Thunderstorms occur in association with a type of cloud known as a cumulonimbus. They are usually accompanied by winds, heavy rain, and sometimes snow, hail, or, in contrast. Thunderstorms may line up in a series or become a rainband, strong or severe thunderstorms, known as supercells, rotate as do cyclones. Thunderstorms result from the upward movement of warm, moist air. As the warm, moist air moves upward, it cools, condenses, as the rising air reaches its dew point temperature, water vapor condenses into water droplets or ice, reducing pressure locally within the thunderstorm cell. Any precipitation falls the long distance through the clouds towards the Earths surface, as the droplets fall, they collide with other droplets and become larger. Thunderstorms can form and develop in any location but most frequently within the mid-latitude. Thunderstorms are responsible for the development and formation of many weather phenomena. Thunderstorms, and the phenomena that occur along them, pose great hazards.
Damage that results from thunderstorms is mainly inflicted by downburst winds, large hailstones, stronger thunderstorm cells are capable of producing tornadoes and waterspouts. There are four types of thunderstorms, single-cell, multi-cell cluster, multi-cell lines, supercell thunderstorms are the strongest and the most associated with severe weather phenomena. Mesoscale convective systems formed by vertical wind shear within the tropics and subtropics can be responsible for the development of hurricanes. Dry thunderstorms, with no precipitation, can cause the outbreak of wildfires from the heat generated from the lightning that accompanies them. Several means are used to study thunderstorms, weather radar, weather stations, past civilizations held various myths concerning thunderstorms and their development as late as the 18th century. Beyond the Earths atmosphere, thunderstorms have observed on the planets of Jupiter, Neptune. Warm air has a lower density than air, so warmer air rises upwards.
Clouds form as relatively warmer air, carrying moisture, rises within cooler air, the moist air rises, and, as it does so, it cools and some of the water vapor in that rising air condenses. If enough instability is present in the atmosphere, this process will continue long enough for cumulonimbus clouds to form and produce lightning, Meteorological indices such as convective available potential energy and the lifted index can be used to assist in determining potential upward vertical development of clouds
O'Hare International Airport
It is the primary airport serving the Chicago metropolitan area, with Midway International Airport, about 10 miles closer to the Loop, serving as a secondary airport. It is operated by the City of Chicago Department of Aviation, OHare was the busiest airport in the world by number of takeoffs and landings in 2014, topping Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, however, it lost the title to Atlanta a year later. Until 1998, OHare was the worlds busiest airport in number of passengers and it was surpassed mainly due to limits the federal government imposed on the airport to reduce flight delays. As of 2016, OHare is the sixth-busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic, the third-busiest airport in the United States, OHare has eight runways, more than any major international airport. OHare is a hub for American Airlines and United Airlines, as well as a hub for regional carrier Air Choice One. OHare was voted the Best Airport in North America for 10 years by two sources, Readers of the U. S.
Edition of Business Traveler Magazine and Global Traveler Magazine, in contrast and Leisure magazines 2009 Americas Favorite Cities ranked Chicagos Airport System the second-worst for delays, behind the New York City airport system. OHare accounts for nearly 20% of the flight cancellations and delays. OHare was constructed in 1942–43 as part of a plant for Douglas C-54s during World War II. The site was chosen for its proximity to the city and transportation, the two-million-square-foot factory needed easy access to the workforce of the nations then-second-largest city, as well as its extensive railroad infrastructure. Orchard Place was a small farming community. Douglas Companys contract ended in 1945 and though plans were proposed to build commercial aircraft, with the departure of Douglas, the airfield took the name of Orchard Field Airport, the source of its three-letter IATA code ORD. In 1945, the city of Chicago chose Orchard Field as the site for a facility to meet future aviation demands, Matthew Laflin Rockwell was the director of planning for the U. S.
Army Corps of Engineers and responsible for the site selection and design. He was the great-grandson of Matthew Laflin, a founder and pioneer of Chicago, in 1949, the airport was renamed OHare International Airport to honor Edward OHare, the U. S. Navys first flying ace and Medal of Honor recipient in World War II. (This is similar to, sourced from McCoy Air Force Base, being used for todays Orlando International Airport, by the early 1950s Midway Airport, Chicagos main airport since 1931, was the worlds busiest airport and was too crowded despite multiple expansions. Midways runways were known to be too short for the planned first generation of jets, so the city of Chicago, traveling with him, LT Whitey Feightner was redirected to land at OHare. The runway had just been completed and was covered with peach baskets to prevent aircraft from landing until it was opened, LT Feightner was told to ignore the baskets and land on the new runway, and his F7U became the first aircraft to land there.
