The Windward Islands known as the Islands of Barlovento, are the southern larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies. They lie south of the Leeward Islands between latitudes 10° and 16° N and longitudes 60° and 62° W; as a group they start from Dominica and reach southward to the north of Trinidad and Tobago and west of Barbados. The Windward Islands are called such because they were more windward to sailing ships arriving to the New World than the Leeward Islands, given that the prevailing trade winds in the West Indies blow east to west; the trans-Atlantic currents and winds that provided the fastest route across the ocean brought these ships to the rough dividing line between the Windward and Leeward islands. Dominica is the dividing line between the Leeward islands. Guadeloupe and islands to the north became known as the "Leeward Islands". Vessels in the Atlantic slave trade departing from the British Gold Coast and Gulf of Guinea in Africa would first encounter the southeasternmost "Windward" islands of the Lesser Antilles in their west-northwesterly heading to final destinations in the Caribbean and North and Central America.
The chain of Windward Islands forms a part of the easternmost boundary of the Caribbean Sea. Most of the present "Windward Islands" were once colonial island territories of France known as the French West Indies; the Windward Islands are as follows: Dominica Martinique Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Grenada Trinidad and Tobago Leeward Islands Southern Caribbean Lesser Antilles topics Windward Islands topics Leeward Islands topics Windward Islands cricket team Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Windward Islands". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. P. 716
The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, to the south by the north coast of South America; the entire area of the Caribbean Sea, the numerous islands of the West Indies, adjacent coasts, are collectively known as the Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea is one of the largest seas and has an area of about 2,754,000 km2; the sea's deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 m below sea level. The Caribbean coastline has many gulfs and bays: the Gulf of Gonâve, Gulf of Venezuela, Gulf of Darién, Golfo de los Mosquitos, Gulf of Paria and Gulf of Honduras; the Caribbean Sea has the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. It runs 1,000 km along the coasts of Mexico, Belize and Honduras; the name "Caribbean" derives from the Caribs, one of the region's dominant Native American groups at the time of European contact during the late 15th century.
After Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas in 1492, the Spanish term Antillas applied to the lands. During the first century of development, Spanish dominance in the region remained undisputed. From the 16th century, Europeans visiting the Caribbean region identified the "South Sea" as opposed to the "North Sea"; the Caribbean Sea had been unknown to the populations of Eurasia until 1492, when Christopher Columbus sailed into Caribbean waters on a quest to find a sea route to Asia. At that time the Western Hemisphere in general was unknown to most Europeans, although it had been discovered between the years 800 and 1000 by the vikings. Following the discovery of the islands by Columbus, the area was colonized by several Western cultures. Following the colonization of the Caribbean islands, the Caribbean Sea became a busy area for European-based marine trading and transports, this commerce attracted pirates such as Samuel Bellamy and Blackbeard; as of 2015 the area is home to borders 12 continental countries.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Caribbean Sea as follows: On the North. In the Windward Channel – a line joining Caleta Point and Pearl Point in Haïti. In the Mona Passage – a line joining Cape Engaño and the extreme of Agujereada in Puerto Rico. Eastern limits. From Point San Diego Northward along the meridian thereof to the 100-fathom line, thence Eastward and Southward, in such a manner that all islands and narrow waters of the Lesser Antilles are included in the Caribbean Sea as far as Galera Point. From Galera Point through Trinidad to Galeota Point and thence to Baja Point in Venezuela. Note that, although Barbados is an island on the same continental shelf, it is considered to be in the Atlantic Ocean rather than the Caribbean Sea; the Caribbean Sea is an oceanic sea situated on the Caribbean Plate. The Caribbean Sea is separated from the ocean by several island arcs of various ages; the youngest stretches from the Lesser Antilles to the Virgin Islands to the north east of Trinidad and Tobago off the coast of Venezuela.
This arc was formed by the collision of the South American Plate with the Caribbean Plate and includes active and extinct volcanoes such as Mount Pelee, the Quill on Sint Eustatius in the Caribbean Netherlands and Morne Trois Pitons on Dominica. The larger islands in the northern part of the sea Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico lie on an older island arc; the geological age of the Caribbean Sea is estimated to be between 160 and 180 million years and was formed by a horizontal fracture that split the supercontinent called Pangea in the Mesozoic Era. It is assumed the proto-caribbean basin existed in the Devonian period. In the early Carboniferous movement of Gondwana to the north and its convergence with the Euramerica basin decreased in size; the next stage of the Caribbean Sea's formation began in the Triassic. Powerful rifting led to the formation of narrow troughs, stretching from modern Newfoundland to the west coast of the Gulf of Mexico which formed siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. In the early Jurassic due to powerful marine transgression, water broke into the present area of the Gulf of Mexico creating a vast shallow pool.
