Emiliano Zapata Salazar was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, the main leader of the peasant revolution in the state of Morelos, the inspiration of the agrarian movement called Zapatismo. Zapata was born in the rural village of Anenecuilco in Morelos State, where peasant communities were under increasing pressure from the small landowning class who monopolized land and water resources for sugar cane production with the support of dictator Porfirio Díaz. Zapata early on participated in political movements against Diaz and the landowning hacendados, when the Revolution broke out in 1910 he was positioned as a central leader of the peasant revolt in Morelos. Cooperating with a number of other peasant leaders he formed the Liberation Army of the South, of which he soon became the undisputed leader. Zapata's forces contributed to the fall of Díaz, defeating the Federal Army in the Battle of Cuautla, but when the revolutionary leader Francisco I. Madero became president. In November 1911, Zapata promulgated the Plan de Ayala which called for substantial land reforms, redistributing lands to the peasants.
Madero sent the Federal Army to root out the Zapatistas in Morelos. Madero's generals employed a scorched earth policy, burning villages and forcibly removing their inhabitants, drafting many men into the Army or sending them to forced labor camps in southern Mexico; this strengthened Zapata's standing among the peasants, Zapata was able to drive the forces of Madero led by Victoriano Huerta out of Morelos. In a coup against Madero in February 1913, Huerta took power in Mexico, but a coalition of Constitutionalist forces in northern Mexico led by Venustiano Carranza, Álvaro Obregón and Francisco "Pancho" Villa ousted him in July 1914 with the support of Zapata's troops. Zapata did not recognize the authority that Carranza asserted as leader of the revolutionary movement, continuing his adherence to the Plan de Ayala. In the aftermath of the revolutionaries' victory over Huerta, they attempted to sort out power relations in the Convention of Aguascalientes. Zapata and Villa broke with Carranza, Mexico descended into civil war among the winners.
Dismayed with the alliance with Villa, Zapata focused his energies on rebuilding society in Morelos which he now controlled, instituting the land reforms of the Plan de Ayala. As Carranza consolidated his power and defeated Villa in 1915, Zapata initiated guerrilla warfare against the Carrancistas, who in turn invaded Morelos, employing once again scorched-earth tactics to oust the Zapatista rebels. Zapata once again retook Morelos in 1917 and held most of the state against Carranza's troops until he was killed in an ambush in April 1919. Article 27 of the 1917 Mexican Constitution was drafted in response to his agrarian demands. After his death, Zapatista generals aligned with Obregón against Carranza and helped drive Carranza from power. In 1920, Zapatistas managed to obtain powerful posts in the governance of Morelos after Carranza's fall, they instituted many of the land reforms envisioned by Zapata in Morelos. Zapata remains an iconic figure in Mexico, used both as a nationalist symbol as well as a symbol of the neo-Zapatista movement.
Emiliano Zapata was born to Gabriel Zapata and Cleofas Jertrudiz Salazar of Anenecuilco, Morelos, a well-known local family. Zapata's family were Mexicans of Nahua and Spanish ancestry. Emiliano was the ninth of ten children, and three brothers: Pedro and Loreto. The Zapata family were descended from the Zapata of Mapaztlán, his maternal grandfather, José Salazar, served in the army of José María Morelos y Pavón during the siege of Cuautla. From a family of farmers, Emiliano Zapata had insight into the severe difficulties of the countryside and his village's long struggle to regain land taken by expanding haciendas, he received a limited education from his teacher, Emilio Vara, but it included "the rudiments of bookkeeping". At the age of 16 or 17, Zapata had to care for his family following his father's death. Emiliano was entrepreneurial, buying a team of mules to haul maize from farms to town, as well as bricks to the Hacienda of Chinameca, he was a skilled competed in rodeos and races, as well as bullfighting from horseback.
These skills as a horseman brought him work as a horse trainer for Porfirio Díaz's son-in-law, who had a hacienda nearby, served Zapata well as a revolutionary leader. He had a striking appearance, with a large mustache in which he took pride, good quality clothing described by his loyal secretary: "General Zapata's dress until his death was a charro outfit: tight-fitting black cashmere pants with silver buttons, a broad charro hat, a fine linen shirt or jacket, a scarf around his neck, boots of a single piece, Amozoqueña-style spurs, a pistol at his belt." In an undated studio photo, Zapata is dressed in a standard business suit and tie, projecting an image of a man of means. Around the turn of the 20th century, Anenecuilco was a mixed Spanish-speaking mestizo and indigenous Nahuatl-speaking pueblo, it had a long history of protesting the local haciendas taking community members' land, its leaders gathered colonial-era documentation of their land titles to prove their claims. Some of the colonial documentation was in Nahuatl, with contemporary translations to Spanish for use in legal cases in the Spanish courts.
