Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany

Geoffrey II was Duke of Brittany and 3rd Earl of Richmond between 1181 and 1186, through his marriage with the heiress Constance. Geoffrey was the fourth of King of England and Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine. In the 1160s, Henry II began to alter his policy of indirect rule in Brittany and to exert more direct control. Henry had been at war with Duke of Brittany. Local Breton nobles rebelled against Conan, so Conan sought Henry II's help. In 1164, Henry intervened to seize lands along the border of Brittany and Normandy and, in 1166, he invaded Brittany to punish the local barons. Henry forced Conan to abdicate as duke and to give Brittany to his five-year-old daughter, handed over and betrothed to Henry's son Geoffrey; this arrangement was quite unusual in terms of medieval law, as Conan might have had sons who could have legitimately inherited the duchy. Geoffrey and Constance married, in July 1181. Growing tensions between Henry and Louis VII of France spilled over into open war in 1167, triggered by a trivial argument over how money destined for the Crusader states of the Levant should be collected.

Louis allied himself with the Welsh and Bretons and the French king attacked Normandy. Henry responded by attacking Chaumont-sur-Epte, where Louis kept his main military arsenal, burning the town to the ground and forcing Louis to abandon his allies and make a private truce. Henry was free to move against the rebel barons in Brittany, where feelings about his seizure of the duchy were still running high. Geoffrey was fifteen years old, he reconciled to Henry in 1174 when he participated in the truce at Gisors. Geoffrey prominently figured in the second revolt of 1183, fighting against Richard, on behalf of Henry the Young King. Geoffrey was a good friend of Louis VII's son Philip, the two men were in alliance against King Henry. Geoffrey spent much time at Philip's court in Paris, Philip made him his seneschal. There is evidence to suggest that Geoffrey was planning another rebellion with Philip's help during his final period in Paris in the summer of 1186; as a participant in so many rebellions against his father, Geoffrey acquired a reputation for treachery.

Gerald of Wales wrote the following of him: "He has more aloes than honey in him. This lack of reverence for religion earned him the displeasure of the Church and, as a consequence, of the majority of chroniclers who wrote about his life. Geoffrey and Constance had three children, one born after Geoffrey's death: Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany Maud/Matilda of Brittany Arthur I, Duke of Brittany Geoffrey died on 19 August 1186, at the age of 27, in Paris. There is evidence that supports a death date of 21 August 1186. There are two alternative accounts of his death; the more common first version holds. At his funeral, a grief-stricken Philip is said to have tried to jump into the coffin. Roger of Hoveden's chronicle is the source of this version. In the second version, in the chronicle of the French royal clerk Rigord, Geoffrey died of sudden acute chest pain, which struck after his speech to Philip, boasting his intention to lay Normandy to waste; this version was an invention of its chronicler, sudden illness being God's judgment of an ungrateful son plotting rebellion against his father, for his irreligiosity.

Alternatively, the tournament story may be an invention of Philip's to prevent Henry II's discovery of a plot. Marie of Champagne, with whom Geoffrey was on good terms, was present at the requiem for her half-brother and established a mass chantry for the repose of his soul. Geoffrey was buried in the choir of Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral, but his tombstone was destroyed in the 18th century before the French revolution, his body was measured at 5 ft 6.5 in. After Geoffrey's death, Henry II arranged for Constance, Geoffrey's widow, to marry Ranulf de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester. Ranulf would become Duke of Brittany, jure uxoris, for a short time before this marriage was annulled. Dukes of Brittany family tree Earl of Richmond British monarchs family tree Other politically important horse accidents Costain, Thomas B; the Conquering Family, 1962 Everard, Judith. Charters of Duchess Constance of Brittany and her Family, 1171–1221, 1999 Everard, Judith. Brittany and the Angevins: Province and Empire, 1158–1203, 2000 Gillingham, John.

