Benin the Republic of Benin and Dahomey, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north; the majority of its population lives on the small southern coastline of the Bight of Benin, part of the Gulf of Guinea in the northernmost tropical portion of the Atlantic Ocean. The capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, but the seat of government is in Cotonou, the country's largest city and economic capital. Benin covers an area of 114,763 square kilometres and its population in 2016 was estimated to be 10.87 million. Benin is a tropical nation dependent on agriculture. Benin is a big exporter of palm oil; the substantial employment and income arise from subsistence farming. The official language of Benin is French. However, indigenous languages such as Fon and Yoruba are spoken; the largest religious group in Benin is Roman Catholicism, followed by Islam and Protestantism. Benin is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, La Francophonie, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Petroleum Producers Association and the Niger Basin Authority.
From the 17th to the 19th century, the main political entities in the area were the Kingdom of Dahomey, along with the city-state of Porto-Novo, a large area with many different nations to the north. This region was referred to as the Slave Coast from as early as the 17th century due to the large number of enslaved people who were shipped to the New World during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. After enslavement was abolished, France renamed it French Dahomey. In 1960, Dahomey gained full independence from France; the sovereign state has had a tumultuous history since with many different democratic governments, military coups, military governments. A Marxist–Leninist state called the People's Republic of Benin existed between 1975 and 1990. In 1991, it was replaced by the current multi-party Republic of Benin. During the colonial period and at independence, the country was known as Dahomey. On 30 November 1975, it was renamed to Benin, after the body of water on which the country lies—the Bight of Benin.
This had been named by Europeans after the Benin Empire in present-day Nigeria. The country of Benin has no connection to Benin City in modern Nigeria, nor to the Benin bronzes; the form "Benin" is the result of a Portuguese corruption of the city of Ubinu. The new name, was chosen for its neutrality. Dahomey was the name of the former Fon Kingdom of Dahomey, limited to most of the southern third of the present country and therefore did not represent Porto-Novo, central Benin, the multi-ethnic northwestern sector Atakora, nor the Bariba Kingdom of Borgu, which covered the northeastern district; the current country of Benin combines three areas which had distinctly different political systems and ethnicities prior to French colonial control. Before 1700, there were a few important city-states along the coast and a mass of tribal regions inland; the Oyo Empire, located to the east of modern Benin, was the most significant large-scale military force in the region. It conducted raids and exacted tribute from the coastal kingdoms and the tribal regions.
The situation changed in the 1600s and early 1700s as the Kingdom of Dahomey, consisting of Fon people, was founded on the Abomey plateau and began taking over areas along the coast. By 1727, king Agaja of the Kingdom of Dahomey had conquered the coastal cities of Allada and Whydah, but it had become a tributary of the Oyo empire and did not directly attack the Oyo allied city-state of Porto-Novo; the rise of the kingdom of Dahomey, the rivalry between the kingdom and the city of Porto-Novo, the continued tribal politics of the northern region, persisted into the colonial and post-colonial periods. The Dahomey Kingdom was known for its culture and traditions. Young boys were apprenticed to older soldiers, taught the kingdom's military customs until they were old enough to join the army. Dahomey was famous for instituting an elite female soldier corps, called Ahosi, i.e. the king's wives, or Mino, "our mothers" in the Fon language Fongbe, known by many Europeans as the Dahomean Amazons. This emphasis on military preparation and achievement earned Dahomey the nickname of "black Sparta" from European observers and 19th-century explorers such as Sir Richard Burton.
