Cress, sometimes referred to as garden cress to distinguish it from similar plants referred to as cress, is a rather fast-growing, edible herb. Garden cress is genetically related to watercress and mustard, sharing their peppery, tangy flavor and aroma. In some regions, garden cress is known as mustard and cress, garden pepper cress, pepper grass, or poor man's pepper; this annual plant can reach a height of 60 cm, with many branches on the upper part. The white to pinkish flowers are only 2 mm across; when consumed raw, cress is a high-nutrient food containing substantial content of vitamins A, C and K and several dietary minerals. Garden cress is commercially grown in England, the Netherlands, Scandinavia. Cultivation of garden cress is practical both on the individual scale. Garden cress is suitable for hydroponic cultivation and thrives in alkaline water. In many local markets, the demand for hydroponically grown cress can exceed available supply because cress leaves are not suitable for distribution in dried form, so they can only be preserved.
Consumers acquire cress as seeds or from markets as boxes of young live shoots. Edible shoots are harvested in one to two weeks after planting, when they are 5–13 cm tall. Garden cress is added to soups and salads for its tangy flavor, it is eaten as sprouts, the fresh or dried seed pods can be used as a peppery seasoning. In the United Kingdom, cut cress shoots are used in sandwiches with boiled eggs and salt. Raw cress is 89% water, 6% carbohydrates, 3% protein and less than 1% fat. In a 100 gram amount, raw cress supplies 32 calories and numerous nutrients in significant content, including vitamin K, vitamin C and vitamin A. Among dietary minerals, manganese levels are high while several others, including potassium and magnesium, are in moderate content. Garden cress, known as chandrashoor, the seeds, known as aaliv in Marathi, or halloon in India, are used in the system of Ayurveda, it is known as asario in India and the Middle East where it is prized as a medicinal herb, called habbat al hamra in Arabic.
In the Arabian Peninsula, the seeds are traditionally mixed with custard to make a hot drink. List of vegetables Watercress
A croquette is a small breadcrumbed fried food roll containing as main ingredients, ground meat, fish, cheese, mashed potatoes or vegetables, mixed with béchamel or brown sauce, soaked white bread, onion and herbs, milk, beer, or some combination, sometimes with a filling, e.g. sautéed onions, mushrooms, or boiled eggs. The croquette is shaped into a cylinder, disk, or oval shape, deep-fried; the croquette gained worldwide popularity, both as a fast food. Mashed potato-filled croquettes are served as a side dish in winter holiday meals, such as Christmas. In fast food cuisine, varieties exist without potatoes, but with cheese, beef, or goulash in a filling based on béchamel sauce; the dish was created in France. In 1898 Monsieur Escoffier, the founder of the classical French Cuisine, together with the help of Monsieur Philias Gilbert, started to write down the recipe, it was made with beef. A potato-filled croquette called aloo tikki, which originated in the Indian subcontinent, is popular in northern India and is served with a stew.
They are eaten as snacks at home and are popularly sold by road-side vendors. In West Bengal, it is called alu chop, as in Bangladesh. Sometimes it is called a "cutlet" and eaten plain or as a fast food variation, served inside a hamburger bun. Meat croquettes called. Spiced beef croquettes are a popular snack and appetiser among the Christian communities in Goa and Kerala; the kroket made of mashed potato filled with minced chicken or ragout is one of the most popular snack items in Indonesia, introduced during the Dutch colonial rule. The kroket is made by putting chicken filling inside a mashed potato ball, breaded and fried. A relative of the croquette, known as korokke is a popular fried food available in supermarkets and butcher shops, as well as from specialty korokke shops. Patty-shaped, it is made of potatoes with some other ingredients such as vegetables and maybe less than 5% meat, it is served with tonkatsu sauce. Cylinder-shaped korokke are served, which more resemble the French version, where seafood or chicken in white sauce is cooled down to make it harden before the croquette is breaded and deep-fried.