OHare opened a $1 million Skymotive terminal for corporate aircraft in 1955, the April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 10 weekday departures on United,9 on American,6 on Capital,3 Eastern,3 TWA,2 Delta,2 North Central, and 1 Braniff
The Chicago River is a system of rivers and canals with a combined length of 156 miles that runs through the city of Chicago, including its center. The River is noteworthy for its natural and man-made history, in 1999, this system was named a Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The river is memorialized, in part, by two blue stripes on the Municipal Flag of Chicago. The source of the North Branch is in the suburbs of Chicago where its three principal tributaries converge. The Skokie River—or East Fork—rises from an area, historically a wetland, near Park City. It flows southward, paralleling the edge of Lake Michigan, through wetlands, the Greenbelt Forest Preserve, South of Highland Park the river passes the Chicago Botanic Gardens and through an area of former marshlands known as the Skokie Lagoons. The Middle Fork arises near Rondout and flows southwards through Lake Forest and these two tributaries merge at Watersmeet Woods west of Wilmette.
From there the North Branch flows south towards Morton Grove, the West Fork rises near Mettawa and flows south through Bannockburn and Northbrook, meeting the North Branch at Morton Grove. South of Belmont the North Branch is lined with a mixture of residential developments, retail parks, the North Branch Canal—or Ogdens Canal—was completed in 1857, and was originally 50 feet wide and 10 feet deep allowing craft navigating the river to avoid the bend. The 1902 Cherry Avenue Bridge, just south of North Avenue, was constructed to carry the Chicago, Milwaukee and it is a rare example of an asymmetric bob-tail swing bridge and was designated a Chicago Landmark in 2007. From Goose Island the North Branch continues to south east to Wolf Point where it joins the Main Stem. The source of the Main Stem of the Chicago River is Lake Michigan, acoustic velocity meters at the Columbus Drive Bridge and the T. J. On the south bank of the river is the site of Fort Dearborn, notable buildings surrounding this area include the NBC Tower, the Tribune Tower, and the Wrigley Building.
The river turns slightly to the south west between Michigan Avenue and State Street, passing the Trump International Hotel and Tower,35 East Wacker, turning west again the river passes Marina City, the Reid, Murdoch & Co. Building, and Merchandise Mart, and 333 Wacker Drive, since the early 2000s, the south shore of the Main Stem has been developed as the Chicago Riverwalk. It provides a linear, lushly landscaped park intended to offer an escape from the busy Loop. Different sections are named Market, Civic and Confluence, the sections between State Street and Lake Street are currently under construction and scheduled to be completed by the end of 2016. The plans reflect ideas first proposed by the Burnham Plan as early as 1909, the source of the South Branch of the Chicago River is the confluence of the North Branch and Main stem at Wolf Point
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry, the Elements. Euclids method consists in assuming a set of intuitively appealing axioms. Although many of Euclids results had been stated by earlier mathematicians, Euclid was the first to show how these propositions could fit into a comprehensive deductive and logical system. The Elements begins with plane geometry, still taught in school as the first axiomatic system. It goes on to the geometry of three dimensions. Much of the Elements states results of what are now called algebra and number theory, for more than two thousand years, the adjective Euclidean was unnecessary because no other sort of geometry had been conceived. Euclids axioms seemed so obvious that any theorem proved from them was deemed true in an absolute, often metaphysical. Today, many other self-consistent non-Euclidean geometries are known, Euclidean geometry is an example of synthetic geometry, in that it proceeds logically from axioms to propositions without the use of coordinates.
This is in contrast to analytic geometry, which uses coordinates, the Elements is mainly a systematization of earlier knowledge of geometry. Its improvement over earlier treatments was recognized, with the result that there was little interest in preserving the earlier ones. There are 13 total books in the Elements, Books I–IV, Books V and VII–X deal with number theory, with numbers treated geometrically via their representation as line segments with various lengths. Notions such as numbers and rational and irrational numbers are introduced. The infinitude of prime numbers is proved, a typical result is the 1,3 ratio between the volume of a cone and a cylinder with the same height and base. Euclidean geometry is a system, in which all theorems are derived from a small number of axioms. To produce a straight line continuously in a straight line. To describe a circle with any centre and distance and that all right angles are equal to one another. Although Euclids statement of the only explicitly asserts the existence of the constructions.
