Phytogeography or botanical geography is the branch of biogeography, concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species and their influence on the earth's surface. Phytogeography is concerned with all aspects of plant distribution, from the controls on the distribution of individual species ranges to the factors that govern the composition of entire communities and floras. Geobotany, by contrast, focuses on the geographic space's influence on plants. Phytogeography is part of a more general science known as biogeography. Phytogeographers are concerned with patterns and process in plant distribution. Most of the major questions and kinds of approaches taken to answer such questions are held in common between phyto- and zoogeographers. Phytogeography in wider sense encompasses four fields, according with the focused aspect, flora and origin, respectively: plant ecology. Historical plant geography Phytogeography is divided into two main branches: ecological phytogeography and historical phytogeography.
The former investigates the role of current day biotic and abiotic interactions in influencing plant distributions. The basic data elements of phytogeography are occurrence records with operational geographic units such as political units or geographical coordinates; these data are used to construct phytogeographic provinces and elements. The questions and approaches in phytogeography are shared with zoogeography, except zoogeography is concerned with animal distribution rather than plant distribution; the term phytogeography. How the term is applied by practicing scientists is apparent in the way periodicals use the term; the American Journal of Botany, a monthly primary research journal publishes a section titled "Systematics and Evolution." Topics covered in the American Journal of Botany's "Systematics and Phytogeography" section include phylogeography, distribution of genetic variation and, historical biogeography, general plant species distribution patterns. Biodiversity patterns are not covered.
Phytogeography has a long history. One of the subjects earliest proponents was Prussian naturalist Alexander von Humboldt, referred to as the "father of phytogeography". Von Humboldt advocated a quantitative approach to phytogeography that has characterized modern plant geography. Gross patterns of the distribution of plants became apparent early on in the study of plant geography. For example, Alfred Russel Wallace, co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection, discussed the Latitudinal gradients in species diversity, a pattern observed in other organisms as well. Much research effort in plant geography has since been devoted to understanding this pattern and describing it in more detail. In 1890, the United States Congress passed an act that appropriated funds to send expeditions to discover the geographic distributions of plants in the United States; the first of these was The Death Valley Expedition, including Frederick Vernon Coville, Frederick Funston, Clinton Hart Merriam, others.
Research in plant geography has been directed to understanding the patterns of adaptation of species to the environment. This is done chiefly by describing geographical patterns of trait/environment relationships; these patterns termed ecogeographical rules when applied to plants represent another area of phytogeography. A new field termed macroecology has developed, which focuses on broad-scale patterns and phenomena in ecology. Macroecology focuses as much on other organisms as plants. Floristics is a study of the flora of some area. Traditional phytogeography concerns itself with floristics and floristic classification, see floristic province. Biogeography Botany Geobotanical prospecting Macroecology Species distribution Zoogeography Association Brown, James H.. "Chapter 1". Biogeography. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0878930736. Humbodlt, Alexander von. Essai sur la geographie des plantes. Accompagné d'un tableau physique des régions équinoxiales fondé sur des mesures exécutées, depuis le dixiéme degré de latitude boréale jusqu'au dixiéme degré de latitude australe, pendant les années 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802 et 1803.
Paris: Schöll. Polunin, Nicholas. Introduction to Plant Geography and Some Related Sciences. McGraw-Hill. Wallace, Alfred R.. Tropical Nature, Other Essays. London: Macmillan. Clements, Frederic E.. "Plant Geography". Encyclopedia Americana. "Distribution of Plants". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Ordino is the most northerly parish in the Principality of Andorra. It's the main area of Valira del Nord or Valira d'Ordino river valley. Ordino is the name of the main town of the parish. Other settlements in the parish are El Serrat, Sornàs, La Cortinada, Segudet, Les Salines and Arcalís, it is home to the Sorteny National Park, the largest nature area of Andorra. It has a population of 4,858, as of 2017; the town preserves a vast medieval center linked to the culture of the country. The parish has borders with France and with the parishes of La Massana and Encamp; the only main road and only all year external link is the CG-3 leading to the neighbouring parish of La Massana. With 85 km ² is the third largest parish after Encamp; the town of Ordino lies on the footslopes of Casamanya, a mountain which has spectacular panoramic views from its summit being located exactly in the centre of Andorra. The etymological origin of the name of the parish Ordino and its capital is pre-Roman, it is documented for the first time in the Acta de Consagració i Dotació de la Catedral de la Seu d'Urgell, during the 9th century, as Hordinavi or Sant Cebrià d'Hordinavi.