Congress of the Union
The Congress of the Union, formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States, is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress of the Union meets in Mexico City and consists of 628 members: 500 deputies and 128 senators; the Congress is a bicameral body, consisting of two chambers: Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. Its structure and responsibilities are defined in the Third Title, Second Chapter, Articles 50 to 79 of the 1917 Constitution; the upper chamber is the Senate, "Cámara de Senadores" or "Senado". It comprises 128 seats, 96 members are elected by direct popular vote for six-year terms; the lower house is the Chamber of Deputies, or "Cámara de Diputados". It has 500 seats; the Congress of the Union has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies has 500 members, each elected for a three-year term, 300 of whom are elected in single-seat constituencies by plurality, with the remaining 200 members elected by proportional representation in 5 multi-state, 40-seat constituencies.
The 200 PR-seats are distributed without taking account the 300 plurality-seats, but since 1996 a party cannot get more seats overall than 8% above its result for the PR-seats. There are two exceptions to that rule. A party can lose only PR-seats by that rule. A party cannot get more than 300 seats overall; the Chamber of Senators has 128 members, elected for a six-year term, 96 of them in three-seat constituencies and 32 by proportional representation on a nationwide basis. In the state constituencies, two seats are awarded to the plurality winner and one to the first runner-up; the "Comisión Permanente del Congreso de la Unión", translated variously as the Permanent Committee or Standing Committee, is a body of 19 deputies and 18 senators, responsible for tasks relating to the Congress when it is in recess. It is conventional to refer to each Legislature by the Roman numeral of its term. Thus, the current Congress is known as the "LXIV Legislature"; the I Legislature of Congress was the first Constitutional congress after the 1857 Constitution.
Early in the 20th century, the revolutionary leader Francisco I. Madero popularized the slogan Sufragio Efectivo – no Reelección. In keeping with that long-held principle, until 2014, the 1917 Constitution stated that "Deputies and Senators could not be reelected for the next immediate term". On February 10, 2014, the Mexican Constitution was amended to allow reelection to the legislative bodies for the first time. Starting with the general election of 2018, Deputies and Senators are allowed to run for reelection. Members of the Chamber of Deputies may serve up to four terms of three years each while members of the Senate may serve two terms of six years each. A Of the 53 seats won by the MORENA-PT–PES alliance, 40 were taken by MORENA, 8 by the PES, 5 by the PT b Of the 25 seats won by the PAN–PRD–MC alliance, 16 were taken by the PAN, 6 by the PRD, 3 by the MC c Of the 13 seats won by the PRI–PVEM–PNA alliance, 7 were taken by the PRI, 5 by the PVEM, 1 by the PNA a Of the 210 seats won by the MORENA-PT–PES alliance, 97 were taken by MORENA, 57 by the PT, 56 by the PES b Of the 63 seats won by the PAN–PRD–MC alliance, 37 were taken by the PAN, 17 by the MC, 9 by the PRD c Of the 13 seats won by the PRI–PVEM–PNA alliance, 6 were taken by the PRI, 5 by the PVEM, 2 by the PNA Chamber of Deputies Senate Politics of Mexico List of legislatures by country Chamber of Deputies Senate
A casta was a term to describe mixed-race individuals in Spanish America, resulting from unions of European whites and Africans. Racial categories had legal and social consequences, since racial status was an organizing principle of Spanish colonial rule. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, European elites created a complex hierarchical system of race classification; the sistema de castas or the sociedad de castas was used in the 17th and 18th century in New Spain, a vast area of land starting just below Alaska stretching all the way to the Isthmus of Panama, plus the entire Caribbean, the Floridas and Spanish Philippines, to formally rank the mixed-race people who were born during the post-Conquest period. The process of mixing ancestries in the union of people of different races was known as mestizaje. In Spanish colonial law, mixed-race castas were classified as part of the república de españoles and not the república de indios, which set Amerindians outside the Hispanic sphere.
Other terminology for classification is categorization based on the degree of acculturation to Hispanic culture, which distinguished between gente de razón and gente sin razón, concurrently existed and supported the idea of the racial classification system. Created by Hispanic elites, the sistema de castas or the sociedad de castas, varied due to their birth, color and origin of ethnic types; the system of casta was more than socio-racial classification. It had an effect on every aspect of life, including taxation. Both the Spanish colonial state and the Church required more tax and tribute payments from those of lower socio-racial categories. Related to Spanish ideas about purity of blood, the colonists established a caste system in Latin America by which a person's socio-economic status correlated with race or racial mix in the known family background, or on phenotype if the family background was unknown. From the colonial period, when the Spanish imposed control, many wealthy persons and high government officials were of peninsular and/or European background, while African or indigenous ancestry, or dark skin was correlated with inferiority and poverty.
