Tūpai called Motu Iti, is a low-lying atoll in Society Islands, French Polynesia. It belongs to the western Leeward Islands; this small atoll is only 11 km² in area. Its broad coral reef encloses a shallow sandy lagoon. There are continuous long wooded motus on Tūpai's reef. Tupai has no permanent residents apart from some workers in the coconut plantations. There is a private airfield on Tūpai, it was inaugurated in 2001 and its use is restricted. The atoll of Tūpai belongs administratively to the commune of Bora Bora. In 1926 the island was considered for settling a small community of Slovak colonists but was dropped in favor of the Marquesas Islands
Mont Orohena is a mountain located in the South Pacific, on the island of Tahiti. With an elevation of 2,241 metres above sea level, it is the highest point of French Polynesia. Mont Orohena is an extinct volcano. List of Ultras of Oceania
Nuku Hiva is the largest of the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia, is therefore an overseas country of France in the Pacific Ocean. It was also known as Île Marchand and Madison Island. Herman Melville wrote his book Typee based on his experiences in the Taipivai valley in the eastern part of Nuku Hiva. Robert Louis Stevenson's first landfall on his voyage on the Casco was at Hatihe'u, on the north side of the island, in 1888. Western Nuku Hiva is characterized by a steep but regular coastline, indented by small bays leading to deep valleys, which lead into the interior. There are no villages on this side; the coastline of the eastern part of the island has few places to land by sea and takes the brunt of the ocean swells. The north, on the other hand, is indented by deep bays, the largest of which are Anahō and Hatihe'u.'A'akapa bay is not as large but has a village of the same name. The south has fewer bays, among which those of Taioha'e, Taipivai, Ho'oumi and the bays of Hakau'i and Hakatea, both accessed by the same narrow entrance.
The central part of the island is a high plateau called To'ovi'i, covered by a tall-grass prairie, on which experiments in cattle raising are taking place for the first time — 15 years ago all the cattle were feral and hunted with rifles. On the western edge of To'ovi'i rises Tekao, the island's highest peak, which reaches an elevation of 1224 m; the western and northern edges of To'ovi'i are a mountain ridge, which catches much of the rain that waters the island. Pine forest plantations covering large areas all around the crater of To'ovi'i give an overall impression of the lower Alps and parts of Germany and Switzerland. In one place, Vaipō Waterfall, the collected water falls off a highland and falls 350 m; the slopes of the north western side of the island are much drier than the rest of the island, are described as a desert named Te Henua a Taha or "Terre Déserte" in French. Nuku Hiva is administratively part of the commune of Nuku-Hiva, itself in the administrative subdivision of the Marquesas Islands.
The administrative centre of the commune of Nuku-Hiva and of the administrative subdivision of the Marquesas Islands is the settlement of Taioha'e, located on the south side of Nuku Hiva, at the head of the bay of that same name. The population in 2007 was 2,660; this is less than that encountered at the end of the 16th century when the Spaniards first sighted the island. Contacts with Europeans may have brought new world infections such as venereal disease and influenza causing high mortality. Historical sources are sparse and it is unclear when various diseases seen in the New World and Asia first appeared in Nuku Hiva; the population is Polynesian with a small proportion of Europeans from Metropolitan France. At the 2002 census, 92.6% of Nuku Hiva's residents were born in French Polynesia while 148 people, making up 5.6% of Nuku Hiva's residents, were people born in Metropolitan France. The primary diet of people tends to be breadfruit, manioc and many kinds of fruit, which grow in abundance.
Goats, fish and, more pigs, are the main sources of meat but there is a growing amount of local beef available. Imported food is freely available, including apples, grapes and sliced bread from New Zealand. Two local bakeries produce baguettes, another cheap staple. Considerable rice is eaten. There are a great many wild pigs on the island as well as those reared on the agricultural college; the wild pigs are a cross between the Polynesian pig brought by the first settlers and the wild boar brought by the Europeans. There is one jail on the island, used for'short stay' internments such as the last 3 months of sentences and was often altogether empty. However, prisoners can opt to do their full sentence here if they have no family on Tahiti, so the Nuku Hiva jail now has inmates all the time. Nuku Hiva is served by a single-runway airport in the northwest corner of the island 50 kilometres by road, northwest of Taioha'e. Nuku Hiva was, in ancient times, the site of two provinces, Te I'i covering somewhat more than the western two thirds of the island, Tai Pī, covering the eastern third.
