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Terrorism in the United Arab Emirates

Terrorism in the United Arab Emirates describes the terrorist attacks in the United Arab Emirates, as well as steps taken by the Emirati government to counter the threat of terrorism. Although terrorist attacks are rare, the UAE has been listed as a place used by investors to raise funds to support militants in Afghanistan and the financing of the September 11 attacks. Businesses based in the UAE have been implicated in the funding of the Taliban and the Haqqani network. In the 72nd session of the UN General assembly in New York, UAE foreign minister Abdullah bin Zayed Al Nahyan affirmed the United Arab Emirates policy of zero tolerance towards terrorism financing; the United Arab Emirates Armed Forces plays an active role in US-led War on Terrorism and have been nicknamed by US defense secretary James Mattis and other United States Armed Forces Generals as "Little Sparta" for being the United States' right-hand ally on War on Terrorism, for conducting operations against terrorists in the Middle East.

The Cabinet of the United Arab Emirates following the implementation of the UAE Federal Law No. 7 in November 2014, designated a list of 83 organizations and entities including the Muslim brotherhood, Al-Qaeda, Hezbollah and the Islamic State as terrorist organizations. The 9/11 Commission Report states that several 9/11 hijackers traveled to the United States via transiting first in Dubai International Airport. 17 of the 19 hijackers transited through the UAE in the months preceding the 9/11 attacks. The Library of Congress, Research Division in its 2007 report stated, “Dubai is linked to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the United States. No official connection to state sponsored terrorism was found between the United Arab Emirates government to the terrorists; the report indicates that the hijackers received funding from terror investors in the UAE who raised funds through their UAE based business. According to the 9/11 Commission Report report, in response to concerns that the UAE banking system has been used by 9/11 hijackers to launder funds, the UAE adopted a legislation giving the Central Bank in 2002 the power to freeze any suspected accounts for 7 days without prior legal permission.

The report stated "banks have been advised to monitor transactions passing through the UAE from Saudi Arabia and Pakistan and are now subject to more stringent transaction and client reporting requirements."Unnamed skeptics in Washington raised concerns that the United Arab Emirates might be associating with Osama Bin Laden, citing a missed opportunity for a drone strike in 1999 mentioned in the September 11 Commission report, abandoned due to being located in a UAE run hunting camp in Afghanistan. However, no evidence or proof apart from speculations was presented. According to the CIA in the 9/11 Commission Report, the strike was called off because the intelligence was dubious. In November 2002, Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, the alleged mastermind of the bombing of USS Cole and head of Al Qaeda in the Persian Gulf, was captured in the United Arab Emirates by Emirati authorities; the family of the late FBI counter-terrorism chief John P. O’Neill, killed in the September 11 attacks, filed a lawsuit against Dubai Islamic Bank, a UAE based bank, implicating the bank that it was directly involved in the funding of the 9/11 hijackers.

A total of 8 plaintiffs have filed lawsuits against Dubai Islamic Bank. 2 of the plaintiffs have since withdrawn their lawsuits. In 2016, 5 additional lawsuits were filed in concordance with Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act, however all of five lawsuits have been dismissed in 2017. According to Dubai Islamic bank, no provision has been made with any outstanding 9/11 legal proceedings as professional advice indicates that it is unlikely that any significant or material costs or loss, other than legal costs in connection with the defence, are expected to be incurred. DIB expects a complete dismissal from any lawsuits because the evidence uncovered would not permit a fact finder to hold DIB liable for damages and argues that unsubstantiated claims harms its reputation. A British petroleum engineer, held as a hostage while working in Yemen was extracted in 2015 by the United Arab Emirates Armed Forces after a military intelligence operation; the hostage was held by Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula in Yemen for 18 months.