The "whiter" the heritage a person could claim, the higher in status they could climb. Casta paintings were a new, secular art form produced in eighteenth-century Mexico. A notable exception to the secular nature of the genre is Luis de Mena's 1750 painting of Virgin of Guadalupe with castas. Casta is an Iberian word, meaning "lineage", "breed" or "race", it is derived from the older Latin word castus, "chaste", implying that the lineage has been kept pure. Casta gave rise to the English word caste during the Early Modern Period; the idea of "purity of blood", limpieza de sangre, originating under Moorish rule, developed in Christian Spain to denote those without the "taint" of Jewish heritage. It was directly linked to religion and notions of legitimacy and honor following Spain's reconquest of Moorish territory, it was institutionalized during the Inquisition. The Inquisition only allowed those Spaniards who could demonstrate not to have Jewish and Moorish blood to emigrate to Latin America. Both in Spain and in the New World crypto-Jews were aggressively prosecuted.
Some emigrated as Portuguese merchants to Mexico City and Lima, following the successful revolt of Portugal in 1640 against the Castillian Crown. Several spectacular autos de fe in New Spain in the mid-seventeenth century featured the public punishment of those convicted of being "Judaizers". In Spanish America, the idea of purity of blood was in a complex fashion linked to ideas of race pertaining to mixing of whites and non-whites. Spaniards had become obsessed with lineage, following the expulsion of Moors and Jews, forced conversion of those who chose to remain. Evidence of lack of purity of blood had consequences for marriage, eligibility for office, entrance into the priesthood, emigration to Spain's overseas territories. Having to produce genealogical records to prove one's pure ancestry gave rise to a trade in the creation of false genealogies; when the concept of purity of blood was transferred overseas, it retained the concerns about tainted ancestry of Jews or Muslims in a family line.
During the early colonial decades, the Spanish in the New World had unions and marriages with indigenous women, resulting in generations of mixed-race children. In the late sixteenth century, some investigations of ancestry classified as "stains" any connection with Black Africans and sometimes mixtures with indigenous that produced Mestizos. While some illustrations from the period show men of African descent dressed in fashionable clothing and as aristocrats in upper-class surroundings, the idea that any hint of black ancestry was a stain developed by the end of the colonial period, it was illustrated in eighteenth-century paintings of racial hierarchy, known as casta paintings. The idea in New Spain that native or "Indian" blood in a lineage was an impurity may well have come about as the optimism of the early Franciscans faded about creating Indian priests trained at the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco, which ceased that function in the mid-sixteenth century. In
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
A military funeral is a memorial or burial rite given by a country's military for a soldier, marine or airman who died in battle, a veteran, or other prominent military figures or heads of state. A military funeral may feature guards of honor, the firing of volley shots as a salute and other military elements, with a flag draping over the coffin. Canadian military funerals involve many rituals seen in other parts of the world; the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery use a 25-pounder limber as the funeral vehicle. Muffled drums accompany the graveside processional; the deceased's headdress and medals are borne on a velvet cushion into the funeral service. Volleys are fired over the grave. Countries in the Commonwealth duplicate ceremony; the Canadian funeral described above typifies the funerary service. The bugle tune. In Chilean military funerals, due to its Prussian military tradition, the German song "Ich hatt' einen Kameraden" is sung in its Spanish version; the casket may not be horse-drawn on a caisson.
A bugler sounds the final honors during interment. When the coffin enters the tomb, a fireteam executes a salvo. If for a general or flag officer, the 1st Artillery Regiment "Tacna" fires a three-volley gun salute. In Germany, Ludwig Uhland's song "Ich hatt' einen Kameraden" is an integral part of a military funeral, it is played when the coffin is lowered into the grave, military personnel will perform a salute. In Indonesia, military funerals are given only military members or former guerrillas and Trikora Operation Soldiers those holding the Bintang Gerilya. Exceptional politicians and Ministers have the option for such a funeral, but most opt for a more intimate religious one. Music is not performed as it is not part of Indonesian military tradition, save only during the final honors. A 21-gun volley salute is the norm by seven soldiers- a mixture of armed forces personnel dependent on their career, Honour drill team is platoon-size formation and the larger the platoon or half company, the more illustrious the departed.