The emergence of deep basins in the Caribbean occurred during the Middle Jurassic rifting. The emergence of these basins marked the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean and contributed to the destruction of Pangaea at the end of the late Jurassic. During the Cretaceous the Caribbean acquired the shape close to that seen today. In the early Paleogene due to Marine regression the Caribbean became separated from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean by the land of Cuba and Haiti; the Caribbean remained like this for most of the Cenozoic until the Holocene when rising water levels of the oceans restored communication with the Atlantic Ocean. The Caribbean's floor is composed of sub-oceanic sediments of deep red clay in the deep basins and troughs. On continental slopes and ridges calcareous silts are found. Clay minerals having been deposited by the mainland river Orinoco and the Magdalena River. Deposits on th
Saint Patrick Parish, Grenada
Saint Patrick is one of the Catholic parishes of Grenada, covering the north of the country. A spectacular coastline with several fine bays faces several small islands to the north, its most famous beach is Bathway Beach. The principal town in St. Patrick is Sauteurs. One landmark is Leapers' Hill, where legend states that Chief Kairouane and other 40 indigenous Caribs jumped over the cliff and into the sea to escape colonization by the French. Several volcanic cones and craters are located within the parish, such as Punchbowl and Lake Antoine. In the 18th and 19th Centuries, Irvin's Bay was a working harbour for shipping sugar and other produce. Goods were sent to England and France. In 1867, the Maidstone sailing ship carried 289 Calcutta Indians to Irvin's Bay to address a labour shortage on Grenada estates. For much of the twentieth century, the parish was agricultural with several large estates accounting for a significant share of cocoa and nutmeg production in Grenada. "St. Catherine - Synonyms & Subfeatures".
Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution
Grenada is a country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain. Grenada consists of the island of Grenada itself plus six smaller islands which lie to the north of the main island, it is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Its size is 348.5 square kilometres, it had an estimated population of 107,317 in 2016. Its capital is St. George's. Grenada is known as the "Island of Spice" due to its production of nutmeg and mace crops, of which it is one of the world's largest exporters; the national bird of Grenada is the critically endangered Grenada dove. Before the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, Grenada was inhabited by the indigenous Arawaks and by the Island Caribs. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the Americas. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish landed or settled on the island.
Following several unsuccessful attempts by Europeans to colonise the island due to resistance from the Island Caribs, French settlement and colonisation began in 1650 and continued for the next century. On 10 February 1763, Grenada was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris. British rule continued until 1974. From 1958 to 1962, Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies, a short-lived federation of British West Indian colonies. On 3 March 1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State. Herbert Blaize was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as Premier from August 1967 until February 1974. Independence was granted on 7 February 1974, without breaking formal ties with the Commonwealth, under the leadership of Eric Gairy, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada, with Queen Elizabeth as Head of State. In March 1979, the Marxist–Leninist New Jewel Movement overthrew Gairy's government in a coup d'état and established the People's Revolutionary Government, headed by Maurice Bishop as Prime Minister.
On 19 October 1983, hard-line Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard and his wife Phyllis, backed by the Grenadian Army, led a coup against the government of Maurice Bishop and placed Bishop under house arrest. Bishop was freed by popular demonstration and attempted to resume power, but he was captured and executed by soldiers, replaced with a military council chaired by Hudson Austin. On 25 October 1983, forces from the United States and the Barbados-based Regional Security System invaded Grenada in a U. S.-led operation code-named Operation Urgent Fury. The invasion was criticised by the governments of Britain and Tobago and Canada, along with the United Nations General Assembly. Elections were held in December 1984 and were won by the Grenada National Party under Herbert Blaize, who served as Prime Minister until his death in December 1989; the origin of the name "Grenada" is obscure, but it is that Spanish sailors renamed the island for the city of Granada. By the beginning of the 18th century, the name "Grenada", or "la Grenade" in French, was in common use.
On his third voyage to the region in 1498, Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada and named it "La Concepción" in honour of the Virgin Mary. It is said that he may have named it "Assumpción", but it is uncertain, as he is said to have sighted what are now Grenada and Tobago from a distance and named them both at the same time. However, history has accepted that it was Tobago he named "Assumpción" and Grenada he named "La Concepción". In 1499, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci travelled through the region with the Spanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda and mapmaker Juan de la Cosa. Vespucci is reported to have renamed the island "Mayo", how it appeared on maps for around the next 20 years. In the 1520s, the Spanish named the islands to the north of Mayo as Los Granadillos after the mainland Spanish town. Shortly after this, Mayo disappeared from Spanish maps and an island called "Granada" took its place. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish landed or settled on the island.