A The Washington Post op-ed by Yousef Al Otaiba, UAE ambassador to the US, indicated that more than 2,000 militants have been removed from Yemen, with their controlled areas now having improved security and a better delivered humanitarian and development assistance such as to the port city of Mukalla and other liberated areas. US defense secretary James Mattis called US-UAE joint counter-terrorism operations against Al Qaeda in Yemen a model for American troops, citing how the United Arab Emirates Armed Forces liberated the port of Mukalla in April 2016 from AQAP forces in 36 hours after being held by AQAP for more than a year. In 2018, a report by the Associated Press suggested that the United Arab Emirates, as part of Saudi-led intervention in Yemen, may have brokered deals with Al-Qaeda militants in Yemen, have recruited them to fight against the Houthis. UAE Brigadier General Musallam Al Rashidi responded to the report by stating that Al Qaeda cannot be reasoned with in the first place and argued that he has men who have been killed by Al Qaeda, he said “They are not willing to negotiate, most of these hard-core guys.

They are willing to fight. We have guys who have been injured, killed by AQAP and there’s no point in negotiating with these guys.” The notion of the UAE recruiting or paying AQAP has been denie

Ged Corcoran

Ged Corcoran is an Irish former professional rugby league footballer. He played at representative level for Ireland, at club level for Halifax in the Super League, as well as the Limoux Grizzlies, the Dewsbury Rams, the Sheffield Eagles and Toulouse Olympique, as a prop or second-row. Ged Corcoran is the elder brother of the Rochdale Hornets rugby league footballer Wayne Corcoran and is a first team coach with the Sheffield Eagles. Corcoran was born in Ireland. Ged Corcoran was named in the Ireland training squad for the 2008 Rugby League World Cup, the Ireland squad for the 2008 Rugby League World Cup. Toulouse Olympique v Halifax RLFC Northern Rail Cup Launch Senior Squad at Tonight’s team news Hudson is suspended for two years Search for "Ged Corcoran" at BBC → Sport

Swabian SpƤtzle

Spätzla, Spätzle or Spatzen are Swabian or Alemannic pasta of an elongated shape, served as a side dish or with other ingredients as a main dish. Similar pasta of a rotund shape is called Knöpfle in Bavarian Swabia. Spätzle are egg-based pasta made with fresh egg of an irregular form with a porous surface; the glutinous dough is put directly into boiling water or steam and the form varies between thin and thick and short. They are the only pasta, cooked for the first time during the fabrication; the moist dough is either pressed through a perforated metal plate or it drips through this plate into the boiling water. Other ways to prepare Spätzle are more applicable for domestic use. Spätzle is the Swabian diminutive of Spatz and means “sparrow” or “clump”. Spätzle used in this context stands in plural form. In the 18th century this dish was referred to as "Wasserspatzen". In Switzerland and in Markgräflerland the dish is called "Spätzli" or "Chnöpfli" and in the Low Alemannic area "Knepfli". There is an equivalent and common dish in Hungary and Slovakia with Austria connecting both cultures.

In Northern Austria, Spätzle are called "Nockerln" whereas dumplings are referred to as "Nocken" in Carinthia and Tyrol. The name refers to the form of the Spätzle in the 18th century, compared to the shape of the sparrow; some linguists derive it from the word "clump". Depending on the form, some regions differentiate between Knöpfle. Spätzle which went wrong, which are lumpy or stick together are called “raven”, “little stork”, “black horse”, “nightingale”, “grandfather” or “eagle”; the history of Spätzle and Knöpfle in Swabia goes back centuries and is important to Swabian cuisine. In Swabian literature, there is a multitude of poems about “the favourite dish of the Swabian people”. Examples are poems such as “Das Lob der Schwabenknöpfle”, published in the regional newspaper Schwarzwälder Bote in 1838, the poem “Schwäbische Leibspeisa” or the “Spätzles-Lied”; the manufacturing of Spätzle in Swabia can be traced back to the 18th century. In 1725 the Württembergian council and private physician Lentilius defined “Knöpflein” and “Spatzen” as “everything, made from flour”.

Back spelt was used in Swabia and Alemannia. Since the region was marked by rural peasant structures and poverty, the undemanding grain spelt was popular since it thrives in low-nutrient soil. Spelt is high in gluten, so in times of scarcity it could be made into a dough without the addition of eggs, it is the flour most used in the preparation of Spätzle. Traditionally, Spätzle are scraped manually on a board, still considered a special certification mark. For efficiency reasons, a mechanical production of “homemade” Spätzle comparable with manually scraped ones emerged at the start of the 20th century. With the beginning of industrialisation and progressing prosperity, Spätzle advanced from everyday food to a delicacy eaten during the holidays. People from a Swabian farming village called it a festive dish in 1937. One year prior, regional poet Sebastian Blau rendered Spätzle a symbol of Swabian identity: “… Spätzle are the foundation of our cuisine, the glory of our country, … the be-all and end-all of the Swabian menu…”.