When it is served hot, the inside melts. This version is called "cream korokke" to distinguish it from the potato-based variety, it is served with no sauce or tomato sauce. Unlike its French cousin, croquettes made of meat are not called korokke in Japan, they are called menchi short for minced meat cutlets. Called goroke or keuroket, it is a food sold in most bread shops in Korea; the most common type is deep fried rolls stuffed with japchae ingredients or chicken curry and mashed potato with vegetable salad. Goroke are sometimes filled with kimchi and bulgogi ingredients. Many Korean stores advertise the goroke as a French product and they are sold in most European-style bread stores all over Korea; every restaurant offers kroketten/croquettes as a side dish, when served this way, they always mean the variety filled with mashed potatoes. As the ubiquitous main dish in Belgian restaurants, croquettes are different from the potato filled variety served as a simple side dish; the two most popular traditional Belgian croquettes have a thick and creamy bechamel filling mixed with grey shrimps "garnaalkroketten/croquettes de crevettes" or cheese "kaaskroketten/croquettes de fromage".
Most menus offer both either as a main course. You'll find croquettes served everywhere in Belgium and the quality comes down to the filling; as a main dish they are served with a salad, fried parsley and frites. More adventurous chefs have experimented with the classic formula, adding endives, goat's cheese or beer to their fillings The ragout-filled dish was regarded as a French cuisine delicacy, first described in a recipe from 1691 by the chef of the French king Louis XIV and using ingredients such as truffles and cream cheese. From the 1800s onwards, it became a way to use up leftover stewed meat. Plain potato croquettes are served as a side dish in restaurants and are available frozen in supermarkets, they are called Kroketten. Krokett is a small cylindrical croquette similar to the Czech variety: potatoes, eggs and butter, seasoned with nutmeg and salt and deep-fried in oil; this variety can be ordered in most restaurants as a side dish, bought frozen. When made with cottage cheese, they are called túrókrokett.
In Italy, crocchette are made with crushed potatoes or vegetables, like aubergines. Plain potato croquettes are available frozen or refrigerated in most supermarkets, they are homemade with the addition of chopped onion. After World War II, several suppliers started mass-producing croquettes filled with beef; the croquette subsequently became more popular as a fast food. Its success as a fast food garnered its reputation as a cheap dish of dubious quality, to such an extent that Dutch tongue in cheek urban myths relate its "allegedly mysterious content" to offal and butchering waste. Research in 2008 showed. An estimated 75% of all Dutch people eat the
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Fish sauce is a liquid condiment made from fish or krill that have been coated in salt and fermented for up to two years. It is used as a staple seasoning in the cuisines of Southeast and East Asia Indonesian, Cambodian, Thai, Lao and Vietnamese. Following widespread recognition of its ability to impart a savory umami flavor to dishes, it has been embraced globally by chefs and home cooks; the umami flavor in fish sauce is due to its glutamate content. Soy sauce is regarded by some in the West as a vegetarian alternative to fish sauce though they are different in flavor. Fish sauce is not only added to dishes as a seasoning, but used as a base in dipping sauces. Sauces that included fermented fish parts with other ingredients such as meat and soy bean were recorded in China 2300 years ago. During the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, fish fermented with soybeans and salt was used as a condiment. By the time of the Han dynasty, soy beans were fermented without the fish into soy paste and its by-product soy sauce.
With fermented fish-based sauces developing separately into fish sauce. A fish sauce, called kôechiap in Hokkien Chinese, or kecap in Indonesia might be the precursor of ketchup. By 50–100 BC, demand for fish pastes in China had fallen drastically, with fermented bean products having become a major trade commodity. Fish sauce, developed massive popularity in Southeast Asia. Food scholars traditionally divide East Asia into two distinct condiment regions, separated by a bean-fish divide: Southeast Asia using fermented fish and Northeast Asia, using fermented beans. Fish sauce re-entered China in the 17th and 18th centuries, brought from Vietnam and Cambodia by Chinese traders up the coast of the southern provinces Guangdong and Fujian. Fish sauces were used in ancient Mediterranean cuisine; the earliest recorded production was between 4th–3rd century BC by the Ancient Greeks, who fermented scraps of fish called garos into one. It is believed to have been made with a lower salt content than modern fish sauces.