The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery. They had a practice of killing war captives in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. By about 1750, the King of Dahomey was earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling African captives to European slave-traders. Though the leaders of Dahomey appear to have resisted the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for three hundred years, beginning in 1472 with a trade agreement with Portuguese merchants; the area was named the "Slave Coast" because of this flourishing trade. Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom's many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area; the number went from 102,000 people per decade in the 1780s to 24,000 per decade by the 1860s. The decline was due to the Slave Trade Act 1807 banning the trans-Atlantic slave trade by Britain and the United States following in
The common hippopotamus, or hippo, is a large herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa. It is one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus; the name comes from the ancient Greek for "river horse". After the elephant and rhinoceros, the common hippopotamus is the third-largest type of land mammal and the heaviest extant artiodactyl. Despite their physical resemblance to pigs and other terrestrial even-toed ungulates, the closest living relatives of the Hippopotamidae are cetaceans from which they diverged about 55 million years ago. Common hippos are recognisable by their barrel-shaped torsos, wide-opening mouths revealing large canine tusks, nearly hairless bodies, columnar legs and large size. Despite its stocky shape and short legs, it is capable of running 30 km/h over short distances; the common hippopotamus inhabits rivers and mangrove swamps, where territorial bulls preside over a stretch of river and groups of five to thirty females and young.
During the day, they remain cool by staying in the mud. They emerge at dusk to graze on grasses. While hippopotamuses rest near each other in the water, grazing is a solitary activity and hippos are not territorial on land; the hippopotamus is among the most dangerous animals in the world as it is aggressive and unpredictable. They are poaching for their meat and ivory canine teeth; the Latin word "hippopotamus" is derived from the ancient Greek ἱπποπόταμος, from ἵππος, hippos, "horse", ποταμός, potamos, "river", meaning "horse of the river". In English, the plural is "hippopotamuses", but "hippopotami" is used. Hippopotamuses are gregarious. A group is called a pod, dale, or bloat; the hippopotamus is the type genus of the family Hippopotamidae. The pygmy hippopotamus belongs to a different genus in Hippopotamidae, either Choeropsis or Hexaprotodon. Hippopotamidae are sometimes known as hippopotamids. Sometimes, the subfamily Hippopotaminae is used. Further, some taxonomists group hippopotamuses and anthracotheres in the superfamily Anthracotheroidea.
Hippopotamidae are classified along with other even-toed ungulates in the order Artiodactyla. Other artiodactyls include camels, cattle and pigs, although hippopotamuses are not related to these groups. Five subspecies of hippos have been described based on morphological differences in their skulls and geographical differences: Great northern hippopotamus or Nile hippopotamus H. a. amphibius – which stretched from Egypt, where they are now extinct, south up the Nile River to Tanzania and Mozambique East African hippopotamus H. a. kiboko – in Kenya in the African Great Lakes region, in Somalia in the Horn of Africa. Broader nasals and more hollowed interorbital region Cape hippopotamus or South African hippopotamus H. a. capensis – from Zambia to South Africa, most flattened skull of the subspecies West African hippopotamus or Tchad hippopotamus H. a. tschadensis – throughout Western Africa to, as the name suggests, Chad shorter and wider face, with prominent orbits Angola hippopotamus H. a. constrictus – in Angola, the southern Democratic Republic of Congo and Namibia, named for its deeper preorbital constrictionThe suggested subspecies were never used or validated by field biologists.
Genetic analyses have tested the existence of three of these putative subspecies. A study examining mitochondrial DNA from skin biopsies taken from 13 sampling locations, considered genetic diversity and structure among hippo populations across the continent; the authors found low, but significant, genetic differentiation among H. a. amphibius, H. a. capensis, H. a. kiboko. Neither H. a. tschadensis nor H. a. constrictus has been tested. Until 1909, naturalists grouped hippos with pigs, based on molar patterns. Several lines of evidence, first from blood proteins from molecular systematics and DNA and the fossil record, show that their closest living relatives are cetaceans – whales and porpoises; the common ancestor of hippos and whales branched off from Ruminantia and the rest of the even-toed ungulates. The most recent theory of the origins of Hippopotamidae suggests that hippos and whales shared a common semiaquatic ancestor that branched off from other artiodactyls around 60 million years ago.