Nowadays, Swabian Spätzle or Knöpfle can be found in nearly every product ranges of Swabian pasta producers and since the 1980s, they have been exported. They are mentioned in many Swabian traditions and celebrations and form part of tourist activities in terms of culinary specialty weeks or courses and competitions where Spätzle are scraped. There are many cooking competitions and various world records in “Spätzleschaben”. A number of exhibitions document the traditional knowledge of the making of Spätzle in the Swabian region from the beginnings until today; the great importance of Spätzle for the Swabian kitchen is proofed by the novel “Die Geschichte von den sieben Schwaben”, published in 1827, according to which in Swabia exists the tradition “of eating five times a day, which means five times soup, two times the soup is accompanied by Knöpfle or Spätzle”. In 1892, Elise Henle explained that a Swabian woman should be able to manufacture Spätzle: “s isch koi richtigs Schwobe-Mädla, des net Spätzla kocha ka”.

For the modern era the Swabian author Siegfried Ruoß lists more than 50 different Spätzle recipes in his cookbook “Schwäbische Spätzleküche”. In Bad Waldsee, in upper-Swabia, there is a Spätzle museum since 2013; the earliest recipes for Spätzle can be found in the so-called “Göppinger Kochbuch”, composed by Rosina Dorothea Knör in 1783. The Spätzle dough is made from flour, lukewarm water, in some places with milk, salt; the measurements, can vary. Spätzle flour, sold in retail is coarse wheat flour type 405, in some cases mixed with spelt flour or fine semolina since it prevents the dough from going lumpy. In contrast to a kneaded pasta dough, Spätzle dough is stirred and therefore moister. For the further preparation, there are several different ways: Scraped: Traditionally, the fresh dough is plac

Zay Jeffries

Zay Jeffries was an American mining engineer, consulting engineer and recipient of the 1946 John Fritz Medal. Jeffries was born in Willow Lake, South Dakota as one of the nine children of Johnston Jeffries and Florence Jeffries, he obtained his BSc in mining engineering at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology in 1910. Three years he obtained his MSc in metallurgical engineering from the same school, in 1918 Harvard University awarded him his Doctor of Science degree. After his graduation in 1910 he started as an assayer for the Custer mining company in South Dakota, that year he accepted an appointment as an instructor at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. In 1916 he was promoted to appointed assistant. In 1914 he started as a consulting engineer in the Cleveland-area, he consulted for metallurgy laboratories, at the University of Chicago. Jeffries was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1939. In 1946 he was awarded the John Fritz Medal. In 1950, Jeffries became the Leonard Case Professor on Educational Policy at Case Western.

Jeffries was a vice president of General Electric: as such, he and other officers were prosecuted in 1948 for violating federal law. In his years, Jeffries retired to Pittsfield, where he died of cancer in May 1965, survived by his wife and daughter. On October 10, 2019, President Donald Trump issued a full pardon to Jeffries for a conviction for engaging in anti-competitive practices in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, for which Jeffries had been convicted in 1948, assessed a $2,500 fine with no jail time. Jeffries and Robert Samuel Archer; the science of metals. McGraw-Hill, 1924. Edwards, Junius David, Francis Cowles Frary, Zay Jeffries; the aluminum industry. Vol. 1. McGraw-Hill book company, inc. 1930. Edwards, Junius David, Francis Cowles Frary, Zay Jeffries; the Aluminum Industry: Aluminum products and their fabrication. Vol. 2. McGraw-Hill book company, Incorporated, 1930. Articles, a selectionJeffries, Zay. "Effect of temperature and grain size on the mechanical properties of metals."