The Elements include the five common notions, Things that are equal to the same thing are equal to one another
Des Plaines River
Native Americans used the river as transportation route and portage. The local Native Americans showed these early European explorers how to traverse waterways of the Des Plaines watershed to travel from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi River and its valley. The slow-moving Des Plaines River rises in southern Wisconsin just west of Kenosha, the river turns to the east and flows through woodland forest preserve districts in Lake and Cook counties, northwest of Chicago. Numerous small fixed dams have been built on the river starting in central Lake County, the river turns to the southwest and joins with the Sanitary and Ship Canal in Lockport before flowing through the city of Joliet. In the heavily industrialized area around Joliet, dams control the river, just west of Joliet, the Des Plaines converges with the Kankakee River to form the Illinois River. The original course of the riverbed was moved to the west at the town of Lockport during the construction of the Sanitary and Ship Canal in 1905.
Sections of the river in the Lake County and Cook County Forest Preserve districts in Illinois create a nearly continuous greenway though all of Lake County, while canoe launching ramps are available, The lack of ramps for trailered boats makes this long river a quiet, family-friendly river. This greenway supports the Des Plaines River Trail, a trail that roughly follows the course of the Des Plaines River through Lake County. The Des Plaines River was named by early French coureur de bois sometime between the 17th and 18th centuries, after the trees lining the banks of the river. This meaning of plaine survives in Canadian French, Plaine or Plaine rouge refers to an Acer rubrum, the English word for the plane tree came from the 14th century Old French word la plane. Since the 18th century, the French word for the tree has evolved into le platane. A side effect of such action was that the original French meaning of the applied to the Des Plaines River was obscured. Today, des Plaines in modern Parisian French literally means of the plains or of the prairie and this has led to confusion about the meaning of the original French name for the Des Plaines River.
Many people today believe that the river was named after the plains, but, in the 18th-century French dialect, it was more common to use the word prairie to indicate a plain, such as Prairie du Rocher in Illinois and Prairie du Chien in Wisconsin. Also, as noted above, it is likely that the river was named in reference to the trees rather than the land. The French, like the Native Americans, traveled primarily by waterways rather than overland, the view of the prairie was nearly always blocked by trees. To this day a number of both maples and sycamores grow along the Des Plaines River. Although the original French name for the river has survived, its pronunciation has been altered, locals pronounce it in an anglicized way, rather than according to the French pronunciation
Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants.
Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has said to mean tribe of superior men.
The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Wisconsin is the 23rd largest state by total area and the 20th most populous. The state capital is Madison, and its largest city is Milwaukee, the state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline, Wisconsin is known as Americas Dairyland because it is one of the nations leading dairy producers, particularly famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, especially paper products, information technology, and tourism are major contributors to the states economy. The word Wisconsin originates from the given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673, subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, and over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands.
English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in numbers during the early 19th century. The legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845, the Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure. Interpretations vary, but most implicate the river and the red sandstone that lines its banks, other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning red stone place, where the waters gather, or great rock. Wisconsin has been home to a variety of cultures over the past 12,000 years. The first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation and these early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting, agricultural societies emerged gradually over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE.
Toward the end of period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the Effigy Mound culture. Later, between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact, the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was probably the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system on the North American continent. Flowing entirely in the United States, it rises in northern Minnesota, with its many tributaries, the Mississippis watershed drains all or parts of 31 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth longest and fifteenth largest river in the world by discharge, the river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans long lived along the Mississippi River and its tributaries, most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies. The arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the way of life as first explorers, settlers. The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, and the early United States, and as a vital transportation artery and communications link.
Formed from thick layers of the silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile agricultural regions of the country. In recent years, the river has shown a shift towards the Atchafalaya River channel in the Delta. The word itself comes from Messipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, see below in the History section for additional information. In addition to historical traditions shown by names, there are at least two measures of a rivers identity, one being the largest branch, and the other being the longest branch. Using the largest-branch criterion, the Ohio would be the branch of the Lower Mississippi. Using the longest-branch criterion, the Middle Mississippi-Missouri-Jefferson-Beaverhead-Red Rock-Hellroaring Creek River would be the main branch and its length of at least 3,745 mi is exceeded only by the Nile, the Amazon, and perhaps the Yangtze River among the longest rivers in the world. The source of this waterway is at Browers Spring,8,800 feet above sea level in southwestern Montana and this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St.
Louis and the phrase Trans-Mississippi as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. It is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, the New Madrid Seismic Zone along the river is noteworthy. These various basic geographical aspects of the river in turn underlie its human history and present uses of the waterway, the Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca,1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation. The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river
The city of Chicago lies in a broad plain which, hundreds of millions of years ago, was a great interior basin covered by warm, shallow seas. These seas covered portions of North America from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico, evidence may be found in the fossils in the Niagara limestone bedrock found throughout the Chicago area and extending all the way to Niagara, New York. Much later, the ice cap crept four times down across the continent. The Kankakee Torrent poured through those valleys, eventually leaving behind the prehistoric Lake Chicago, here, it formed the Park Moraine in Illinois and the Lake Borders Moraine in Indiana and Michigan. The ice continued northward forming the next phase of Lake Chicago, when the ice retreated northward enough to open the Mohawk River valley, the waters in the Lake Huron and Lake Erie basin diverted from the Michigan outlet, leaving Lake Chicago as a headwaters lake. Continued northward migration of the glacier, set the stage for the next major proglacial lakes in the Lake Michigan basin as Lake Algonquin and Nipissing Great Lakes.
