In ancient Rome, a gens, plural gentes, was a family consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and who claimed descent from a common ancestor. A branch of a gens was called a stirps; the gens was an important social structure at Rome and throughout Italia during the period of the Roman Republic. Much of individuals' social standing depended on the gens. Certain gentes were classified as others as plebeian; the importance of membership in a gens declined in imperial times, although the gentilicium continued to be used and defined the origins and dynasties of Roman emperors. The word gens is sometimes translated as "race", or "nation", meaning a people descended from a common ancestor, it can be translated as "clan", "kin", or "tribe", although the word tribus has a separate and distinct meaning in Roman culture. A gens could include hundreds of individuals. According to tradition, in 479 BC the gens Fabia alone were able to field a militia consisting of three hundred and six men of fighting age.
The concept of the gens was not uniquely Roman, but was shared with communities throughout Italy, including those who spoke Italic languages such as Latin and Umbrian as well as the Etruscans. All of these peoples were absorbed into the sphere of Roman culture; the oldest gentes were said to have originated before the foundation of Rome, claimed descent from mythological personages as far back as the time of the Trojan War. However, the establishment of the gens cannot long predate the adoption of hereditary surnames; the nomen gentilicium, or "gentile name", was its distinguishing feature, for a Roman citizen's nomen indicated his membership in a gens. The nomen could be derived from any number of things, such as the name of an ancestor, a person's occupation, physical appearance, behavior, or characteristics, or town of origin; because some of these things were common, it was possible for unrelated families to bear the same nomen, over time to become confused. Persons could acquire its nomen.
A libertus, or "freedman" assumed the nomen of the person who had manumitted him, a naturalized citizen took the name of the patron who granted his citizenship. Freedmen and newly enfranchised citizens were not technically part of the gentes whose names they shared, but within a few generations it became impossible to distinguish their descendants from the original members. In practice this meant that a gens could acquire new members and new branches, either by design or by accident. Different branches or stirpes of a gens were distinguished by their cognomina, additional surnames following the nomen, which could be either personal or hereditary; some large stirpes themselves became divided into multiple branches, distinguished by additional cognomina. Most gentes employed a limited number of personal names, or praenomina, the selection of which helped to distinguish members of one gens from another. Sometimes different branches of a gens would vary in their names of choice; the most conservative gentes would sometimes limit themselves to three or four praenomina, while others made regular use of six or seven.
There were two main reasons for this limited selection: first, it was traditional to pass down family names from one generation to the next. Second, most patrician families limited themselves to a small number of names as a way of distinguishing themselves from the plebeians, who employed a wider variety of names, including some that were used by the patricians. However, several of the oldest and most noble patrician houses used rare and unusual praenomina. Certain families deliberately avoided particular praenomina. In at least some cases, this was because of traditions concerning disgraced or dishonored members of the gens bearing a particular name. For example, the gens Junia avoided the praenomina Titus and Tiberius after two members with these names were executed for treason. A similar instance led the assembly of the gens Manlia to forbid its members from bearing the praenomen Marcus, although this prohibition does not seem to have been observed. In theory, each gens functioned as a state within a state, governed by its own elders and assemblies, following its own customs, carrying out its own religious rites.
Certain cults were traditionally associated with specific gentes. The gentile assemblies had the responsibility of guardianship for their members. If a member of a gens died intestate and without immediate family, his property was distributed to the rest of the gens; the decisions of a gens were theoretically binding on all of its members. However, no public enactment is recorded as having been passed by the assembly of a gens; as a group, the gentes had considerable influence on the development of Roman law and religious practices, but comparatively little influence on the political and constitutional history of Rome. Certain gentes were considered patrician, others plebeian. According to tradition, the patricians patres. Other noble families which came to Rome during the time of the kings were admitted to the patriciate, including several who emigrated from Alba Longa after that city was destroyed by Tullus Hostilius; the last known instance of a gens being admitted to the patri
Nelson M. Oyesiku is a Nigerian-born professor of neurosurgery, he serves as a vice chairman of neurological surgery and professor of Endocrinology at Emory School of Medicine. He serves as the Director of the Neurosurgical residency program at the Emory School of Medicine and is the Director of Laboratory and Molecular Neurosurgery and Biotechnology at Emory School of Medicine. Oyesiku was born in Nigeria where he graduated from St. Gregory’s College and received his medical degree from the University of Ibadan, he attended the University of London in the United Kingdom as a Commonwealth Scholar. He did his neurosurgical residency training and completed a PhD in the neuroscience graduate program at Emory University, he was appointed to the neurosurgical faculty in 1993 at Emory upon completion of his training As a board-certified neurosurgeon, Oyesiku has performed over 2,000 pituitary tumor surgeries He is one of the first to use 3D endoscopy in pituitary surgery and his clinical focus is on the surgical treatment of molecular biology of pituitary tumors.