After French settlement and colonisation in 1652, the French named their colony "La Grenade". On 10 February 1763, the island of La Grenade was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris; the British renamed it "Grenada", one of many place name anglicisations they carried out on the island during this time. About 2 million years ago, Grenada was formed as an underwater volcano. Grenada was inhabited by Arawaks and, Island Caribs before it was invaded and colonized by Europeans. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the new world. In 1649 a French expedition of 203 men from Martinique led by Jacques du Parquet founded a permanent settlement on Grenada. Within months this led to conflict with the local islanders which lasted until 1654 when the island was subjugated by the French; the indigenous islanders who survived either left for neighbouring islands or retreated to remoter parts of Grenada where they were marginalised—the last distinct communities disappeared during the 1700s.
Warfare continued during the 1600s between the French on Grenada and the Caribs of present-day Dominica and St. Vincent and the Grenadines; the French named their new colony La Grenade, the economy was based on sugar cane and indigo. The French established a capital known as Fort Royal. To shelter from hurricanes the French navy would take refuge in the capital's natural harbour, as no nearby Fren
Carriacou is an island of the Grenadine Islands located in the southeastern Caribbean Sea, northeast of Grenada and the north coast of South America. The name is derived from the Carib language Kayryouacou. Carriacou is part of the Carriacou and Petite Martinique Constituency. Carriacou is the largest island in the Grenada Grenadines, it is the largest island in the Grenadine Islands. It is located at latitude 12 ° 28' longitude 61 ° 27' W. Carriacou is home to 8,000 people; the capital city is the only town or city on the island. The rest of the island settlements are small villages. There are more than 100 rum shops in Carriacou. Carriacou is home to Herbert Augustus Blaize, the founder of GNP and the former Chief Minister of Grenada. Carriacou is a popular vacation destination for Grenadians. Noteworthy beaches in Carriacou include Anse La Roche. European dances, such as the Quadrille, are still popular on the island today; the Big Drum dance is performed on a special occasions. Carriacou is reputed to be the friendliest and safest island in the Caribbean.
Carriacou's Pierrot, or Shakespeare Mas, is from Mt. Royal. National drink: Jack Iron National Telephone company: Cable and Wireless National Bank: Republic Bank National Hospital: Princess Royal Hospital National Dish: Coo-Coo and Okra National Plant/Flower: The Flamboyant TreeAs a table: Carriacou is known as the "Isle of Reefs", features some of the most unspoiled coral reefs in the region. Most diving takes place on the calmer Caribbean side of the island, where 33 dive sites suitable for all levels of divers can be found. Depths range from 12 m down to a maximum of 30 m. Visibility is good throughout the year, with excellent opportunities for underwater photography. All of Carriacou's dive sites boast a spectacular array of vibrant corals and schooling fish that have made the Caribbean a famous diving hotspot. Dive sites range from the tranquil and sheltered for beginners and underwater photography enthusiasts to fast drifts for those that love a challenge. Carriacou features two wreck dives: the Westsider and Boris tug boats, both 30 m long, which were sunk as artificial wrecks for divers in 2004 and 2007 respectively.
As well as all the usual Caribbean reef fish, large nurse sharks, Southern & roughtail stingrays, as well as spotted eagle rays and green turtles are sighted. During the summer months spectacular schools of silversides may be seen. During late spring, humpback whales migrate past the island, their song can be heard by scuba divers from a long way off. Dry season is from January to June and the rainy season is from July to December; the first record of a hurricane on the island was on August 14, 1944. In 1955 the second floor of the Beausejour great house was blown away by Hurricane Janet. Recent hurricanes: Hurricane Ivan on September 7, 2004 and Hurricane Emily on July 13, 2005. Between 500 and 1000 AD\CE, Amerindians came to Carriacou; these Carib settlers called Carriacou Kayryouacou, meaning "the land of reefs." In 1656, Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre, a turtle fisherman living in Guadeloupe, visited Carriacou. He was the first recorded French/European person, it was colonized first by the French among the European newcomers.
In 1720, Bartholomew Roberts captured a French ship near Carriacou and commandeered it, renaming it the Royal Fortune. In 1750, the first census of the island was conducted, it recorded 199 people living in Carriacou. In 1763 near the end of the Seven Years' War, Carriacou was ceded with Grenada by the French to the British after their defeat in the war. In addition, the British had captured neighbouring Grenada. In 1776, the island population was 3,239, not counting the free Blacks and the free Mulattos or people of color. In 1791, Gun Point, a division of the Grenadines, was made a latitude on the island; the Point belonged to Saint Vincent and the rest of Carriacou belonged to Grenada. In 1870, Stephen Joseph Perry led a British government expedition to observe a solar eclipse at Carriacou. In the 19th century, the Pierrot Mas was first introduced to Carriacou. In 1922, Petite Charles first introduced the Jab Jab Mas to Carriacou; the telephone system began operating in 1961 on Carriacou. Bishop's College was the first secondary school in Carriacou.