As the Wisconsin Glacier continued to retreat, it created new outlets for the water in Lake Chicago, including Niagara Falls, and the St. Lawrence River. As these outlets were developed, a partial lake capture occurred, eventually even the outlet to the southwest dried up, and the Des Plaines River overflowed into the basin that became Lake Michigan. As the Michigan Lobe of the Labradorean Ice Cap retreated northward, Lake Chicago’s initial outlet was to the southwest through the Des Plaines River valley thence down the Illinois River to the Gulf of Mexico. The highest beach is the Glenwood Shoreline, which is 55 feet to 60 feet above the level of Lake Michigan, there are two additional beaches formed when the Des Plaines outlet was abandoned for other outlets to the north and east. The Calumet Shoreline about 35 feet to 40 feet above the current lake, the name Lake Chicago is used for the lake when it drains through the Des Plaines outlet. The Calumet and Tolleston Beach lake is Lake Algonquin The outlet channel is more than a 1 mile wide, near the head of the channel, rock layers have been cut through.
It is probable that the beaches from Lake Chicago are the result of these rock layers, giving way rapidly. Then, the barrier remains solid, holding the lake stable, if the outlet was formed by a steady erosion of the barrier, it is less likely that the well defined beaches would have been created. Along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan the beaches of Lake Chicago have been destroyed by erosion, yet much of this beach has been destroyed. The best remaining segments are along the tip of Lake Michigan in Indiana. Lake Chicago covered only a narrow strip land on the south, from Holland northward across the Lake Chicago Lake Bed extends 10 to 25 miles inland. Widest expanse is almost entirely fine sand, there is more sand than clay in a narrow strip along the shore
Northwest Indiana comprises Lake, Porter, LaPorte and Jasper counties in Indiana. This region neighbors Lake Michigan and is part of the Chicago metropolitan area, according to the 2010 Census, Northwest Indiana has a population of 819,537 and is the states second largest urban area after the Indianapolis Metropolitan Area. It is the home of the Indiana Dunes, parts of which have been preserved through conservation efforts, the town of Ogden Dunes houses the Hour Glass, a museum showcasing the ecological and conservation efforts of O. D. Frank. The regions largest city is Hammond, followed closely by Gary, Cedar Lake and Winfield. The counties of Jasper, Lake, LaPorte and Porter are included in the Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City Combined Statistical Area, unlike the majority of Indiana, which operates on Eastern Standard Time, these counties are among six in Northern Indiana that are in the Central Time Zone. This reflects their close integration in the Chicago metropolitan area. Three counties — Lake, Porter and LaPorte — are served by the Northwestern Indiana Regional Planning Commission metropolitan planning organization, Northwest Indiana is the home of Marktown, Clayton Marks planned worker community.
The urban areas of Lake County and the urbanized part of Porter County are sometimes referred to as The Region, or colloquially, humorously, or even pejoratively. The Lake Michigan shore is a major attraction, the terrain of Northwest Indiana varies from very steep and rugged at the dunes, to rolling in the moraines, and to pancake flat in the river valleys. It was shaped by glacial activity and Lake Michigan, the Chicago Lake Plain covers the relatively flat northern quarter of Northwest Indiana north of the moraines. Initially, the plain was flat, composed of glacio-lacustrine deposits and these formed under the waters of glacial Lake Michigan. The lake formed from the melting glaciers north of the Valparaiso Moraine, eventually the lake overflowed a low spot on the moraine at the Chicago Outlet near the southwest suburbs. This lowered the level to current day Lake Michigan levels. As the lake shrunk, it left a series of sand ridges where its ancient beaches were, along the Lake Michigan shoreline, the prevailing winds have built a series of dune ridges, breaking up the original flat surface of the Lake Plain.
South of the Chicago Lake Plain in the parts of Lake and Porter County. The Wheaton Morainal Plain consist of the Valparaiso Moraine and Tinley Moraine, the plain consist of rolling Wisconsinan-age moraines. The Morainal Plain is clayey till, and sandy and loamy till, with areas of sand, other deposits include lake clay and alluvium. Deposits are between 50 and 200 ft thick, with southern areas have over 200 ft of till