The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
Poetry Review is the magazine of The Poetry Society, edited by the poet Emily Berry. Founded in 1912, shortly after the establishment of the Society, previous editors have included such poets as Muriel Spark, Adrian Henri, Andrew Motion and Maurice Riordan. Founded in March 1912, the publication took over from the Poetical Gazette, a members news magazine for the newly formed Poetry Society, it was first edited by Harold Monro, ousted after a year by alarmed, more conservative-minded trustees. He was followed by Stephen Phillips. Galloway Kyle, The Poetry Society's founder and director, presided over the Review from 1916-47, he managed to keep the magazine running during the blitzing of London, despite ongoing bombing of the neighbourhood and the damage of Kyle's own home. He declared that he wanted to make poetry popular, "the common heritage and joy to all", geared to a common everyman, bringing poetry down from its "ivory tower"."We should look forward as well as backward," Kyle stated, "but in reality the latter is more necessary than the former, it is essential in relation to a poet who may find the times too noisy, too self-centred and too self-righteous to heed him".
During both world wars Kyle paid particular attention to people serving in the armed forces, publishing their work and letters, interested in eye-witness accounts. Patriotic and populist and comforting to its readers during these times of chaos, the Review had its largest audience. Published bi-monthly at the time, the readership rose from 1000 before World War I to more than 6000 per issue by the end of World War II. Kyle appointed Alice Hunt Bartlett as American Associate Editor from 1923 and the publication featured significant content from the US during the 1920s and 1930s; the American journal Poetry, founded at the same time as the Review, during the spring of 1912, was often regarded as a sister journal with the similar purpose of building the audience for contemporary poetry. Their roads soon separated. Poetry set out to establish itself as a home for serious critique, desiring to be select, the leader of the field. Kyle was editor until his death in 1967 at the age of 92. Muriel Spark led the Review dynamically from 1947 to 1949, introducing a fee to be paid to contributors, but she was ousted for her poetic radicalism and liberal views.
An editorial board presided from 1952 to 1962, led by Thomas Moult. Derek Parker handed over to avant-garde poet Eric Mottram in 1970, followed by Roger Garfitt and Peter Forbes. Other former editors include Andrew Motion and Mick Imlah. Fiona Sampson held the role from 2005 to 2012. A series of guest editors followed — George Szirtes, Charles Boyle, Bernardine Evaristo, Moniza Alvi, Esther Morgan and Patrick McGuinness — until Summer 2013, when Maurice Riordan assumed the editorship for the next four years; the Review was at first a monthly magazine and from 1915 to 1951 became bi-monthly, turning quarterly in 1952. It has published the work of such luminaries as Thomas Hardy, Rupert Brooke, Robert Frost, W. H. Auden, Ezra Pound, Philip Larkin and Allen Ginsberg. In Spring 2014 the magazine returned to the title The Poetry Review; the current editor is the poet Emily Berry, who succeeded Maurice Riordan with the Spring 2017 issue. It is published in March, June and December and given to each subscribing member of the Poetry Society.
Sampson, Fiona, ed.. A Century of Poetry Review. Carcanet. ISBN 9781847770165. Official website