Ordino is known for its ironworks of the 16th century Farga del Serrat and Farga de l'Areny. Besides being the industrial center of Andorra, Ordino is considered the cultural center of Andorra. Here Antoni Fiter i Rossell wrote the Manual Digest, called the "Bible of Andorra," which tells the story, the government and the Andorran customs; the town of Ordino include the parish church of Sant Corneli i Sant Cebrià mentioned in 839, was built during the 12th and 13th centuries. The Romanesque church of Sant Martí de la Cortinada, with 12th-century murals, is a good example of romanesque Andorran art. Manor houses like Fiter-Riba or Casa Rossell, which holds the original Manual Digest and Areny-Plandolit family house, owners of Farga de l'Areny, represented the good society of Andorra between the 17th and 19th centuries. Both mansions were acquired in 1972 by Consell General and converted into an ethnological and historical museum; the parish and town is the namesake of the Andorran legend El buner d'Ordino, in which a bagpiper from Ordino, en route to a festival in Canillo, is chased and treed by wolves, but frightens them off by playing his instrument.
Ordino has been part of the culture of Andorra and the Catalan language as major headquarter of Fundacio Ramon Llull, an international organization constituted in 2008 in order to promote Catalan language and culture internationally. The National Auditorium of Andorra is located in Ordino town; the International Narciso Yepes Festival, a series of classical music concerts, has been held there every October since 1983. The festival was started by Narciso Yepes; the Postal and Postcard Museum of Andorra and the Miniature Museum are localed in the parish of Ordino. La Ruta del Ferro, which translates into English as the Iron Route, is a cultural route of old iron ore mines and rural cottages across the Valira del Nord, between Llorts and La Cortinada, it is part of the old road that the carriers used to carry the iron from the mines of Llorts to the ironwork forges of La Massana. A festival rooted in the town of Ordino is El Roser d'Ordino or The Rose Festival, in which the processions and devotions during the month of July have given way to the Roses festival, a spring symbol linked to love and devotion.
Traditionally, the day before the youth went to pick roses that grew in the fields and orchards, preparing the bouquets and placed in a basket that gave to women. The celebration was religious in the morning, in the afternoon there was a parade and a harvest and everything ended with a dance at night. During two days the first weekend of August, the streets of Ordino are filled with buners, an aerophone instrument that receives a wide variety of names depending on the area and is a symbol of the parish by its legend. All events are popular, celebrated by local people and parishioners, who have gone from town to town and from a popular festival to a popular festival playing the bagpipes; the sings of Caramelles, its dances, are popular and traditional in the parish. The Comú d'Ordino, the local government, has a sports center with swimming pool, squash and rock climbing wall. It's the parish were the start and finish of Ultra Trail Andorra take place, one of the most important mountain trail races in Southern Europe.
