cell genotypes for colon and cervical cancer; the most common chromosomal aneuploidy is a trisomy of chromosome 21 which manifests itself as Down syndrome. Current technological limitations allow only a fraction of an indivi
The 2019 FNL Cup was the 8th edition of FNL Cup, a friendly association football tournament played in Cyprus. Rotor Volgograd qualified for semifinals. Mordovia Saransk qualified for fifth place. FC Pyunik qualified for ninth place. FC Murom qualified thirteenth place. Shinnik Yaroslavl qualified for semifinals. FC Tyumen qualified for fifth place. Riga FC qualified for ninth place. Chertanovo Moscow qualified thirteenth place. FC Tambov qualified for semifinals. Ural Yekaterinburg qualified for fifth place. FC Khimki qualified for ninth place. FC Krasnodar-2 qualified thirteenth place. Avangard Kursk qualified for semifinals. Spartak-2 Moscow qualified for fifth place. FCI Levadia qualified for ninth place. Fakel Voronezh qualified thirteenth place. Semifinals Finals Semifinals Finals Semifinals Finals Semifinals Finals Levadia refused to play 2nd half and FA awarded 3–0 for Chertanovo Moscow! 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal 1 own goal Yuri Lebedev with FC Tyumen. Vitali Stezhko with FC Pyunik; the following awards were given at the conclusion of the tournament.
Takatsuki-shi Station is a train station on the Hankyu Railway Kyoto Line located in Takatsuki, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. It is one of the main train stations of the city along with Takatsuki Station on the JR Kyoto Line. Hankyu Kyoto Main LineAll types of train services on the line stop at Takatsuki-shi as one of key stations along the line. Many trains from Osaka Osaka Metro rolling stock-operated services from the Sakaisuji Line, terminate at Takatsuki-shi; the station opened on January 16, 1928, served as the terminal of the Shin-Keihan Line until its extension to Kyoto in November 1928. The station name was Takatsuki-machi and was changed to the present one in 1943 when the town obtained the city status; the construction of the elevated station replacing the original ground-level station was completed in 1994. The elevated station consists of three levels: 1st level: Ming Hankyu Takatsuki shopping center 2nd level: Station facilities and Ming Hankyu Takatsuki shopping center 3rd level: Platforms and tracksThere are two island platforms, each of which serves two tracks.
Takatsuki-shi Station from Hankyu Railway website Ming Hankyu Takatsuki
The UCLA School of Nursing is a nursing school affiliated with UCLA, is located in the Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. The school is housed in the Doris and Louis Factor Health Sciences Building, known as the Factor Building, on the south end of UCLA's 400-plus-acre campus, adjacent to the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center; the UCLA School of Nursing's mission is to prepare nurses and scholars to lead and transform nursing care in a changing and complex healthcare environment through academic excellence, innovative research, superior clinical practice, strong community partnerships, global initiatives. The school is named to U. S. News & World Report's Top Nursing Schools list, ranking the master's program 20th in 2019, it is one of the country's highest research-funded schools, ranking in the top 20 among nursing schools in grant funding from the National Institute of Health. UCLA, a public research university in Los Angeles, was founded in 1919. Nursing education at UCLA dates back to 1929.
In the early days, registered nurses received certificates in public health offered through university extension courses. In 1932 a group of public health nurses advocated for a Department of Nursing Education to be established in the College of Letters and Science. Dr. Elinore Beebe, RN, PhD, recruited from Yale, became the first director of the UCLA Public Health Nursing program under the Department of Bacteriology in 1937; the 1940s was a time of growth for the program. The Bachelor of Science degree was established within a new College of Applied Arts. In 1946 the Department of Public Health Nursing became the Department of Nursing, with faculty added to develop courses to prepare nursing supervisors. Professor Lulu K. Wolf from Vanderbilt University was recruited to develop a nursing school at UCLA. Wolf had graduated with honors in 1924 from the Army School of Nursing, Walter Reed Hospital, earned her BS from Columbia University Teachers' College in 1927. In 1949 the University of California Regents authorized the School of Nursing as one of the professional schools of the UCLA Centers for the Health Sciences, Wolf was appointed the school's first dean.
This action paved the way in 1950 for the opening of an undergraduate traditional program in nursing leading to the Bachelor of Science degree and the establishment of a graduate program leading to the Master of Science degree in nursing the following year. In 1966 the Master of Nursing degree was established as an alternate option to the MS degree; the MS degree program was discontinued in 1969. Meanwhile, in the 1960s, the school hosted and participated in international programs with many countries around the world including Columbia, Hong Kong and Japan, which led to an increase in the number of international students; the Regents approved the Doctor of Nursing Science degree program in 1986, in 1987 the first doctoral students were admitted. In the mid-1990s, the master's degree designation MN was changed to Master of Science in Nursing, the doctoral degree designation DNSc was changed to PhD in Nursing. In 1993 admissions to the bachelor's program was suspended and the last class graduated in 1997.
