ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, between 2 and 5 miles off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent; the island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, verdant landscape of fields and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes, it has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat-building, sail-making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, Britain's space rockets. The island hosts annual music festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival, which in 1970 was the largest rock music event held, it has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe. The isle was earlier a kingdom in its own right. In common with the Crown dependencies The British Crown was represented on the island by the Governor of the Isle of Wight until 1995.
The island has played an important part in the defence of the ports of Southampton and Portsmouth, been near the front-line of conflicts through the ages, including the Spanish Armada and the Battle of Britain. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the growing affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Part of Hampshire, the island became a separate administrative county in 1890, it continued to share the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire until 1974, when it was made its own ceremonial county. Apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton was considered, this is now unlikely to proceed; until 1995 the island had a governor. The quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea. During the last Ice Age, sea levels were lower and the Solent was part of a river flowing south east from current day Poole Harbour towards mid-Channel.
As sea levels rose, the river valley became flooded, the chalk ridge line west of the Needles breached to form the island. The Isle of Wight is first mentioned in writing in Geography by Ptolemy. Bronze Age Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Cornwall and Devon and tin is necessary to smelt bronze. At that time the sea level was much lower and carts of tin were brought across the Solent at low tide for export on the Ferriby Boats. Anthony Snodgrass suggests that a shortage of tin, as a part of the Bronze Age Collapse and trade disruptions in the Mediterranean around 1300 BC, forced metalworkers to seek an alternative to bronze. During Iron Age Britain, the Late Iron Age, the Isle of Wight would appear to have been occupied by the Celtic tribe, the Durotriges - as attested by finds of their coins, for example, the South Wight Hoard, the Shalfleet Hoard. South eastern Britain experienced significant immigration, reflected in the genetic makeup of the current residents; as the Iron Age began the value of tin dropped and this greatly changed the economy of the Isle of Wight.
Trade however continued. Julius Caesar reported that the Belgae took the Isle of Wight in about 85 BC, recognised the culture of this general region as "Belgic", but made no reference to Vectis; the Roman historian Suetonius mentions. The Romans built no towns on the island, but the remains of at least seven Roman villas have been found, indicating the prosperity of local agriculture. First-century exports were principally hides, hunting dogs, cattle, silver and iron. Ferriby Boats and Blackfriars Ships were important to the local economy. During the Dark Ages the island was settled by Jutes as the pagan kingdom of Wihtwara under King Arwald. In 685 it was invaded by Caedwalla. In 686 Arwald was defeated and the island became the last part of English lands to be converted to Christianity, added to Wessex and becoming part of England under King Alfred the Great, included within the shire of Hampshire, it suffered from Viking raids, was used as a winter base by Viking raiders when they were unable to reach Normandy.
Both Earl Tostig and his brother Harold Godwinson held manors on the island. Starting in AD 449 the 5th and 6th centuries saw groups of Germanic speaking peoples from Northern Europe crossing the English Channel and setting up home. Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum identifies three separate groups of invaders: of these, the Jutes from Denmark settled the Isle of Wight and Kent. From onwards, there are indications that the island had wide trading links, with a port at Bouldnor, evidence of Bronze Age tin trading, finds of Late Iron Age coins; the Norman Conquest of 1066 created the position of Lord of the Isle of Wight. Carisbrooke Priory and the fort of Carisbrooke Castle were founded. Allegiance was sworn to FitzOsbern rather than the king. For nearly 200 years the island
Please Sir! is a London Weekend Television situation comedy for ITV, created by John Esmonde and Bob Larbey and featuring actors John Alderton, Deryck Guyler, Penny Spencer, Joan Sanderson, Noel Howlett, Erik Chitty and Richard Davies. The series ran for 55 episodes between 1968 and 1972; the theme tune. The programme was set in the fictional Fenn Street Secondary Modern School, starred John Alderton as Bernard Hedges, a young teacher fresh out of training college; the supporting cast included Joan Sanderson and Richard Davies. Character actors and actresses formed the guest cast, including Mollie Sugden as a parent of a student, Barbara Mitchell as Frankie Abbott's mother, Ann Lancaster as Mrs Pearce in a pair of 1968 episodes.. Bernard Hedges and the 5C pupils were replaced by a new teacher and pupils for the final series in 1971–72, while the original pupils continued in a spin-off series, The Fenn Street Gang, which ran for 47 episodes between 1971 and 1972; this was followed by Bowler, following crime boss Stanley Bowler, played by George Baker for 13 episodes.