FC Ordino, founded in 2010, is one of the major sport clubs in the parish. The club's football section plays in Primera Divisió, the Andorran Premier Division. In the extreme northwest of the parish is the Vallnord ski resort. Vallnord is part of the annually Freeride World Tour El Dorado route since 2015, as part of the major ski events in Andorra; the ski station has hosted since 2005 main stages of the European Championships of Ski Mountaineering and World Championships of Ski Mountaineering. During summer the ski resort is open as bike park. In mountain biking, Vallnord was the venue for events during the 2008, 2009 and 2013 UCI Mountain
El Serrat is a mountain village in the parish of Ordino, Andorra. It is at an elevation of 1,540 metres, it is a popular destination for skiers. El Serrat is near the source of the northern branch of the Rio Valira. Many different types of wild flowers grow in the El Serrat area. Flora of Andorra
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high elevation. As the latitude of a location approaches the poles, the threshold elevation for alpine tundra gets lower until it reaches sea level, alpine tundra merges with polar tundra; the high elevation causes an adverse climate, too cold and windy to support tree growth. Alpine tundra transitions to sub-alpine forests below the tree line. With increasing elevation it ends at the snow line where ice persist through summer. Alpine tundra occurs in mountains worldwide; the flora of the alpine tundra is characterized by dwarf shrubs close to the ground. The cold climate of the alpine tundra is caused by adiabatic cooling of air, is similar to polar climate. Alpine tundra occurs at high enough altitude at any latitude. Portions of montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregions worldwide include alpine tundra. Large regions of alpine tundra occur in the North American Cordillera, the Alps and Pyrenees of Europe, the Himalaya and Karakoram of Asia, the Andes of South America, the Eastern Rift mountains of Africa.
Alpine tundra occupies high-mountain summits and ridges above timberline. Aspect plays a role as well; because the alpine zone is present only on mountains, much of the landscape is rugged and broken, with rocky, snowcapped peaks and talus slopes, but contains areas of rolling to flat topography. Averaging over many locations and local microclimates, the treeline rises 75 metres when moving 1 degree south from 70 to 50°N, 130 metres per degree from 50 to 30°N. Between 30°N and 20°S, the treeline is constant, between 3,500 and 4,000 metres. Alpine climate is the average weather for the alpine tundra; the climate becomes colder at high elevations—this characteristic is described by the lapse rate of air: air tends to get colder as it rises, since it expands. The dry adiabatic lapse rate is 10 °C per km of altitude. Therefore, moving up 100 metres on a mountain is equivalent to moving 80 kilometers towards the pole; this relationship is only approximate, since local factors such as proximity to oceans can drastically modify the climate.
Typical high-elevation growing seasons range from 45 to 90 days, with average summer temperatures near 10 °C. Growing season temperatures fall below freezing, frost occurs throughout the growing season in many areas. Precipitation occurs as winter snow, but soil water availability is variable with season and topography. For example, snowfields accumulate on the lee sides of ridges while ridgelines may remain nearly snow free due to redistribution by wind; some alpine habitats may be up to 70% snow free in winter. High winds are common in alpine ecosystems, can cause significant soil erosion and be physically and physiologically detrimental to plants. Wind coupled with high solar radiation can promote high rates of evaporation and transpiration. There have been several attempts at quantifying. Climatologist Wladimir Köppen demonstrated a relationship between the Arctic and Antarctic tree lines and the 10 °C summer isotherm. See Köppen climate classification for more information. Otto Nordenskiöld theorized that winter conditions play a role: His formula is W = 9 − 0.1 C, where W is the average temperature in the warmest month and C the average of the coldest month, both in degrees Celsius.
In 1947, Holdridge improved on these schemes, by defining biotemperature: the mean annual temperature, where all temperatures below 0 °C are treated as 0 °C. If the mean biotemperature is between 1.5 and 3 °C, Holdridge quantifies the climate as alpine. Because the habitat of alpine vegetation is subject to intense radiation, cold and ice, it grows close to the ground and consists of perennial grasses and forbs. Perennial herbs dominate the alpine landscape; the roots and rhizomes not only function in water and nutrient absorption but play a important role in over-winter carbohydrate storage. Annual plants are rare in this ecosystem and are only a few inches tall, with weak root systems. Other common plant life-forms include prostrate shrubs, graminoids forming tussocks, cushion plants, cryptogams, such as bryophytes and lichens. Relative to lower elevation areas in the same region, alpine regions have a high rate of endemism and a high diversity of plant species; this taxonomic diversity can be attributed to geographical isolation, climate changes, microhabitat differentiation, different histories of migration or evolution or both.