This hypothesized ancestral group split into two branches around 54 million years ago. One branch would evolve into cetaceans beginning about 52 million years ago, with the protowhale Pakicetus and other early whale ancestors collectively known as Archaeoceti, which underwent aquatic adaptation into the aquatic cetaceans; the other branch became the anthracotheres, a large family of four-legged beasts, the earliest of which in the late Eocene would have resembled skinny hippopotamuses with comparatively small and narrow heads. All branches of the anthracotheres, except that which evolved into Hippopotamidae, became extinct during the Pliocene without leaving any descendants. A rough evolutionary lineage can be traced from Eocene and Oligocene species: Anthracotherium and Elomeryx to the Miocene species Merycopotamus and Libycosaurus and the latest anthracotheres in the Pliocene. Meryco
Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan, it borders Guinea and Liberia to the west, Burkina Faso and Mali to the north, Ghana to the east, the Gulf of Guinea to the south. Before its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, Baoulé; the area became a protectorate of France in 1843 and was consolidated as a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. Stable by regional standards, Ivory Coast established close political and economic ties with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close relations to the West France. Ivory Coast experienced a coup d'état in 1999 and two religiously-grounded civil wars, first between 2002 and 2007 and again during 2010–2011.
In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution. Ivory Coast is a republic with strong executive power vested in its president. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s, though it went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Only around 2014 has GDP per capita in the country again reached the level of its peak in the 1970s. In the 21st century, the Ivorian economy is market-based and still relies on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant; the official language is French, with local indigenous languages widely used, including Baoulé, Dan and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. There are large populations of Muslims and various indigenous religions. Portuguese and French merchant-explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries divided the west coast of Africa roughly, into four "coasts" reflecting local economies.
The coast that the French named the Côte d'Ivoire and the Portuguese named the Costa Do Marfim—both mean "Coast of Ivory"—lay between what was known as the Guiné de Cabo Verde, so-called "Upper Guinea" at Cap-Vert, Lower Guinea. There was a Pepper Coast known as the "Grain Coast", a "Gold Coast", a "Slave Coast". Like those, the name "Ivory Coast" reflected the major trade that occurred on that particular stretch of the coast: the export of ivory. Other names included the Côte de Dents "Coast of Teeth", again reflecting the trade in ivory. One can find the name Cote de Dents used in older works, it was used in Duckett's Dictionnaire and by Nicolas Villault de Bellefond, for example, although Antoine François Prévost used Côte d'Ivoire. In the 19th century, usage switched to Côte d'Ivoire; the coastline of the modern state is not quite coterminous with what the 15th- and 16th-century merchants knew as the "Teeth" or "Ivory" coast, considered to stretch from Cape Palmas to Cape Three Points and, thus now divided between the modern states of Ghana and Ivory Coast.
It retained the name through French rule and independence in 1960. The name had long since been translated into other languages, which the post-independence government considered troublesome whenever its international dealings extended beyond the Francophone sphere. Therefore, in April 1986, the government declared that Côte d'Ivoire would be its formal name for the purposes of diplomatic protocol, since officially refuses to recognize or accept any translation from French to another language in its international dealings. Despite the Ivorian government's request, the English translation "Ivory Coast" is still used in English by various media outlets and publications; the first human presence in Ivory Coast has been difficult to determine because human remains have not been well preserved in the country's humid climate. However, newly found weapon and tool fragments have been interpreted as a possible indication of a large human presence during the Upper Paleolithic period, or at the minimum, the Neolithic period.