As with many situation comedies of this era, a film version was released in 1971. This starred most of the TV cast. John Alderton as Mr Bernard Hedges Deryck Guyler as Mr Norman Potter Noel Howlett as Mr Cromwell Joan Sanderson as Miss Doris Ewell Richard Davies as Mr Price Erik Chitty as Mr Smith Bernard Holley as Mr Hurst Vivienne Martin as Miss Petting Richard Warwick as Mr David Ffitchett-Brown David Howe as Colin Lovelace Lindsay Campbell as Mr. Sibley Arnold Peters as School Governor Roderick Smith as Philip Larch Liz Gebhardt as Maureen Bullock Peter Cleall as Eric Duffy David Barry as Frankie Abbott Peter Denyer as Dennis Dunstable Penny Spencer as Sharon Eversleigh Carol Hawkins as Sharon Eversleigh Malcolm McFee as Peter Craven Charles Bolton as Godber Rosemary Faith as Daisy Billy Hamon as Des Barry McCarthy as Terry Stringer Drina Pavlovic as Celia Shirley Cheriton as Pat NOTE: All of these episode descriptions have been taken from the DVD sleeves of the Please Sir DVDs, released by Network.
Note: The first series was in an experimental 40-minute format. The remaining episodes were in the traditional 25-minute format The transmission dates and times reflect the listings for the London ITV region. Listings for the alternative ITV regions are not indicated; this series was transmitted in black and white on the VHF 405-line TV system. All of these episodes were made in colour, although all the episodes up to The Generation Gap were transmitted in monochrome, as ITV began colour transmission on Saturday 15 November 1969. All were shown in colour in a repeat run, seen in some ITV regions in early 1970; the final three episodes of this series were affected by the ITV Colour Strike, which affected all ITV programmes recorded between November 1970 and March 1971. As a result of this industrial action, these affected episodes were recorded and transmitted in black and white. Unlike the previous series, episodes were broadcast on a Saturday. However, there was a week's break in transmission between Episode 14 and Episode 15.
When it returned it was broadcast in a Sunday night slot. This was only in London. In the other ITV regions, it continued to be broadcast on Saturdays at 6:30pm, so the rest of the nation saw the last 7 episodes of this series one day before Londoners saw them. Staff Mr Bernard Hedges. A teacher fresh out of training, he was allocated the most unruly form in the school, at the beginning of term. At first relations were frosty between Bernard and Class 5C, but Bernard gained the respect of his class and the rest of the staff; as the series progressed, he is shown to be a caring and fair teacher and would always defend his form, regardless of how much evidence is put towards them. In the movie, he met air stewardess Penny Wheeler. After misinterpreting a'few white lies' made by a pupil accidentally left behind, Penny began to take shine to Bernard. After a period of dating, Bernard attempted to propose to Penny but she said yes before he could complete his sentence and they got engaged and married.
Shortly after Bernard got married, a new term started and was allocated Class 4C but it was not quite the same as 5C. He resigned and left. Mr Norman Potter; the pedantic and officious school caretaker. He claimed to have been a Desert Rat and complains about the unruly behaviour of Hedge's class 5C, he is fiercely loyal to the headmaster but a thorn in the side of the rest of the staff. His various comeuppances provide much of the ongoing humour of the sitcom. List of films based on British sitcoms Welcome Back, Kotter Please Sir! at British Comedy Guide Please Sir! on IMDb Please Sir! on IMDb
Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co
A waste collector, sanitation worker, dustman or binman is a person employed by a public or private enterprise to collect and remove waste and recyclables from residential, industrial or other collection site for further processing and waste disposal. Specialised waste collection vehicles featuring an array of automated functions are deployed to assist waste collectors in reducing collection and transport time and for protection from exposure. Waste and recycling pickup work is physically demanding and exposes workers to an occupational hazard. Statistics show that waste collection is one of the most dangerous jobs, at times more dangerous than police work, but less dangerous than commercial fishing and ranch and farm work. On-the-job hazards include broken glass, medical waste such as syringes, caustic chemicals, falling objects from overloaded containers, diseases that may accompany solid waste, dog attacks and pests, inhaling dust and chemical fumes, inclement weather, traffic accidents, unpleasant odors that they can make someone physically sick.
In many developing countries, the first people to tackle the waste collection are pickers working in the informal economy, i.e. they may be self-financing through recycling and reselling. Examples include the bottley-wallah, recycler of many sorts of materials in India, castes such as the Zabbaleen in Egypt, or tip scavenger groups in Brazil such as documented in the film Hauling. In India people performing manual labour as sanitation workers are called manual scavengers. Many varieties of English have a range of names for waste collectors, from formal job titles for municipal employees, to colloquial and regional terms. Eugène Poubelle, French official, who ordered in 1884 that all Paris landlords supply their tenants with covered garbage containers, his name became the standard French term for a garbage can Andy Abraham - X-Factor contestant Mike Batt - wombles singer and Lieutenant of the Royal Victorian Order Larry Bird - hall of fame basketball player - after dropping out of Indiana University and before enrolling at Indiana State University.