These phenomena contribute to plant diversity by introducing new flora and favoring adaptations, both of new species and the dispersal of pre-existing species. Plants have adapted to the harsh alpine environment. Cushion plants, looking like ground-hugging clumps of moss, escape the strong winds blowing a few inches a
World Wide Fund for Nature
The World Wide Fund for Nature is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, the reduction of human impact on the environment. It was named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. WWF is the world's largest conservation organization with over five million supporters worldwide, working in more than 100 countries, supporting around 1,300 conservation and environmental projects, they have invested over $1 billion in more than 12,000 conservation initiatives since 1995. WWF is a foundation with 55% of funding from individuals and bequests, 19% from government sources and 8% from corporations in 2014. WWF aims to "stop the degradation of the planet's natural environment and to build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature." The Living Planet Report is published every two years by WWF since 1998. In addition, WWF has launched several notable worldwide campaigns including Earth Hour and Debt-for-Nature Swap, its current work is organized around these six areas: food, freshwater, wildlife and oceans.
WWF has been accused by BuzzFeed News, Kathmandu Post, the Rainforest Foundation Fund and Survival International of protecting paramilitary forces funded by the organization to fight poaching that have engaged in human rights abuses despite an internal report acknowledging them in 2015. They have attacked African and South Asian villages, torturing and killing villagers. Investigators revealed that the WWF engaged in cover ups and lobbied to release rangers when they were arrested; the Conservation Foundation, a precursor to WWF, was founded in 1948 by Fairfield Osborn as an affiliate of the New York Zoological Society with an aim of protecting the world's natural resources. The advisory council included leading scientists such as Charles Sutherland Elton, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Aldo Leopold, Carl Sauer, Paul Sears, it supported much of the scientific work cited by Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, including that of John L. George, Roger Hale, Robert Rudd, George Woodwell; the idea for a fund on behalf of endangered animals was proposed by Victor Stolan to Sir Julian Huxley in response to articles he published in the British newspaper The Observer.
This proposal led Huxley to put Stolan in contact with Max Nicholson, a person who had had thirty years experience of linking progressive intellectuals with big business interests through the Political and Economic Planning think tank. Nicholson thought up the name of the organization. WWF was conceived on 29 April 1961, under the name of World Wildlife Fund, its first office was opened on 11 September that same year in Morges, Switzerland. WWF was conceived to act as a funding institution for existing conservation groups such as the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and The Conservation Foundation. Godfrey A. Rockefeller played an important role in its creation, assembling the first staff, its establishment was marked with the signing of the "Morges Manifesto", the founding document that sets out the fund's commitment to assisting worthy organizations struggling to save the world's wildlife: They need above all money, to carry out mercy missions and to meet conservation emergencies by buying land where wildlife treasures are threatened, in many other ways.
Money, for example, to pay guardians of wildlife refuges.... Money for education and propaganda among those who would care and help if only they understood. Money to send out experts to danger spots and to train more local wardens and helpers in Africa and elsewhere. Money to maintain a sort of'war room' at the international headquarters of conservation, showing where the danger spots are and making it possible to ensure that their needs are met before it is too late. Dutch Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld helped found the World Wildlife Fund, becoming its first President in 1961. In 1963, the Foundation held a conference and published a major report warning of anthropogenic global warming, written by Noel Eichhorn based on the work of Frank Fraser Darling, Edward Deevey, Erik Eriksson, Charles Keeling, Gilbert Plass, Lionel Walford, William Garnett. In 1970, along with Duke of Edinburgh and a few associates, Prince Bernhard established the WWF's financial endowment The 1001: A Nature Trust to handle the WWF's administration and fund-raising.