In its place, the Bridge program was introduced to meet the educational needs of students who are registered nurses with associate degrees or diplomas in nursing. In 2006 the school reinstated a traditional / prelicensure BS program with admission at the freshman level and launched the Master's Entry Clinical Nurse / prelicensure program option within the MSN degree program, designed for prelicensure students with bachelor's degrees or higher education in another discipline; the UCLA School of Nursing is approved by the Undergraduate and Graduate Councils of the Academic Senate of the University of California at Los Angeles. In addition, the prelicensure and advanced practice master's programs are approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing. In 2011 the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education accredited the existing bachelor's and master's degree programs for a term of 10 years, the highest that can be granted. UCLA holds Western Association of Colleges accreditation; the UCLA School of Nursing offers five degree programs including Bachelor of Science, MSN – Master's Entry Clinical Nurse, Master of Science in Nursing – Advanced Practice Registered Nurse, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Nursing Practice.
Education is provided in clinical settings. In addition to degree programs, the school offers summer research programs and accepts applications from all qualified nursing students with junior status from any undergraduate institution in the United States; the eight-week program is designed for students who plan to pursue a PhD degree and enter academic careers in nursing. Research areas include Biobehavioral Sciences, Biologic Sciences, Health Disparities/Vulnerable Populations, Health Services Research. UCLA School of Nursing scholars represent a wide range of disciplines including nursing, public health, epidemiology, physiological sciences, the basic sciences. All are committed to scholarship in the service of improving health and quality of life throughout the lifespan; some examples of faculty research include: The impact of heart failure and sleep apnea on brain function Screening, prevention and management of pressure ulcers and wound care Cellular targets for Alzheimer's treatments or prev
Edward Leonard Klewicki was an American football player. Of Polish descent, he is in the National Polish-American Hall of Fame. Edward L. Klewicki was born in Pittsburgh and moved to Hamtramck, Michigan with his family at a young age. At the time, Hamtramck was an enclave of Polish immigrants in the Detroit area, he graduated from Hamtramck High School in 1929. During his high school career, he was the catcher on the school's first championship baseball team and starred in the backfield for the football team. Klewicki received his school's highest graduation award for combining achievement in scholarship and citizenship. Klewicki moved on the play football at Michigan State College, his college coach, Charles Bachman, rated Klewicki as the best defensive end he had coached. The New York Sun selected him to the All-American 2nd Team in 1934, the same year he won Michigan State's MVP Award. In 1935, Klewicki signed a pro contract with the Detroit Lions and was a member of the NFL's World Championship team that season.
He continued to play pro football through the 1938 season. Klewicki earned a B. S. attended Purdue University for post-graduate work. He served in a number of positions including president of the Michigan State Varsity Alumni for two years as well as secretary for the same club for four years. In addition, he served as president of the Detroit Lions Alumni and the president of the Lansing Country Club. Ed Klewicki played a key role in the Detroit Lions' 26-7 triumph over the New York Giants for the National Football League crown on a raw, gloomy afternoon at the University of Detroit Stadium before 15,000 fans on December 19, 1935. In the early minutes of play, Lions' coach Potsy Clark decided to surprise the Giants with a shotgun offense. Glenn Presnell, the Lions' passer, fired a long pass intended for Klewicki, but the ball hit New York Giants' Ed Danowski's chest; the ball squirted high in the air, but Klewicki reached out gathered the ball in and put the Lions into scoring position from the two-yard line.
Ace Gutowsky plunged for a touchdown, Presnell kicked the extra point and the Lions led 7-0 on their way to the championship
Sujith Wilson was a two-year-old who died on 26 October 2019 after falling into an abandoned deep bore well by his house in Nadukattupatti, a village near Trichy. October 2019 at around 5:45 pm; the rescue operations commenced on 25 October 2019 around 8:00 pm and went in full swing continuously for more than 80 hours. The rescue operation was affected by rain; the operations to rescue Sujith went viral across the country as prayers were conducted for the rescue operations of the boy. Around 2:00 am, 30 October 2019 officials confirmed the death of the boy, the last rites were held six hours later. Following and the sensitive and tragic aspect of the two year boy's incident and celebrities across India paid tribute and offered their condolences for Sujith Wilson. Sujith fell into the deep bore well on 25 October 2019 at around 5.45 in the evening and was stuck at 30 ft but fell deep to about 88 ft. A constant supply of oxygen was given to the child to help his survival in the deep underground environment with traces of oxygen.
A wider tube-well was drilled for over two days in order to rescue the child since initial efforts to save the child from the existing bore hole failed. The officials felt difficulties to assess the condition of the boy due to covering of mud. Nearly 550 rescue operators were indulged in this rescue operation; the whole incident went viral across all social media platforms and led to the development of hashtags such as #PrayforSujith and #SujithWilson went viral on Twitter in support of the rescue operations. The rescue operation was put on hold in late night on 28 October 2019 after detecting the odor of decomposition at the top of the bore well; the officials speculated that the boy might have been dead. The following day, it was announced that Sujith was dead and the decomposing body was recovered around 2 am. M. K. Stalin, leader of DMK tweeted his tributes and condolences to the child's family and criticised the Tamil Nadu government for the drawbacks and shortcomings regarding the failure of the rescue operations.
Sujith's death was mourned in Sri Lanka as few local leading newspapers such as The Daily Mirror depicted the tragedy of Sujith Wilson as the main headlines by adding "The rescue mission to save toddler". Several film actors and actresses paid tribute to the child in social media such as Vivek, Samantha Akkineni, Udhayanidhi Stalin and Vikram Prabhu Politicians including Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Rahul Gandhi and cricketers Ravichandran Ashwin, Harbhajan Singh poured in condolences to the child; the body was buried at the Fathima Pudur Burial Grounds in Malaiyadhipathi on 29 October 2019 at 8 am. 2019 in India