The earliest known inhabitants of Ivory Coast have left traces scattered throughout the territory. Historians believe that they were all either displaced or absorbed by the ancestors of the present indigenous inhabitants, who migrated south into the area before the 16th century; such groups included the Kotrowou, Zéhiri, Ega and Diès. The first recorded history appears in the chronicles of North African traders, from early Roman times, conducted a caravan trade across the Sahara in salt, slaves and other goods; the southern terminals of the trans-Saharan trade routes were located on the edge of the desert, from there supplemental trade extended as far south as the edge of the rain forest. The more important terminals—Djenné, Timbuctu—grew into major commercial centres around which the great Sudanic empires developed. By controlling the trade routes with their powerful military forces, these empires were able
Sahel is one of Burkina Faso's 13 administrative regions. It was created on 2 July 2001; the region's capital is Dori. Four provinces make up the region—Oudalan, Séno, Yagha; as of 2010, the population of the region was 1,086,250 with 50.30 per cent females. The population in the region was 6.91 per cent of the total population of the country. The child mortality rate was 132, infant mortality rate was 119 and the mortality of children under five was 235; the coverage of cereal need compared to the total production of the region was 81.00 per cent. As of 2007, the literacy rate in the region was 18 per cent, compared to a national average of 28.3 per cent. Most of Burkino Faso is a wide plateau is called falaise de Banfora. There are three major rivers, the Red Volta, Black Volta and White Volta, which cuts through different valleys; the climate is hot, with unreliable rains across different seasons. Gold and quartz are common minerals found across the country, while manganese deposits are common.
The dry season is from October to May and rains are common during the wet season from June to September. The soil texture is porous and hence the yield is poor; the average elevation is around 200 m to 300 m above mean sea level. Among West African countries, Burkino Faso has the largest elephant population and the country is replete with game reserves; the northern regions are arid and have scrub land and semi-deserts. The principal river is the Red Volta, that drains into Ghana; the areas near the rivers have flies like tsetse and similium, which are carriers of sleep sickness and river blindness. The average rainfall in the region is around 25 cm compared to southern regions that receive only 100 cm rainfall; the main languages spoken in Sahel Region as of 2006 were Fulfulde and Moore. French is the official language throughout the country; as of 2010, the population of the region was 1,086,250 with 50.30 per cent females. The population in the region was 6.91 per cent of the total population of the country.
The child mortality rate was 132, infant mortality rate was 119 and the mortality of children under five was 235. As of 2007, among the working population, there were 72.20 per cent employees, 9.30 per cent under employed, 16.00 per cent inactive people, 18.50 per cent not working and 2.50 unemployed people in the region. As of 2007, there were 683.5 km of highways, 249.6 km of regional roads and 520.7 km of county roads. The first set of car traffic was 9, first set of two-wheeler traffic was 2,344 and the total classified road network was 1,454; the total corn produced during 2015 was 3,235 tonnes, cotton was 000 tonnes, cowpea was 17,804 tonnes, ground nut was 2,829 tonnes, millet was 152,287 tonnes, rice was 2,510 tonnes and sorghum was 72,967 tonnes. The coverage of cereal need compared to the total production of the region was 81.00 per cent. As of 2007, the literacy rate in the region was 18 per cent, compared to a national average of 28.3 per cent. The gross primary enrolment was 40.8 per cent, pos-primary was 7.6 per cent and gross secondary school enrolment was 1.9.
There were 0 boys and 0 girls enroled in the primary and post-secondary level. There were 0 teachers in primary & post-secondary level, while there were 239 teachers in post-primary and post-secondary level. Burkina Faso gained independence from France in 1960, it was called Upper Volta. There have been military coups till 1983 when Captain Thomas Sankara took control and implemented radical left wing policies, he was outsed by Blaise Compaore, who continued for 27 years till 2014, when a popular uprising ended his rule. As per Law No.40/98/AN in 1998, Burkina Faso adhered to decentralization to provide administrative and financial autonomy to local communities. There are each governed by a Governor; the regions are subdivided into 45 provinces. The communes are interchangeable. There are other administrative entities like village. An urban commune has 10,000 people under it. If any commune is not able to get 75 per cent of its planned budget in revenues for 3 years, the autonomy is taken off; the communes are administered by elected Mayors.