The Romans made a similar condiment called either liquamen. According to Pliny the Elder, "garum consists of the guts of fish and other parts that would otherwise be considered refuse, so that garum is the liquor from putrefaction." Garum was made in the Roman outposts of Spain exclusively from mackerel by salting the scrap fish innards, sun fermenting the flesh until it fell apart for several months. The brown liquid would be strained and sold as a condiment; the process lasted until the 16th century, when garum makers switched to anchovy and removed the innards. Garum was ubiquitous in Classical Roman cooking. Mixed with wine it was known as oenogarum, or with vinegar, oxygarum, or mixed with honey, meligarum. Garum was one of the trade specialties in Hispania Baetica. Garum was maligned as smelling bad or rotten, being called, for example, "evil-smelling fish sauce" and is said to be similar to modern Colatura di Alici, a fish sauce used in Neapolitan cuisine. In English garum was translated as fishpickle.
The original Worcestershire sauce is a related product because it is fermented and contains anchovies. Fish sauces have been prepared from different species of fish and shellfish, from using the whole fish, or by using just fish blood or viscera. Most modern fish sauces contain only fish and salt made from anchovy, mackerel, or other strong-flavored, high oil fish; some variants add spices. For modern fish sauces, fish or shellfish is mixed with salt at a concentration of 10% to 30%, it is sealed in a closed container for up to two years. Once the original draft has been made, some fish sauces will be produced through a re-extraction of the fish mass via boiling. To improve the visual appearance and add taste, second-pass fish sauces have added caramel, molasses, or roasted rice, they are thinner, less costly. Some volume manufacturers of fish sauce will water down a first-press to manufacture more product. Fish sauce, only fermented has a pronounced fishy taste. Extended fermentation reduces this and gives the product a nuttier and more savory flavor.
An anonymous article, "Neuc-num", in Diderot and d'Alembert's 18th-century Encyclopédie, states: "It is said that Europeans become accustomed enough to this type of sauce". While there is no strict grading system for fish sauces, first-tapping, or first-pressing sauces are the most sought after; some top brands are beginning to adopt the "Extra Virgin" designation and tout more artisan processes. Second-pass or volume sauces are identified as they have a thin watery consistency. Southeast Asian fish sauce is made from anchovies and water, is intensely flavoured. Anchovies and salt are arranged in wooden barrels to ferment and are pressed, yielding the salty, fishy liquid; the salt extracts the liquid via osmosis. Southeast Asians use fish sauce as a cooking sauce. However, there is a sweet and sour version of this sauce, used more as a dipping sauce. Fish sauce in Burma is called ngan bya yay. In Cambodia, fish sauce is known as teuk trei, of which there are a variety of sauces using fish sauce as a base.
The Indonesian semi-solid fish paste or fermented krill terasi, the Cambodian prahok and the Malay fermented krill brick belacan or budu from liquid anchovies are other popular variations of fish sauces. In Lao/Isan, it is called nam pa. A chunkier, more aromatic version known as padaek is used; the Philippine fish sauce is known as patis. It is one of the most important ingredients in Filipino cuisine. Patis is
Ngapi also spelled ngapee, nga-pee, gnapee, is a generic term for pungent pastes made of either fish or shrimp in Burmese cuisine. Ngapi is made by fermenting fish or shrimp, salted and ground sun dried. Many variations exist. Ngapi is a generic term. Like cheese, it can be distinguished based on regional origin. Ngapi can be distinguished from the type of fish used to make it. Ngapi can come from small fish or from prawns. Ngapi is a main ingredient of Lower Burmese cooking and is used as a condiment or additive in most dishes. Raw ngapi is not intended for direct consumption. In other parts of Southeast Asia, a Malay form of the sauce known as balachong or balachaung is more popular. Ngapi is a main ingredient of Lower Burmese cuisine from maritime coastal provinces in the west and the south, it is used in a wide array of dishes and is eaten in myriad ways: it can be eaten on its own, such as baked or roasted ngapi, as a watery preparation called ngapi yay, as a salad, as a pounded mixture with chili, or fried like balachong.
It is used as a soup base and in main dishes. Rakhine Ngapi - The ngapi of Rakhine State contains little salt or none at all, it uses marine fish, in light of the Arakanese being a seafaring people. Rakhine ngapi is used as Mont Di. Like other ngapi, it is used in cooking. In the Ayeyarwady and Tanintharyi divisions, the majority of ngapi is produced from freshwater fish. Ngapi contain a lot of added salt; this form of ngapi is more available in Myanmar and the Burmese population is more accustomed to the saltier ngapi than the Rakhine version. The ngapi from Myeik is well known and is saltier than those from the region; the versatility of ngapi is reflected in the colourful mosaic the people of Myanmar have developed to consume ngapi. Ngapi daung - the ngapi is baked or roasted in a frying pan without oil. Depending on the region and family preference, the ngapi is put in a stone mortar and is pounded with garlic and red or green chili. Ngapi yay -an essential part of Karen cuisine. In the S'gaw Karen language, this is known as "nya-u-htee".