In 1965, the Carriacou Regatta began. In 1965?1968 Lauriston airport/airstrip was opened. On October 31, 1975, the Carriacou Carib Organization began; the inhabitants of Carriacou perform the "Big Drum" or "Nation," dance which celebrates their West African ancestors who were brought to the island during slavery. These Big Drum dances are performed at "Maroons" village festivals or fetes, where food and drink are prepared, they can be danced at wakes and tombstone feasts in honor of dead relatives. The Quadrille dance is performed on the island during festivals and historic events. A traditional boat-building culture located in the village of Windward, on the northeastern side of the island. Carriacou's people of Scottish and Irish ancestry are concentrated here. Carriacouans have migrated to the United Kingdom, to the county town of Bedford, it is said that if you live in Carriacou you will have a family member in Bedford, if you live in Bedford you will know someone from Carriacou. Other English locations where Kayaks congregate are Hudders
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of surface winds from the east toward the west found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower part of the troposphere near the Earth's equator. The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere, strengthening during the winter and when the Arctic oscillation is in its warm phase. Trade winds have been used by captains of sailing ships to cross the world's oceans for centuries, enabled colonial expansion into the Americas and trade routes to become established across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In meteorology, the trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical storms that form over the Atlantic and southern Indian Oceans and make landfall in North America, Southeast Asia, Madagascar and eastern Africa, respectively. Trade winds transport African dust westward across the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean Sea, as well as portions of southeastern North America.
Shallow cumulus clouds are seen within trade wind regimes, are capped from becoming taller by a trade wind inversion, caused by descending air aloft from within the subtropical ridge. The weaker the trade winds become, the more rainfall can be expected in the neighboring landmasses; the term trade winds derives from the early fourteenth century late Middle English word "trade," meaning "path" or "track." The Portuguese recognized the importance of the trade winds in navigation in both the north and south Atlantic ocean as early as the 15th century. From West Africa, the Portuguese had to sail away from continental Africa, that is, to west and northwest, they could turn northeast, to the area around the Azores islands, east to mainland Europe. They learned that to reach South Africa, they needed to go far out in the ocean, head for Brazil, around 30°S go east again. Following the African coast southbound means upwind in the Southern hemisphere. In the Pacific ocean, the full wind circulation, which included both the trade wind easterlies and higher-latitude Westerlies, was unknown to Europeans until Andres de Urdaneta's voyage in 1565.
The captain of a sailing ship seeks a course along which the winds can be expected to blow in the direction of travel. During the Age of Sail, the pattern of prevailing winds made various points of the globe easy or difficult to access, therefore had a direct effect on European empire-building and thus on modern political geography. For example, Manila galleons could not sail into the wind at all. By the 18th century, the importance of the trade winds to England's merchant fleet for crossing the Atlantic Ocean had led both the general public and etymologists to identify the name with a meaning of "trade": " commerce". Between 1847 and 1849, Matthew Fontaine Maury collected enough information to create wind and current charts for the world's oceans; as part of the Hadley cell, surface air flows toward the equator while the flow aloft is towards the poles. A low-pressure area of calm, light variable winds near the equator is known as the doldrums, near-equatorial trough, intertropical front, or the Intertropical Convergence Zone.
When located within a monsoon region, this zone of low pressure and wind convergence is known as the monsoon trough. Around 30° in both hemispheres, air begins to descend toward the surface in subtropical high-pressure belts known as subtropical ridges; the subsident air is dry because as it descends, the temperature increases, but the absolute humidity remains constant, which lowers the relative humidity of the air mass. This warm, dry air is known as a superior air mass and resides above a maritime tropical air mass. An increase of temperature with height is known as a temperature inversion; when it occurs within a trade wind regime, it is known as a trade wind inversion. The surface air that flows from these subtropical high-pressure belts toward the Equator is deflected toward the west in both hemispheres by the Coriolis effect; these winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere. Because winds are named for the direction from which the wind is blowing, these winds are called the northeasterly trade winds in the Northern Hemisphere and the southeasterly trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere.
The trade winds of both hemispheres meet at the doldrums. As they blow across tropical regions, air masses heat up over lower latitudes due to more direct sunlight; those that develop over land are drier and hotter than those that develop over oceans, travel northward on the western periphery of the subtropical ridge. Maritime tropical air masses are sometimes referred to as trade air masses; the one region of the Earth which has an absence of trade winds is the north Indian ocean. Clouds which form above regions within trade wind regimes are composed of cumulus which extend no more than 4 kilometres in height, are capped from being taller by the trade wind inversion. Trade winds originate more from the direction of the poles during the cold season, are stronger in the winter than the summer; as an example, the windy season in the Guianas, which lie at low latitudes in South America, occurs between January and April. When the phase of the Arctic oscillation is warm, trade winds are stronger within the tropics.
The cold phase of the AO leads to weaker trade winds. When the trade winds are weaker, more extensive areas of rain fall upon landmasses within the