The Life and Times of Richard I, 1973 Gillingham, John. Richard the Lionheart, 1978 Gillihgham, John. Richard I, 1999 Reston, James. Warriors of God: Richard the Lion-Heart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, 2001 Warren, W. L. Henry II, 2000 The Medieval Sourcebook contains many primary sources including Hoveden and Gerald of Wales, some of which pertains to Geoffrey

Banker's acceptance

A banker's acceptance is an instrument representing a promised future payment by a bank. The payment is guaranteed by the bank as a time draft to be drawn on a deposit; the draft specifies the amount of funds, the date of the payment, the entity to which the payment is owed. After acceptance, the draft becomes an unconditional liability of the bank. Banker's acceptances are distinguished from ordinary time drafts in that ownership is transferable prior to maturity, allowing them to be traded in the secondary market. A banker's acceptance starts with a deposit in the amount of the future payment plus fees. A time draft to be drawn on the deposit is issued for the payment at a future date, analogous to a post-dated check; the bank accepts the payment to the holder of the draft, analogous to a cashier's check. The draft holder may hold the acceptance until maturity and receive the face value payment from the bank, or it may sell the acceptance at a discount to another party willing to wait until maturity to receive the bank's promised payment.

Banker's acceptances are advantageous in transactions between unacquainted parties by reducing credit risk, are used extensively in international trade for this reason. In an agreement whereby goods will be sold at a future date, if the buyer does not have an established relationship with or otherwise cannot obtain credit from the seller, a banker's acceptance enables it to substitute the bank's creditworthiness for its own. Banker's acceptances are issued in multiples of US$100,000, with a term to maturity between 1 and 6 months. Banker's acceptances date back to the 12th century when they emerged as a means to finance uncertain trade, as banks bought bills of exchange at a discount. During the 18th and 19th centuries, there was an active market for sterling banker's acceptances in London; when the United States Federal Reserve was formed in 1913, one of its purposes was to promote a domestic banker's acceptance market to rival London's to boost US trade and enhance the competitive position of US banks.

National banks were authorized to accept time drafts, the Federal Reserve was authorized to purchase certain eligible banker's acceptances, but today the US central bank no longer buys banker's acceptances. In the People's Republic of China, banker's acceptance notes have become a shadow currency with captive banks of local governments issuing BA's to hide their debt levels. Banker's acceptance rates are the market rates at which banker's acceptances trade, are determined by current values relative to face values, they represent the return received if an acceptance were purchased today at the market price and held until the payment date. All-in rates are banker's acceptance rates; when a draft promises immediate payment to the holder of the draft, it is called a sight draft. Cheques written on demand deposits are examples of sight drafts; when a draft promises a deferred payment to the holder of the draft, it is called a time draft. The date on which the payment is due is called the maturity date.

In a case where the payee and drawee of a time draft are distinct parties, the payee may submit the draft to the drawee for confirmation that the draft is a legitimate order and that the drawee will make payment on the specified date. Such confirmation is called an acceptance — the drawee accepts the order to pay as legitimate; the drawee stamps ACCEPTED on the draft and is thereafter obligated to make the specified payment when it is due. If the drawee is a bank, the acceptance is called a banker's acceptance. Bankers acceptances are considered eligible collateral under the Treasury Tax & Loan Program under 31 CFR part 203 Often, banks were willing to buy time drafts from the party holding the acceptance, provided the issuer was credit worthy. If the party holding the acceptance sold the note before maturity, a discount value called the Banker's Discount was used to reduce the face value of the amount to be handed over to the claimant; the discount rate used by the Banks on such acceptances was FV x r x t.

If this discount is applied, the value of the amount returned to the holder of the acceptance will mathematically be lower than the True Value of the note. The difference is called as Banker's Gain and represents the profits earned by the Bank in exchange for accepting the risk of default. Banker's draft Commercial paper Forfaiting

Heterocithara rigorata

Heterocithara rigorata is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Mangeliidae. The length of the shell attains its diameter 1.5 mm. The small, oblong shell is rather solid, its colour is dull white. It contains 6 whorls, including a smooth three-whorled protoconch. Whose initial whorl is eccentric; the sculpture shows from ten to twelve prominent, radial ribs, widest apart on the back of the body whorl, becoming closer on the earlier whorls. These ribs project on the summit of the whorl and fade on the base; the body whorl is encircled by twelve to fourteen strong spiral cords, which override both ribs and interstices. On the penultimate whorl there are four such cords, on the antepenultimate three. Between and parallel to the spiral cords are fine, microscopic hairlines; the aperture is narrow linear, with a deep sinus and a prominent varix Some variation in contour occurs, some individuals being shorter and broader than others. The species is characterised by its straight, narrow form, gradate spire, modelled sculpture.

This marine species occurs off Queensland. Tucker, J. K. 2004 Catalog of recent and fossil turrids. Zootaxa 682:1-1295