The ngapi is boiled with onions, garlic and other spices. The result is a greenish-grey broth-like sauce. Fresh, raw or blanched vegetables and fruits are eaten. Sometimes, in less affluent families, ngapi yay forms the main dish, the main source of protein. Ngapi thoke - a salad made with ngapi diluted in lime or lemon juice and mixed with chopped onions and chili. Ngapi gyet - ngapi cooked with oil and depending on the seasonal availability of fruits and vegetables, such as tomato, chili, tamarind, etc. Ngapi kyeik - a Rakhine condiment where baked rakhine ngapi is mixed with large green chili and garlic, it is called Ngayote kyeik Ngapi gaung - a type of dry fermented salted fish gutted with the head on. Deep fried and served with fried crushed dried red chillies and crush garlic. Pè ngapi, from the highland Shan States, ngapi is made instead from fermented soy beans called pè bohk. Although lacking fish or prawn products, it is called ngapi. Pè ngapi is used as a condiment in Shan and Burmese cuisine.
It may be used to make a curry. Ngapi kyaw, various types of ngapi that are fried with a wide variety of ingredients shredded shrimp flakes, onions and chili; the texture can range from jam-like to flossy, the flavour varies depending on an individual household, restaurant or monastery. Ngapi gyaw is always present in ahlus in Burmese monasteries. Some'ngapi kyaw' may not contain ngapi at all; as ngapi is made from fish, shrimp or beans, it is a source of protein. The ngapi made from marine fish and prawns provide a source of iodine: this may be beneficial for those inland consumers whose diet may be iodine-deficient and who do not have access to iodized salt. Due to the high salt content which goes into the preparation, like all salt-rich foods, should be consumed in moderation in patients with salt-sensitive hypertension. Cuisine of Burma Shrimp paste Prahok, Cambodian fish paste Bagoong, Filipino fish paste
A baked potato, or jacket potato, is a potato, baked for eating. When well cooked, a baked potato has a crisp skin, it may be served with fillings and condiments such as butter, sour cream, gravy or ground meat. Potatoes can be baked in a conventional gas or electric oven, a convection oven, a microwave oven, on a barbecue grill, or on/in an open fire; some restaurants use special ovens designed to cook large numbers of potatoes keep them warm and ready for service. Prior to cooking, the potato should be scrubbed clean and dried with eyes and surface blemishes removed, basted with oil or butter and/or salt. Pricking the potato with a fork or knife allows steam to escape during the cooking process. Potatoes cooked in a microwave oven without pricking the skin might split open due to built up internal pressure from unvented steam, it takes between one and two hours to bake a large potato in a conventional oven at 200 °C. Microwaving takes from six to twelve minutes depending on oven power and potato size, but does not produce a crisp skin.
Some recipes call for use of both a microwave and a conventional oven, with the microwave being used to vent most of the steam prior to the cooking process. Some varieties of potato such as Russet and King Edward potatoes are more suitable for baking than others, owing to their size and consistency. Wrapping the potato in aluminium foil before cooking in a standard oven will help to retain moisture, while leaving it unwrapped will result in a crisp skin; when cooking over an open fire or in the coals of a barbecue, it may require wrapping in foil to prevent burning of the skin. A potato buried directly in coals of a fire cooks nicely, with a burned and inedible skin. A baked potato is cooked when its internal temperature reaches 99 °C. Once a potato has been baked, some people discard the skin and eat only the softer and moister interior, while others enjoy the taste and texture of the crisp skin, rich in dietary fiber. Potatoes baked in their skins may lose between 20 and 40% of their vitamin C content because heating in air is slow and vitamin inactivation can continue for a long time.
Small potatoes bake more than large ones and therefore retain more of their vitamin C. Despite the popular misconception that potatoes are fattening, baked potatoes can be used as part of a healthy diet; some people bake their potatoes and scoop out the interior, leaving the skin as a shell. The white interior flesh can be mixed with various other food items such as cheese, butter, or bacon bits; this mixture is spooned back into the skin shells and they are replaced in the oven to warm through. In America these are known variously as loaded potato skins, filled potatoes and twice baked potatoes. In Great Britain, toppings or fillings tend to be more varied than they are in America: baked beans, curried chicken and prawn fillings are popular, in Scotland haggis is used as a filling for jacket potatoes. A variation is Hasselback potatoes, where the potato is cut into thin slices down the bottom, so that the potato still holds together, is baked in the oven scalloped with cheese; the proper noun "Hasselback" refers to the luxurious Hasselbacken hotel and restaurant in Stockholm which originated this dish.
Many restaurants serve baked potatoes with sides such as butter, sour cream, shredded cheese, bacon bits. These potatoes can be some similar entree. Sides are optional and customers can order as many or as few as they wish. Large, stuffed baked potatoes may be served as an entree filled with meat in addition to any of the ingredients mentioned above. Barbecued or smoked meat or chili is substituted. Vegetables such as broccoli may be added. Idaho is the major producing state of potatoes; the Idaho baked potato was promoted by the Northern Pacific Railroad in the early 20th century using Hollywood movie stars. Hazen Titus was appointed as the Northern Pacific Railway's dining car superintendent in 1908, he talked to Yakima Valley farmers who complained that they were unable to sell their potato crops because their potatoes were too large. They fed them to hogs. Titus learned that a single potato could weigh from two to five pounds, but that smaller potatoes were preferred by the end buyers of the vegetable and that many considered them not to be edible because their thick, rough skin made them difficult to cook.
Titus and his staff discovered. He contracted to purchase as many potatoes as the farmers could produce that were more than two pounds in weight. Soon after the first delivery of "Netted Gem Bakers", they were offered to diners on the North Coast Limited beginning in 1909. Word of the line's specialty offering traveled and before long it was using "the Great Big Baked Potato" as a slogan to promote the railroad's passenger service; when an addition was built for the Northern Pacific's Seattle commissary in 1914, reporter wrote, "A large trade mark, in the shape of a baked potato, 40 ft.long and 18 ft. in diameter, surmounts the roof. The potato is electric lighted and its eyes, through the electric mechanism, are made to wink constantly. A cube of butter thrust into its split top glows intermittently." Premiums such as postcards, letter openers, spoons were produced to promote "The Route of the Great Big Baked Potato". The song "Great Big Baked Potato" was written about this potato. A baked potato is sometimes called a jacket potat
Elsenham is a village and civil parish in north west Essex in southern England. Its neighbouring towns include Bishop's Stortford, Saffron Walden, Stansted Mountfitchet. Elsenham is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Alsenham and Elsenham in the Hundred of Uttlesford. Part belonged to part to John, nephew of Waleran; the village is best known for Elsenham Jam, produced on the Elsenham estate of Sir Walter Gilbey, marketed with the slogan, "the most expensive jam in the world". Elsenham Jam is no longer produced in the company having moved to Wales. In April 2008, Elsenham was short-listed by the Government as a potential site for a 5,000 homes'eco-town' development. Notable features include Elsenham Hall, the home of Sir Walter Gilbey, St Mary's Church known as the Little Norman Church on the Hill, The Pump, which stands in the village centre and was built by Sir Walter Gilbey in memory of his wife. A horse, Golden Miller, who won the Cheltenham Gold Cup five times between 1932 and 1936 and the Grand National in 1934 is buried at Elsenham Stud.
Elsenham is part of the electoral ward called Henham. The population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 3,679. A variety of village events are held each year: a village fete. Elsenham has a number of small clubs as well as tennis courts, a bowling green, a cricket field, a youth football club and 2 pool teams; the village has a number of a pub and a primary school. The village is served by a railway station on the line between Cambridge and London Liverpool Street. Trains run every half an hour or every hour, served by Greater Anglia; the village is about four miles from junction 8 of the M11 motorway and approximately three miles from Stansted Airport. A publicised expansion of the airport could include new road and rail links passing within the village boundaries; the Hundred Parishes Media related to Elsenham at Wikimedia Commons