Latest studies indicate that the first people to arrive here came from west Polynesia around 2000 years ago, only colonizing Tahiti, Hawai'i, The Cook Islands and New Zealand. The legend has it that'Ono, the god of creation, promised his wife to build a house in one day, so he gathered together land and created these islands, which are all named after parts of the house, Nuku Hiva being the roof. Everything he had left over he threw to one side and created a dump, called'Ua Huka. From these supposed origins the population rose to an untenable size. Food became of prime importance. Breadfruit was the staple, but taro and manioc played a big part; as for meat, fish was the main source, but so was limited because of the quantity needed to feed so many mouths. Pigs and dogs were cultivated, hunted when they took to the wild, it is still debated why many Polynesian nations practiced cannibalism. Indeed, a large number of Pacific Islands residents did so in pre-historic times. One theory is. An offering to the gods was called Ika, which means fish, a sacrifice was caught and, just like a fish, was hung by a fishhook in the sacred place.
Those to be eaten were tied and hung up in trees until needed had their
The Gambier Islands are a populated, small group of islands, remnants of a caldera along with islets on the surrounding fringing reef, in French Polynesia, located at the southeast terminus of the Tuamotu archipelago. They are considered a separate island group from Tuamotu both because their culture and language are much more related to those of the Marquesas Islands, because, while the Tuamotus comprise several chains of coral atolls, the Gambiers are of volcanic origin with central high islands; the Gambier Islands include the Mangareva Islands, which have an enclosing coral reef, broken by only three passages to the open sea. Besides Mangareva, the other notable high islands of the group are Akamaru, Aukena, Kouaku, Makaroa, Manui and Taravai; these are of volcanic origin. A number of others are coral islands, hence of secondary volcanic origin, including Papuri, Puaumu and the Tokorua group; the Mangareva Islands are located at 23°09′S 134°58′W and are 26.6 km² in area. The total population in 2016 was 1319.
The primary town is Rikitea, located on Mangareva, as is the highest point in the Gambiers, Mt. Duff, rising to 441 metres along that island's south coast; the islands of Gambier comprises: Temoe atoll: one main island and a dozen motus separated by passes over the coral reef. Mangareva Islands islands in the central lagoon: to the north, the high island of Mangareva, the islet of Rumarei. From the 10th to the 15th centuries, the Gambiers hosted a population of several thousand people and traded with other island groups including the Marquesas, the Society Islands and Pitcairn Islands. However, excessive logging by the islanders resulted in complete deforestation on Mangareva, with disastrous results for the islands' environment and economy; the folklore of the islands records a slide into civil war and cannibalism as trade links with the outside world broke down, archaeological studies have confirmed this. Today, the islands can support a population of only a few hundred. In 1834, the French Picpus priests Honoré Laval and François Caret with their assistant Columba Murphy founded a Roman Catholic mission in the Gambiers.
After their success here, they moved to Tahiti in 1836. Mangareva along with its dependencies in the Gambier Islands were ruled by a line of kings and regents that ruled until the French formally annexed the islands in 1881. A French protectorate was requested on 16 February 1844 by King Maputeoa but was never ratified by the French government. On 4 February 1870, Prince Regent Arone Teikatoara and the Mangarevan government formally withdrew the protectorate request and asked the French to not intervene in the kingdom's affairs. After Father Laval was removed to Tahiti, the native government changed their stance and an agreement between the native government and the French colonial authority in Tahiti was signed reaffirming the protectorate status on 30 November 1871; the Gambier Islands were annexed on 21 February 1881 under Prince Regent Bernardo Putairi and approved by the President of France on 30 January 1882. The Gambiers served as a logistical staging base for French nuclear testing activity in Mururoa 400 kilometers away.