A good example of an Indonesian military burial is that of the late president Suharto-. Prayers are led by representatives of the person's religious faith. Similar traditions exist in the Indonesian National Police. See here: Indonesian Military Funeral Video Sample In Italy the members of the Armed Forces who died in the line of duty are granted a state funeral by decree of the Prime Minister. So the funeral follows the protocol of a state funeral, in particular the six officers in high uniform who carry the coffin are members of the same Armed Force of the departed. In Poland, the last fragment of Władysław Tarnowski's song Śpij, kolego, a portion of the larger composition Jak to na wojence ładnie is an integral part of a military funeral, played by a trumpeter, it is played during state ceremonies. Part of it is a three volley salute with the firing party consisting of an armed platoon or company. In Russia the people eligible for the military funerals are the distinguished veterans honorably discharged from service, servicemen killed in action or otherwise perished during their active service, state dignitaries and some other categories of people who distinguished themselves in state service.
The ritual include the honor guard, size of which depends on the deceased rank and status and may wary from a squad to a full company, which escorts the departed to the hearse and from the hearse to the grave, with a special detachment to carry the deceased's awards. A military marching band accompanies the funeral procession as well, traditionally playing the "How glorious is our Lord" as the body is put on the hearse and the National Anthem of Russia during the salute after the actual burial. On special occasions the garrison commander may authorise the use of a gun carriage instead of a traditional motor hearse. A deceased's portrait is carried before the procession, followed by the funerary wreaths and the awards, with the pallbearers following them. All military personnel presented are required to stand at attention as a flag-wrapped casket passes them. Aside from a flag, a land or air forces veteran is buried with his or her regulation cap on the casket, while naval officers are entitled to their ceremonial dirk and its sheath to be crossed on a casket cover.
Russian Orthodox clergy say a memorial player for the deceased woman. At the burial ground, the eulogy is first read, the flag is lowered and the band plays the funerary march as the casket is lowered into the grave, after which a three-volley salute is fired with blank rounds, followed by the performance of the national anthem by the band. A artillery gun salute may be authorised for a important funeral for a general or flag officer. In Spain, the formed troops sing "La muerte no es el final": Death is not the End during funeral ceremonies and in all military ceremonies, when the fallen are being honored; the Spanish Legion has an exception: the regimental hymn Novio de la Muerte is played in full instead during occasions that the Legion attends. The British Army carries reversed arms at military funerals; the Last Post and Rouse or Reveille are sounded at the right mome
Liberation Army of the South
The Liberation Army of the South was an armed group formed and led by Emiliano Zapata that took part in the Mexican Revolution. The force was known as the Zapatistas; the Zapatistas were formed in 1910 in the southern Mexican state of Morelos. Zapata, whose main cause was land reform, became one of the major figures of the Mexican Revolution; the Zapatistas aligned with Francisco Madero in opposition to the regime of president Porfirio Diaz, soon after overthrown in 1911. After Madero's regime, proved uncommitted to the cause of land reform, the Zapatistas turned against him. Fighting continued against the successive leaders Venustiano Carranza. In 1914, Zapata met at the head of his army with Pancho Villa and his forces at Mexico City to determine the course of the revolution, but they returned to their respective territories without a connected anti-Constitutionalist coalition; when back in Morelos, the Zapatistas fortified themselves against incursions by the forces eager to reassume control of the liberated territories known as the Morelos Commune.
Zapata's assassination in 1919 struck a mortal blow to Zapatistas, the army disbanded afterwards. The Zapatistas were poor peasants who wished to spend much of their time working their land to produce an income; as a result, Zapatista soldiers tended to serve for several months at a time, return home to spend most of the year farming. The structure of the Zapatista army was loose and the rank system limited in scope; the Zapatista army was united by the charismatic leadership of Zapata, but run by Abraham Gonzalez, the first commandant of the Mexican Marine Corps. It was divided into small independent units numbering more than one hundred men, each commanded by a chief; these units spent the overwhelming majority of their time separated from the other units. Officer ranks were introduced to coordinate groups; the chief of a unit over about fifty men was speaking, given the rank of general. Smaller bands were commanded by captains. Not all captains were official. Beyond Zapata's overall command and the leadership of bands, there was limited use of ranks or hierarchy.
Sub-officer ranks were introduced late in the revolution in an effort to create a more disciplined force. One of Zapata's famous dictums was "al ratero perdono pero al traidor jamas". Media related to Zapatistas of the Mexican Revolution at Wikimedia Commons