He is one of few surgeons in the US and worldwide to utilize advanced 3-D endoscopic surgery for the resection of pituitary tumors In 2009, Dr. Oyesiku was one of the first to use the Visionsense 3D stereoscopic vision system at The Emory Pituitary Center at Emory University Hospital and five years Emory became the first medical center in the country to use the same company’s 3D HD stereoscopic system, utilizing its stereoscopic and endoscopic views, he is the principal investigator of the R25 NIH training grant for neurosurgery. Oyesiku and his team of researchers were responsible for performing the first studies on high throughput gene expression studies that identified unique aspects of pituitary adenoma gene expression which led to a new imaging procedure and potential targeted therapy of pituitary tumors; this molecular imaging diagnostic tool was pioneered and first utilized at Emory for patients with pituitary tumors, this imaging allows doctors to identify a key tumor marker in patients with clinically nonfunctional pituitary tumors, identifying patients for a potential new, targeted chemotherapy for clinically nonfunctional pituitary tumors.
Oyesiku’s current research includes the investigation of the development of pituitary adenomas using genome-wide association studies and whole genome sequencing methods. His laboratory contains one of the largest pituitary tumor banks connected to a clinical database to study natural history, treatment outcomes, molecular correlations Oyesiku has authored manuscripts, book chapters, a book in the field of neurosurgery, he has over 150 publications in various academic journals, serves as an ad hoc reviewer for several and in 2009 was named editor-in-chief of Neurosurgery, the official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons Oyesiku has served on the board of directors of the American Board of Neurological Surgery, as chairman of the Maintenance of Certification Committee, as chairman of the American Board of Neurological Surgery, on the Board of Governors of the American College of Surgeons, on the Advisory Council for Neurosurgery of the American College of Surgeons. He is a member of the Residency Review Committee of Neurosurgery of the ACGME and was a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons.
He has held leadership positions in the following organizations: the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, the Federation for International Education in Neurosurgery, the Georgia Neurosurgical Society, the Society of Neurological Surgeons, the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies. Most Dr. Oyesiku was decorated as Baa Segun-Alabe of Egbaland by the paramount ruler of Egbaland in Abeokuta, the capital city of Nigeria's south western Ogun State, to honor his efforts as a good ambassador of the community. -1992, Resident Award, American Academy of neurosurgery -1994, Young Investigator Award -1994, Brain Trauma Award -1995-1999, Medical Faculty Development Award, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation -1992 Augustus McCravey Resident Award, Southern Neurological Society -2001-2008 Best Doctors in America, Peer Selected -2002-2004 America’s Top Surgeons, Consumer Research Council -2014 Gentle Giant Award, Pituitary Network Association
Sarah Sumner is a theologian. She is the only female theologian in US history to serve as dean of a conservative seminary. From 2010 to 2012, she was dean of A. W. Tozer Theological Seminary in Redding, California. Now she is President of Right On Mission, a cutting edge seminary that offers four services: Seminary Services, Mission Statement Services, Speaking Services, Consulting Services, she is an adjunct professor at Trinity Law School in Santa Ana, California. Sarah Sumner is known for her articles and books on Christian women in leadership, godly anger, seminary education, marriage, her May 2011 article in Christianity Today, "The Seven Levels of Lying," drew more responses from CT readers than any other article that month. Regarding the debate on women in the church, Sarah Sumner is an evangelical theologian, said by her complementarian opponents to be a Christian egalitarian and said by her egalitarian opponents to be a complementarian. Sumner herself attempts to build consensus in Christian Leadership.
Nowhere in her sermons or writings does she advocate for the ordination of women in Protestant churches, although some nonetheless claim she does. Sumner has a Bachelor of Education from Baylor University, a Master of Theology from Wheaton College, a Master of Business Administration from Azusa Pacific University, she was formally trained at Harvard to be a global change agent. She is the first woman to graduate from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School with a PhD in systematic theology. Trinity International University has placed her on its list of top twenty alumni. In May 2011, she was Trinity's Commencement Speaker for the Class of 2011, her book Men and Women in the Church: Building Consensus on Christian Leadership was published in 2003 by InterVarsity Press. She was an associate professor of theology at Azusa Pacific at the time, she has published four books: Men and Women in the Church, IVP 2003. Leadership Above the Line, Tyndale, 2006. Just How Married Do You Want To Be? IVP, 2008. Angry Like Jesus: Using His Example To Spark Your Moral Courage Fortress Press, 2015.
She has contributed to several dictionaries and books and published articles in Christianity Today and other magazines