Trans. AIME 60: 474-576. Jeffries, R. S. Archer. "The slip interference theory of the hardening of metals." Chem. and Met. Eng 24.24: 1057. Jeffries, Zay. "The trend in the science of metals."Transactions of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, 70: 303-327. List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the president of the United States Zay Jeffries, General Electric Company. April 22, 1888 - May 21, 1965, National Academy of Sciences

Ryan ST

The Ryan STs were a series of two seat, low-wing monoplane aircraft built in the United States by the Ryan Aeronautical Company. They were used as sport aircraft, as well as trainers by flying schools and the militaries of several countries. T. Claude Ryan was the founder of the Ryan Aeronautical Company, the second incarnation of a company with this name, the fourth company with which he had been involved to bear his name, he began the development of the ST, the first design of the company, in 1933. The ST featured two open cockpits in tandem in a semi-monocoque metal fuselage of two main frames – one steel, the other half of steel and half of aluminium alloy – to take the loads from the wing spars and six more alclad frames, it had wings in three sections of hybrid construction. The two outer wing panels had wooden spars and alclad ribs, with diagonal rods bracing the wings internally. Alclad sheet was used to form the leading edges, fabric covered the whole structure; when attached, the outer wings were braced with flying wires to the fixed conventional landing gear and landing wires to the upper fuselage.

Five STs were built, each powered with a 95HP Menasco B4 engine before the follow-on ST-A was developed with a more powerful 125HP Menasco C4 engine. A single ST-B was produced, this being an ST-A with only one seat and an extra fuel tank where the front cockpit was; the ST-A was further developed as the ST-A Special, with a super-charged 150HP Menasco C4-S engine of increased power. In 1937 the ST-A Special was developed into the STM series; the first STMs were identical to the STA-Special. The STM-2 was derived from the STM with changes including wider cockpits to enable military pilots to enter and exit while wearing parachutes, external stringers, provision for a machine gun on some examples. Variants in the series included the STM-2P single-seat version armed with a machine gun delivered to Nationalist China. After the ST-M came the ST-3, a substantial redesign in 1941 brought about by the unreliability of the Menasco engines fitted to STs to that point; the United States Army Air Corps had purchased several dozen ST-M variants under various designations and had Ryan Aeronautical re-engine most with Kinner R-440 radial engines.

The USAAC found the modification to be beneficial and asked Ryan Aeronautical to design a variant with this engine as standard, with airframe modifications considered desirable from in-service experience. The ST-3 that resulted featured a longer and more circular wider fuselage, this being suggested by the circular radial engine. Other changes included a revised rudder, balanced ailerons and elevators, strengthened main landing gear with the legs spaced further apart; the streamlining spats covering the mainwheels, found on ST series aircraft to that point, were deleted as well. The ST-3 served as the basis for military versions ordered by the United States Navy; the ST-3 gave rise to another model developed in 1941 and early 1942, this was the ST-3KR. The ST-3KR became the definitive model; the final variant was the ST-4, a version of the ST-3 with a wooden fuselage, developed in case a shortage of "strategic materials" developed. Such a shortage did not eventuate and the ST-4 was not put into mass-production.

Some U. S. Navy versions of the ST-3, the NR-1, were converted to specialized ground trainers to teach cadets how to taxi aircraft when on the ground or after landing, in crosswinds; the main wing was clipped back to the landing gear. The first Ryan ST flew for the first time on 8 June 1934 and production began the following year, when nine aircraft were delivered. Except for 1937, production rates remained low for several years, at about one aircraft every two weeks; this changed in 1940. Total production of civil and military aircraft prior to the entry of the United States into World War II amounted to 315. Another 1,253 military versions were produced in 1942 and 1943, for a total of 1,568 aircraft of all models. Most civil aircraft in the ST series were delivered in the United States, although a few were exported to South Africa and various countries in Latin America. An example of the ST-A was procured by the USAAC in 1939 for evaluation as the XPT-16; this was followed by the first time the USAAC had ordered a monoplane trainer.

These were the first of more than 1,000 Ryan STs to serve the USAAC, its successor, the United States Army Air Forces and the USN. A large number of STMs were exported in the 1930s and early 1940s to various air forces, with the biggest customer being the military of the Netherlands East Indies; the NEI Army and Navy took delivery of 84 STM-2s and 24