The communes are stipulated to develop economic and cultural values of its citizens. A commune has financial autonomy and can interact with other communes, government agencies or international entities
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land, dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river, lake, or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal flood. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, these changes in size are unlikely to be considered significant unless they flood property or drown domestic animals. Floods can occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel at bends or meanders in the waterway. Floods cause damage to homes and businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers.
While riverine flood damage can be eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, people have traditionally lived and worked by rivers because the land is flat and fertile and because rivers provide easy travel and access to commerce and industry. Some floods develop while others such as flash floods can develop in just a few minutes and without visible signs of rain. Additionally, floods can be local, impacting a neighborhood or community, or large, affecting entire river basins; the word "flood" comes from a word common to Germanic languages. Floods can happen on flat or low-lying areas when water is supplied by rainfall or snowmelt more than it can either infiltrate or run off; the excess accumulates in place, sometimes to hazardous depths. Surface soil can become saturated, which stops infiltration, where the water table is shallow, such as a floodplain, or from intense rain from one or a series of storms. Infiltration is slow to negligible through frozen ground, concrete, paving, or roofs.
Areal flooding begins in flat areas like floodplains and in local depressions not connected to a stream channel, because the velocity of overland flow depends on the surface slope. Endorheic basins may experience areal flooding during periods when precipitation exceeds evaporation. Floods occur in all types of river and stream channels, from the smallest ephemeral streams in humid zones to normally-dry channels in arid climates to the world's largest rivers; when overland flow occurs on tilled fields, it can result in a muddy flood where sediments are picked up by run off and carried as suspended matter or bed load. Localized flooding may be caused or exacerbated by drainage obstructions such as landslides, debris, or beaver dams. Slow-rising floods most occur in large rivers with large catchment areas; the increase in flow may be the result of sustained rainfall, rapid snow melt, monsoons, or tropical cyclones. However, large rivers may have rapid flooding events in areas with dry climate, since they may have large basins but small river channels and rainfall can be intense in smaller areas of those basins.
Rapid flooding events, including flash floods, more occur on smaller rivers, rivers with steep valleys, rivers that flow for much of their length over impermeable terrain, or normally-dry channels. The cause may be localized convective precipitation or sudden release from an upstream impoundment created behind a dam, landslide, or glacier. In one instance, a flash flood killed eight people enjoying the water on a Sunday afternoon at a popular waterfall in a narrow canyon. Without any observed rainfall, the flow rate increased from about 50 to 1,500 cubic feet per second in just one minute. Two larger floods occurred at the same site within a week, but no one was at the waterfall on those days; the deadly flood resulted from a thunderstorm over part of the drainage basin, where steep, bare rock slopes are common and the thin soil was saturated. Flash floods are the most common flood type in normally-dry channels in arid zones, known as arroyos in the southwest United States and many other names elsewhere.
In that setting, the first flood water to arrive is depleted. The leading edge of the flood thus advances more than and higher flows; as a result, the rising limb of the hydrograph becomes quicker as the flood moves downstream, until the flow rate is so great that the depletion by wetting soil becomes insignificant. Flooding in estuaries is caused by a combination of sea tidal surges caused by winds and low barometric pressure, they may be exacerbated by high upstream river flow. Coastal areas may be flooded by storm events at sea, resulting in waves over-topping defenses or in severe cases by tsunami or tropical cyclones. A storm surge, from either a tropical cyclone or an extratropical cyclone, falls within this category. Research from the NHC explains: "Storm surge is an abnormal rise of water generated by a storm and above the predicted astronomical tides. Storm surge should not be confused with storm tide, defined as the water level rise due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide.