Jim Bowen - English stand-up comedian and TV personality schoolteacher Michael Carroll - UK National Lottery winner Barry Horne - animal rights activist Steve Hutchins - politician Richard Leiterman - cinematographer Nathan Rees - politician, former Premier of New South Wales Neville Southall - international footballer Georges St-Pierre - mixed martial artist and UFC Welterweight Champion, Benjamin Pell - a quasi-private investigator known in the British press as "Benji The Binman" Martin Phillips - Welsh darts player who has made multiple appearances in the BDO World Professional Darts Championship Peter Steele - late vocalist/bassist of Type O Negative drove garbage trucks and other vehicles for the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation Malcolm Webster - convicted murderer in England Nicodemus "Noddy" Boffin, aka the Golden Dustman, in Charles Dickens' Our Mutual Friend based on Henry Dodd, a ploughboy who made his fortune removing London's rubbish. Alfred P. Doolittle, a common dustman, My Fair Lady from the stage play, Broadway, 1956.
Duke "The Dumpster" Droese, character created by professional wrestler Mike Droese Muckman - From Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Wreck-Gar - From Transformers Animated Roc Emerson, from the Fox television series Roc Roger Wilco - From the Space Quest computer game series by Sierra Entertainment The films Blood Feast, Scanners III: The Takeover and Child's Play 3 all feature minor characters being murdered with refuse trucks. Oliver Frensky - From the TV series Arthur Jonathan Thomas Meriweather - A sanitation engineer mistaken for an engineer in Spellsinger by Alan Dean Foster, saving the world with magic Shigeru, from the 1991 film A Scene at the Sea by Takeshi Kitano Mr. Persepolis, father of Angeline Persepolis in Someday Angeline by Louis Sachar 2009 Leeds refuse workers strike Beach cleaner Curbside collection Litter Memphis sanitation strike, USA, 1968 Waste management Labor Market Information Division. "California Occupational Guide Number 460: Mechanical - Skilled Occupations: Refuse Collectors".
State of California, Employment Development Department. Retrieved 2008-05-28. Re-uploaded by www.hardrawgathering.co.uk
Till Death Us Do Part (film)
Till Death Us Do Part is a 1969 film directed by Norman Cohen, written by Johnny Speight, starring Warren Mitchell and Dandy Nichols. It was based on the BBC television series of the same name. Speight was the creator of the television version; the film was considered successful enough at the box office that a sequel, The Alf Garnett Saga, followed in 1972. The film begins in September 1939. Alf Garnett, a dockyard worker, his wife Else have been married for only a few weeks, are weary of one another. Alf is turned down because he's in a reserved occupation; the film depicts their lives during the London Blitz. Else gets pregnant to Alf and Else's shock, they have a baby daughter, Rita, in 1942; the war ends in 1945 with a huge street party and Alf, characteristically, gets drunk. Midway through the film it advances from the end of World War II to the 1966 General Election. Rita engaged to Mike Rawlins, a long-haired layabout from Liverpool. Alf dislikes him because of his support for the Labour Party.
Mike and Rita marry in a Catholic church. At the wedding supper he fights with Mike's family, but Alf and Mike grow a bit closer. The film ends in 1968 with the family moving to a new tower block in Essex after their East End neighbourhood street is demolished. Warren Mitchell as Alf Garnett Dandy Nichols as Else Garnett Una Stubbs as Rita Antony Booth as Mike Liam Redmond as Mike's Father Bill Maynard as Bert Brian Blessed as Sergeant Sam Kydd as Fred Frank Thornton as Valuation Officer Ann Lancaster as Woman at Block of Flats Michael Robbins as Pub Landlord Pat Coombs as Neighbour Kate Williams as Sergeant's Girlfriend Shelagh Fraser as Mike's Mother John D. Collins as RAF officer at Tube Station Geoffrey Hughes as Mike's brother Tommy Godfrey as Knowledgeable man in pub Bob Grant as Man in Pub Edward Evans as Jim The film had investment from the Robert Stigwood Organisation. Time Out wrote, "In its favour, it preserves the original characterisations at something like full strength and doesn't attempt to stitch three weekly episodes together and pass it off as a feature."
Till Death Us Do Part was the third most popular film at the UK box office in 1969. The theme tune was composed by Ray Davies of the Kinks. Sung by Chas Mills, it is heard at the end of the film over the closing credits. Location footage was filmed in Tower Hamlets. Till Death Us Do Part on IMDb
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment