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Geography of Hong Kong

Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, can be geographically divided into three territories: Kowloon, Hong Kong Island, the New Territories. Hong Kong is a coastal city and major port in Southern China, bordering Guangdong province through city of Shenzhen to the north and the South China Sea to the West and South. Hong Kong and its 260 territorial islands and peninsulas are located at the mouth of the Pearl River Delta; the area of Hong Kong is distinct from Mainland China, but is considered part of "Greater China". Hong Kong has a total area of 1,108 km2. 60 islands are dispersed around Hong Kong, the largest of which by area is Lantau Island, located Southwest of the main peninsula. Lantau Island and the majority of the remaining islands are part of the New Territories, an area that encompasses the hilly terrain north of Kowloon. Hong Kong Island is separated from Kowloon by a natural landform harbour; the Kowloon Peninsula to the south of Boundary Street and the New Territories to the north of Hong Kong Island were added to Colonial Hong Kong in 1860 and 1898, respectively.

Further from Victoria Harbour and the coast, the landscape of Hong Kong is hilly to mountainous with steep slopes. The highest point in the territory is Tai Mo Shan, at a height of 958 metres in the New Territories. Lowlands exist in the northwestern part of the New Territories. Portions of land in the New Territories and Hong Kong island are reserved as country parks and nature reserves. With the fourth highest population density of countries and dependencies in the world at 6,300 people per square kilometer, Hong Kong is known for its shortage of residential space. Hong Kong has undergone several land reclamation projects to provide more space for residential and economical purposes, increasing its land area; this has caused the distance between Kowloon to decrease. Hong Kong International Airport is the sole public airport in the territory, is located on reclaimed land on the island of Chep Lap Kok. Politically, Hong Kong is divided into each having a district council. Most public services operate across the territory, travel between the districts is not restricted.

Sha Tin is the most populous district as of 2019. The name "Hong Kong" meaning "fragrant harbour", is derived from the area around present-day Aberdeen on Hong Kong Island, where fragrant wood products and incense were once traded; the narrow body of water separating Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Peninsula, Victoria Harbour, is one of the deepest natural maritime ports in the world. Hong Kong is 60 km east of Macau, on the opposite side of the Pearl River estuary. Hong Kong and Macau are connected through the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge. Hong Kong's climate is monsoonal with cool dry winters and hot and wet summers; as of 2006, its annual average rainfall is 2,214 mm, though about 80% of the rain falls between May and September. It is affected by tropical cyclones between May and November, most from July to September; the mean temperature of Hong Kong ranges from 16 °C in January and February to 28 °C in July and August. January and February are more cloudy, with occasional cold fronts followed by dry northerly winds.

It is not uncommon for temperatures to drop below 10 °C in urban areas. Sub-zero temperatures and frost occur in the New Territories. March and April can be pleasant. Fog and drizzle are common on high ground, exposed to the southeast. May to August are humid with occasional shower and thunderstorms. Afternoon temperatures exceed 31 °C whereas at night, temperatures remain around 26 °C with high humidity. In November and December there are pleasant breezes, plenty of sunshine and comfortable temperatures. Hong Kong is on China's southern coast, 60 km east of Macau, on the east side of the mouth of the Pearl River estuary, it is surrounded by the South China Sea on all sides except the north, which neighbours the Guangdong city of Shenzhen along the Sham Chun River. The territory's 2,755 km2 area consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, Lantau Island, over 200 other islands. Of the total area, 1,073 km2 is land and 35 km2 is water; the territory's highest point is 957 metres above sea level.

Urban development is concentrated on the Kowloon Peninsula, Hong Kong Island, in new towns throughout the New Territories. Much of this is built on due to the lack of developable flat land. Undeveloped terrain is hilly to mountainous, with little flat land, consists of grassland, shrubland, or farmland. About 40 per cent of the remaining land area are country parks and nature reserves; the territory has a diverse ecosystem. Total: 30 km Border city: Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, Guangdong Province Figures published by the United States Central Intelligence Agency Total: 733 km Maritime claims: Territorial sea: 3 nautical miles Figures published by the United States Central Intelligence Agency Hong Kong has 263 islands over 500 m2, including Hong Kong Island, Lantau Island, Cheung Chau, Lamma Island, Peng Chau and Tsing Yi Island. Hong Kong's terrain is hilly and mountainous

The Heart of Christmas (album)

The Heart of Christmas is the first holiday studio album by Christian Contemporary/pop-rock musician Matthew West. It was released on October 2011 through Sparrow Records; the album was produced by Pete Kipley. The album has achieved commercial charting successes, as well as, it has garnered critical acclamation; the album released on October 4, 2011 by Sparrow Records, it was produced by Brown Bannister along with Pete Kipley. This was the first Christmas album from Matthew West. At CCM Magazine, Grace S. Aspinwall noted that the album has "just the right balance of big-band style holiday classics and well crafted modern songs." Stella Redburn of Cross Rhythms commented that West has a "strong but flexible voice that works well in these up-beat arrangements". At The Christian Music Review Blog, Jonathan Kemp was "captivated" by his voice. In addition, Allmusic's Jon O'Brien wrote that the release "justifies West's reputation as one of the most dependable voices in contemporary Christian pop." The Heart of Christmas garnered critical acclaim from music critics.

At CCM Magazine, Grace S. Aspinwall rated the album four stars, called the album West has created a "stunning" Christmas album. Stella Redburn of Cross Rhythms rated the album eight out of ten squares, said she would suggest it to a listener as a Christmas album, eccentric. At Louder Than the Music, Rich Smith rated the album a perfect five stars, commented that West has imbued the album with the correct Christmas spirit, which proclaimed was "fantastic." Jonathan Kemp of The Christian Music Review Blog rated the album four-and-a-half stars out of five, evoked that West has made a great Christmas album unlike some artist. At Alpha Omega News, Tom Frigoli graded the album an A, stated West knows the meaning of this special time of year. Tyler Hess of Christian Music Zine rated the album three-and-a-half out of five stars, alluded to how the album has a "few hints of spice and personality" that help distinguish it from the rest. However, Allmusic's Jon O'Brien rated it three stars, the only mixed review, felt that with respect to the album it "doesn't break any new ground, but it's a heart-warming affair"

Minister of the Right

Minister of the Right was a government position in Japan in the late Nara and Heian periods. The position was consolidated in the Taihō Code of 702; the Asuka Kiyomihara Code of 689 marks the initial appearance of the udaijin in the context of a central administrative body called the Daijō-kan. This early Daijō-kan was composed of the three ministers—the daijō-daijin, the sadaijin and the udaijin; the udaijin was the Junior Minister of State, overseeing all branches of the Daijō-kan. He would be the deputy of the sadaijin; the post of udaijin, along with the rest of the Daijō-kan structure lost power over the 10th and 11th centuries, as the Fujiwara came to dominate politics more and more. The system was powerless by the end of the 12th century, when the Minamoto, a warrior clan and branch of the imperial family, seized control of the country from the court aristocracy. However, it is not clear whether the Daijō-kan system was formally dismantled prior to the Meiji era. Daijō-kan Kugyō Sesshō and Kampaku List of Daijō-daijin Kōkyū Kuge Imperial Household Agency