This rise in water level can cause extreme flooding in coastal areas when storm surge coincides with normal high tide, resulting in storm tides reaching up to 20 feet or more in some cases." Urban flooding is the inundation of land or property in a built environment in more densely populated areas, caused by rainfall overwhelmi
The common warthog is a wild member of the pig family found in grassland and woodland in sub-Saharan Africa. In the past, it was treated as a subspecies of P. aethiopicus, but today that scientific name is restricted to the desert warthog of northern Kenya and eastern Ethiopia. Nolan warthog Gmelin, 1788 – Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal, Sudan Eritrean warthog Cretzschmar, 1828 – Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia Central African warthog Lönnberg, 1908 – Kenya, Tanzania Southern warthog Lönnberg, 1908 – Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe The common warthog is a medium-sized species, with a head-and-body length ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 m, shoulder height from 63.5 to 85 cm. Females, at 45 to 75 kg, are a bit smaller and lighter in weight than males, at 60 to 150 kg. A warthog is identifiable by the two pairs of tusks curving upwards; the lower pair, far shorter than the upper pair, becomes razor-sharp by rubbing against the upper pair every time the mouth is opened and closed.
The upper canine teeth can grow to 25.5 cm long and have a wide elliptical cross section, being about 4.5 cm deep and 2.5 cm wide. A tusk will curve 90° or more from the root, will not lie flat on a table, as it curves somewhat backwards as it grows; the tusks are not used for digging, but are used for combat with other hogs, in defense against predators – the lower set can inflict severe wounds. Common warthog ivory is taken from the growing canine teeth; the tusks the upper set, work in much the same way as elephant tusks with all designs scaled down. Tusks are carved predominantly for the tourist trade in southern Africa; the head of the common warthog is large, with a mane down the spine to the middle of the back. Sparse hair covers the body, its color is black or brown. Tails end with a tuft of hair. Common warthogs do not have subcutaneous fat and the coat is sparse, making them susceptible to extreme environmental temperatures; the common warthog is the only pig species that has adapted to savanna habitats.
Its diet is omnivorous, composed of grasses, roots and other fruits, fungi, insects and carrion. The diet is seasonably variable, depending on availability of different food items. During the wet seasons, warthogs graze on short perennial grasses. During the dry seasons, they subsist on bulbs and nutritious roots. Warthogs are powerful diggers, using both their feet. Whilst feeding, they bend their front feet backwards and move around on the wrists. Calloused pads that protect the wrists during such movement form quite early in the development of the fetus. Although they can dig their own burrows, they occupy abandoned burrows of aardvarks and other animals; the common warthog reverses into burrows, with its head facing the opening and ready to burst out if necessary. Common warthogs will wallow in mud to cope with high temperatures and huddle together to cope with low temperatures. Although capable of fighting, the common warthog's primary defense is to flee by means of fast sprinting; the common warthog's main predators are humans, leopards, crocodiles, wild dogs and hyenas.
Birds of prey such as Verreaux's eagle owls and martial eagles sometimes prey on piglets. However, if a female common warthog has any piglets, she will defend them aggressively. On occasion, common warthogs have been observed charging and wounding large predators. Common warthogs have been observed allowing banded mongooses and vervet monkeys to groom them to remove ticks. Common warthogs are not territorial. Common warthogs live in groups called sounders. Females live with other females. Females tend to stay in their natal groups, while males stay within the home range. Subadult males live alone when they become adults. Adult males only join sounders with estrous females. Warthogs have two facial glands: the sebaceous gland. Common warthogs of both sexes begin to mark around six to seven months old. Males tend to mark more than females, they mark feeding areas and waterholes. Common warthogs use tusk marking for courtship, for antagonistic behaviors, to establish status. Common warthogs are seasonal breeders.