During this time, the French military dragged a chain through some of the coral reef beds to cut a wider and deeper channel for deep draft vessels. Higher rate of infections by ciguatera were subsequently recorded. French military vessels visited the area every six months collecting specimens of water, human hair and other material, as well as taking detailed accounts of births and other demographic events for on-going research into the effects of the nuclear testing; the results of this research are not published. According to French Polynesian doctors who have worked in the area higher than normal incidences of cancer and thyroid problems are found amongst Polynesians who live near the Moruroa atoll. List of non-marine molluscs of the Gambier Islands List of monarchs of Mangareva Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Ch. 3 Atoll list Death of a People. A look at the decline of Mangareva and the missionary influence on the people of the Gambiers
Teti'aroa is an atoll in the Windward group of the Society Islands of French Polynesia, an overseas territorial collectivity of France in the Pacific Ocean. Once the vacation spot for Tahitian royalty, the islets are under a 99-year lease contracted by Marlon Brando. Teti'aroa is administratively part of the commune of'Ārue, whose main part is in the northeastern part of Tahiti; the atoll is located 53 kilometres north of Tahiti. The atoll has a total surface area of 6 square kilometres; the lagoon is 7 kilometres wide and 30 metres deep. The atoll has no reef opening, making access by boat nearly impossible; the islets, in clockwise order starting from the southwest corner, include: Onetahi Honuea Tiaruanu Motu Tauvini Motu Ahurea Hiraanae Horoatera Motu'Ā'i.e. Tahuna Iti Tahuna Rahi Reiono Motu One Rimatu'u The atoll of Teti'aroa was a special place for the Tahitian chiefs, as a place to entertain themselves with song, dance and feasting, it was a special place for the ariori to practice their custom of ha'apori'a.
This custom included eating to gain weight, staying out of the sun to whiten their skin. Plump and pale was a sign of "prosperity" for the ariori and chiefs. Teti'aroa was controlled by the chiefs of Pare-'Arue, by members of the Pōmare Dynasty. In 1789, William Bligh is said to have been the first European to visit the atoll while looking for early mutineers prior to the departure of HMS Bounty which suffered a full mutiny; the United States Exploring Expedition visited the island on 10 September 1839. In 1904, the royal family gave Teti'aroa to Johnston Walter Williams, the only dentist in Tahiti. Williams became Consul of the United Kingdom from 1916 to 1935. Williams managed Teti'aroa as a copra plantation. In 1960, Marlon Brando "discovered" Teti'aroa while scouting filming locations for Mutiny on the Bounty, shot on Tahiti and neighboring Moorea. After filming was completed, Brando hired a local fisherman to ferry him to Teti'aroa, it was "more gorgeous than anything I had anticipated," he marveled in his 1994 autobiography Songs My Mother Taught Me.
Brando purchased Teti'aroa's islets from one of Williams' direct descendants, Mrs Duran. The reef and lagoon belong to French Polynesia.. He had to overcome political interference and local resistance to purchase the atoll, now the property of French Polynesia. Many important archaeological sites have been located and studied on Teti'aroa. Thus, the historical significance of Teti'aroa to the people and the government of French Polynesia continue to make future development questionable at best. Wanting to live on the atoll, Brando built a small village on Motu Onetahi in 1970, it consisted of an airstrip to get there without breaching the reef, 12 simple bungalows, a kitchen hut, dining hall and bar, all built from local materials - coconut wood, thatch roofs and large sea shells for sinks. The village became a place for friends and scientists studying the atoll's ecology and archaeology. Over the years, Brando spent as much time as he could there and used it as a getaway from his hectic life in Hollywood.
Although he didn’t spend as much time there as he wished, it is said that he always cherished his moments on Teti'aroa. During his stay on the island he was visited by his children and great-grandchildren. Upon his death, Brando's son Teihotu lived on the island for some time; the village became a modest hotel managed by his Tahitian wife, Tarita Teriipaia, who had played his on-screen love in Mutiny on the Bounty. The hotel operated for more than 25 years after Brando left French Polynesia to return to Los Angeles. Many hotel guests lamented the lack of amenities found at an island resort. In 1980, the maxi yacht SY Condor of Bermuda ran aground on the Onetahi reef, which caused it to be shipwrecked and written off by insurers. Purportedly and the owner of the yacht engaged in a brief bidding war for rights to the vessel’s polished mahogany hull, which Brando, it is believed, wanted to use as a bar at a resort he planned to build on the island; the yacht was salvaged, sent to New Zealand for repair.
In 2002, two years before the actor’s death, Brando signed a new will and trust agreement that left no instructions for Teti'aroa. Following his death in 2004, the executors of the estate granted development rights to Pacific Beachcomber SC, a Tahitian company that owns hotels throughout French Polynesia. Teti'aroa Pacific Beachcomber SC began construction on Teti'aroa in 2009; the first phase of building included reconstruction and reorientation of the runway, as the original surface was in disrepair and not long enough to meet current aviation regulations. In addition, a reef dock was built to enable the transfer of supplies from the ocean side of the reef to the lagoon side; the islet Onetahi now includes a luxury eco-hotel, research station, staff village and private runway. In February 2014, it was announced; the Brando was opened for the public in July 2014. The Brando Estate and eight of Marlon Brando's eleven children are involved in the project. Waltzing with Brando by Bernard Judge The Brando Tahiti Teti'aroa Island at NASA Earth Observatory The Brando Teti'aroa resort web site
Tahiti (. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean, is divided into two parts: the bigger, northwestern part, Tahiti Nui, the smaller, southeastern part, Tahiti Iti; the island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous with surrounding coral reefs. The population is 189,517 inhabitants, making it the most populous island of French Polynesia and accounting for 68.7% of its total population. Tahiti is the economic and political centre of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France; the capital of French Polynesia, Papeete, is located on the northwest coast of Tahiti. The only international airport in the region, Fa'a'ā International Airport, is on Tahiti near Papeete. Tahiti was settled by Polynesians between 300 and 800 AD, they represent about 70% of the island's population, with the rest made up of Europeans, Chinese people, those of mixed heritage. The island was part of the Kingdom of Tahiti until its annexation by France in 1880, when it was proclaimed a colony of France, the inhabitants became French citizens.
French is the only official language, although the Tahitian language is spoken. Tahiti is the largest island in French Polynesia lying close to Mo'orea island, it is located 4,400 kilometres south of Hawaii, 7,900 km from Chile, 5,700 km from Australia. The island is 45 km across at its widest point and covers an area of 1,045 km2; the highest peak is Mont Orohena. Mount Roonui, or Mount Ronui, in the southeast rises to 1,332 m; the island consists of two round portions centred on volcanic mountains and connected by a short isthmus named after the small town of Taravao, situated there. The northwestern portion is known as Tahiti Nui, while the much smaller southeastern portion is known as Tahiti Iti or Tai'arapū. Tahiti Nui is populated along the coast around the capital, Papeete; the interior of Tahiti Nui is entirely uninhabited. Tahiti Iti has remained isolated, as its southeastern half is accessible only to those travelling by boat or on foot; the rest of the island is encircled by a main road which cuts between the sea.
A scenic and winding interior road climbs past dairy citrus groves with panoramic views. Tahiti's landscape features lush rainforests and many rivers and waterfalls, including the Papenoo River on the north side, the Fautaua Falls near Papeete; the Society archipelago is a hotspot volcanic chain consisting of atolls. The chain is oriented along parallel to the movement of the Pacific Plate. Due to the plate movement over the Society hotspot, the age of the islands decreases from 5 Ma at Maupiti to 0 Ma at Mehetia, where Mehetia is the inferred current location of the hotspot as evidenced by recent seismic activity. Maupiti, the oldest island in the chain, is a eroded shield volcano with at least 12 thin aa flows, which accumulated rapidly between 4.79 and 4.05 Ma. Bora Bora is another eroded shield volcano consisting of basaltic lavas accumulated between 3.83 and 3.1 Ma. The lavas are intersected by post-shield dikes. Tahaa consists of shield-stage basalt with an age of 3.39 Ma, followed by additional eruptions 1.2 Ma later.
Raiatea consists of shield-stage basalt followed by post-shield trachytic lava flows, all occurring from 2.75 to 2.29 Ma. Huahine consists of two coalesced basalt shield volcanoes, Huahine Nui and Huahine Iti, with several flows followed by post-shield trachyphonolitic lava domes from 3.08 to 2.06 Ma. Moorea consists of at least 16 flows of shield-stage basalt and post-shield lavas from 2.15 to 1.36 Ma. Tahiti consists of two basalt shield volcanoes, Tahiti Nui and Tahiti Iti, with an age range of 1.67 to 0.25 Ma. November to April is the wet season, the wettest month of, January with 13.2 in of rain in Papeetē. August is the driest with 1.9 inches. The average temperature ranges with little seasonal variation; the lowest and highest temperatures recorded in Papeete are 34 °C, respectively. The first Tahitians arrived from Western Polynesia sometime around 500 AD, after a long migration from South East Asia or Indonesia, via the Fijian and Tongan Archipelagos; this hypothesis of an emigration from Southeast Asia is supported by a range of linguistic and archaeological evidence.
For example, the languages of Fiji and Polynesia all belong to the same Oceanic sub-group, Fijian-Polynesian, which itself forms part of the great family of the Austronesian Languages. This emigration, across several hundred kilometres of ocean, was made possible by using outrigger canoes that were up to twenty or thirty meters long and could transport families as well as domestic animals. In 1769, for instance, James Cook mentions a great traditional ship in Tahiti, 33 m long, could be propelled by sail or paddles. In 2010, an expedition on a simple outrigger canoe with a sail retraced the route back from Tahiti to Asia. Before the arrival of the Europeans the island was divided into different chiefdoms precise territories dominated by a single clan; these chiefdoms were linked to each other by allegiances based on the blood ties of their leaders and on their power in war. The most important clan on the island was the Teva, whose territory extended from the
An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon or completely. There may be coral cays on the rim; the coral of the atoll sits atop the rim of an extinct seamount or volcano which has eroded or subsided beneath the water. The lagoon forms over the volcanic crater or caldera while the higher rim remains above water or at shallow depths that permit the coral to grow and form the reefs. For the atoll to persist, continued erosion or subsidence must be at a rate slow enough to permit reef growth upward and outward to replace the lost height; the word atoll comes from the Dhivehi word atholhu. OED Its first recorded use in English was in 1625 as atollon. Charles Darwin recognized its indigenous origin and coined, in his The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, the definition of atolls as "circular groups of coral islets", synonymous with "lagoon-island". More modern definitions of atoll describe them as "annular reefs enclosing a lagoon in which there are no promontories other than reefs and islets composed of reef detritus" or "in an morphological sense, a ring-shaped ribbon reef enclosing a lagoon".
Most of the world's atolls are in the Indian Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean has no large groups of atolls, other than eight atolls east of Nicaragua that belong to the Colombian department of San Andres and Providencia in the Caribbean. Reef-building corals will thrive only in warm tropical and subtropical waters of oceans and seas, therefore atolls are only found in the tropics and subtropics; the northernmost atoll of the world is Kure Atoll at 28°24′ N, along with other atolls of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The southernmost atolls of the world are Elizabeth Reef at 29°58′ S, nearby Middleton Reef at 29°29′ S, in the Tasman Sea, both of which are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory; the next southerly atoll is Ducie Island in the Pitcairn Islands Group, at 24°40′ S. Bermuda is sometimes claimed as the "northernmost atoll" at a latitude of 32°24′ N. At this latitude coral reefs would not develop without the warming waters of the Gulf Stream. However, Bermuda is termed a pseudo-atoll because its general form, while resembling that of an atoll, has a different mode of formation.
While there is no atoll directly on the equator, the closest atoll to the Equator is Aranuka of Kiribati, with its southern tip just 12 km north of the equator. In most cases, the land area of an atoll is small in comparison to the total area. Atoll islands are low lying, with their elevations less than 5 meters. Measured by total area, Lifou is the largest raised coral atoll of the world, followed by Rennell Island. More sources however list as the largest atoll in the world in terms of land area Kiritimati, a raised coral atoll, 160 km² main lagoon, 168 km² other lagoons; the remains of an ancient atoll as a hill in a limestone area is called a reef knoll. The second largest atoll by dry land area is Aldabra with 155 km²; the largest atoll in terms of island numbers is Huvadhu Atoll in the south of the Maldives with 255 islands. In 1842, Charles Darwin explained the creation of coral atolls in the southern Pacific Ocean based upon observations made during a five-year voyage aboard HMS Beagle from 1831 to 1836.
Accepted as correct, his explanation involved considering that several tropical island types—from high volcanic island, through barrier reef island, to atoll—represented a sequence of gradual subsidence of what started as an oceanic volcano. He reasoned that a fringing coral reef surrounding a volcanic island in the tropical sea will grow upward as the island subsides, becoming an "almost atoll", or barrier reef island, as typified by an island such as Aitutaki in the Cook Islands, Bora Bora and others in the Society Islands; the fringing reef becomes a barrier reef for the reason that the outer part of the reef maintains itself near sea level through biotic growth, while the inner part of the reef falls behind, becoming a lagoon because conditions are less favorable for the coral and calcareous algae responsible for most reef growth. In time, subsidence carries the old volcano below the ocean surface and the barrier reef remains. At this point, the island has become an atoll. Atolls are the product of the growth of tropical marine organisms, so these islands are only found in warm tropical waters.
Volcanic islands located beyond the warm water temperature requirements of hermatypic organisms become seamounts as they subside and are eroded away at the surface. An island, located where the ocean water temperatures are just sufficiently warm for upward reef growth to keep pace with the rate of subsidence is said to be at the Darwin Point. Islands in colder, more polar regions evolve toward guyots. Reginald Aldworth Daly offered a somewhat different explanation for atoll formation: islands worn away by erosion, by ocean waves and streams, during the last glacial stand of the sea of some 900 feet below present sea level developed as coral islands, or barrier reefs on a platform surrounding a volcanic island not worn away, a