1001 members each contributed $10,000 to the trust. Prince Bernhard resigned his post after being involved in the Lockheed Bribery Scandal. WWF has set up operations around the world, it worked by fundraising and providing grants to existing non-governmental organizations, based on the best-available scientific knowledge and with an initial focus on the protection of endangered species. As more resources became available, its operations expanded into other areas such as the preservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of natural resources, the reduction of pollution, climate change; the organization began to run its own conservation projects and campaigns, by the 1980s started to take a more strategic approach to its conservation activities. In 1986, the organization changed its name to World Wide Fund for Nature, while retaining the WWF initials. However, it continued at that time to operate under the original name in the United States and Canada; that year was the 25th anniversary of WWF's foundation, an event marked by a gathering in Assisi, Italy to which the organization's International President HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, invited religi
A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south or southern, are used to define a subregion; the Statistics Division of the United Nations is in charge of the collection and dissemination of statistical information for the UN. In 1999, it developed a system of macro-geographical regions and other selected economic groups to report advances towards achieving numerous millennial development goals worldwide; these statistical divisions were devised for statistical purposes and is used for carrying out statistical analysis. The division's first publication was the book World's Women 2000: Trends and Statistics in 2000. According to the UN, the assignment of countries or areas to specific groupings is for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories; the following is a non-exhaustive list of subregions, arranged alphabetically by region. By the United Nations Statistics Division's subregions: Eastern Africa Middle Africa Northern Africa Southern Africa Western Africa by geography: Central Africa Congo Basin Sudan East Sudanian Savanna East Africa Sudan East Sudanian Savanna Sudd Northeast Africa North Africa Sahara Maghreb Sahel Southeast Africa Southern Africa West Africa Sudan West Sudanian Savanna Northwest Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Kaapvaal craton Zimbabwe craton by the United Nations Statistics Division's subregions: Central Asia Eastern Asia Southeastern Asia Southern Asia Western Asia by geography: Central Asia Indus Valley Iranian Plateau East Asia Greater China China Hong Kong Macau Mainland China North China Northeast China Southeast China East China South Central China Central China South China Western China Northwest China Southwest China Taiwan Spratly Islands James Shoal Mongolia Northeast Asia China Eastern Inner Mongolia Northeast China Japan Korea North Korea South Korea Russia Outer Manchuria Sakhalin North Asia Russian Far East Outer Manchuria Sakhalin South Asia Deccan Plateau Eastern South Asia The Himalayas India Central India East India Northeast India North India South India Western India Indo-Gangetic Plain List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Indian Ocean Southeast Asia Mainland Southeast Asia Malay Peninsula Peninsular Malaysia Southern Thailand Maritime Southeast Asia Nusantara East Malaysia Western Asia Asia Minor Arabian Peninsula Caucasus North Caucasus South Caucasus Iranian Plateau Levant Mesopotamia by geopolitics: Far East Farther India Greater China China proper Korea Russian Far East Middle East MENA Middle East Arabia The'stans Indian subcontinent by economics: Arab League Association of Southeast Asian Nations Eurasian Economic Community Greater Mekong Subregion Northern and southern China by culture: Eastern world East Asian cultural sphere Northern and southern China Indian subcontinent Nanyang Greater India Farther India Malay world Nusantara Indian subcontinent Muslim world Arab world by religions: Abrahamic religions Eastern religions Dharmic religions Taoic religions by biogeography: Malesia by the United Nations Statistics Division's subregions: Eastern Europe – the UN includes North Asia and Central Europe in this subregion Northern Europe – the UN includes the British Isles in this subregion Southern Europe Western Europe – the UN includes Germany and other DACH countries in this subregion by economy: Central European Free Trade Agreement Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area Customs Union of Belarus and Russia Eurasian Economic Community European Economic Area European Free Trade Association European Union Customs Union Eurozone by geology: Baltic shield East European craton Ukrainian Shield by geopolitics: Western world European Union by peninsula: Balkan Peninsula Iberian Peninsula Italian Peninsula Scandinavian Peninsula by culture: The Balkans The Eastern Balkans The Western Balkans The Balti