Rutting begins in the late rainy or early dry season and birthing begins near the start of the following rainy season. The mating system is described as "overlap promiscuity". Boars employ two mating strategies during the rut. With the "staying tactic", a boar will stay and defend certain females or a resource valuable to them. In the "roaming tactic", boars seek out estrous compete for them. Boars will wait. A dominant boar will displace any other boar that tries to court his female; when a sow leaves her den, the boar will try to demonstrate his dominance and follow her before copulation. For the "staying tactic", female-defense polygyny, or resource-defense polygyny is promoted, while the "roaming tactic" promotes scramble-competition polygyny; the typical gestation period is five to six months. When they are about to give birth, sows temporarily leave their families to farrow in a separate hol
Cascades is one of Burkina Faso's 13 administrative regions. It was created on 2 July 2001; the population of Cascades was 524,956 in 2006. It is the least populous region in Burkina Faso and contains 3.8% of all Burkinabé. The region's capital is Banfora. Two provinces, Comoé and Léraba, make up the region; the Cascades de Karfiguéla give the region its name. As of 2010, the population of the region was 613,229 with 51.43 per cent females. As of 2007, the literacy rate in the region was 0 per cent, compared to a national average of 28.3 per cent. The coverage of cereal need compared to the total production of the region was 117.00 per cent. Most of Burkino Faso is a wide plateau is called falaise de Banfora. There are three major rivers, the Red Volta, Black Volta and White Volta, which cuts through different valleys; the climate is hot, with unreliable rains across different seasons. Gold and quartz are common minerals found across the country, while manganese deposits are common; the dry season is from October to May and rains are common during the wet season from June to September.
The soil texture is porous and hence the yield is poor. The average elevation is around 200 m to 300 m above mean sea level; the region contains. Among West African countries, Burkino Faso has the largest elephant population and the country is replete with game reserves; the southern regions have Savannah and forests. The principal river is the Black Volta, that originates in the southern region and drains into Ghana; the areas near the rivers have flies like tsetse and similium, which are carriers of sleep sickness and river blindness. The average rainfall in the region is around 100 cm compared to northern regions that receive only 25 cm rainfall; as of 2010, the population of the region was 613,229 with 51.43 per cent females. The population in the region was 3.90 per cent of the total population of the country. The child mortality rate was 81, infant mortality rate was 96 and the mortality of children under five was 170; as of 2007, among the working population, there were 71.90 per cent employees, 20.20 per cent under employed, 7.70 per cent inactive people, 8.00 per cent not working and 0.20 unemployed people in the region.
As of 2007, there were 229.3 km of highways, 335.9 km of regional roads and 303.4 km of county roads. The first set of car traffic was 22, first set of two-wheeler traffic was 1,878 and the total classified road network was 869; the total corn produced during 2015 was 148,349 tonnes, cotton was 44,903 tonnes, cowpea was 13,778 tonnes, ground nut was 15,743 tonnes, millet was 5,961 tonnes, rice was 28,799 tonnes and sorghum was 19,126 tonnes. The coverage of cereal need compared to the total production of the region was 117.00 per cent. As of 2007, the literacy rate in the region was 20.4 per cent, compared to a national average of 28.3 per cent. The gross primary enrolment was 67.7 per cent, pos-primary was 27.5 per cent and gross secondary school enrolment was 9.4. There were 192 boys and 110 girls enroled in the primary and post-secondary level. There were 4 teachers in primary & post-secondary level, while there were 493 teachers in post-primary and post-secondary level. Burkina Faso gained independence from France in 1960.
It was called Upper Volta. There have been military coups till 1983 when Captain Thomas Sankara took control and implemented radical left wing policies, he was outsed by Blaise Compaore, who continued for 27 years till 2014, when a popular uprising ended his rule. As per Law No.40/98/AN in 1998, Burkina Faso adhered to decentralization to provide administrative and financial autonomy to local communities. There are each governed by a Governor; the regions are subdivided into 45 provinces. The communes are interchangeable. There are other administrative entities like village. An urban commune has 10,000 people under it. If any commune is not able to get 75 per cent of its planned budget in revenues for 3 years, the autonomy is taken off; the communes are administered by elected Mayors. The communes are stipulated to develop economic and cultural values of its citizens. A commune has financial autonomy and can interact with other communes, government agencies or international entities