Liechtenstein National Police Force
Law enforcement in Liechtenstein is handled by the small Liechtenstein National Police Force, composed of 91 officers and 34 civilian staff, a total of 125 employees, who police the 160 km² doubly landlocked alpine country in Western-Central Europe. Bordered by Switzerland to its west, Austria to its east, Liechtenstein maintains a trilateral treaty which enables close cross-border cooperation between the police forces of the three countries. Liechtenstein has a low crime rate, with the last murder taking place, according to a serving officer, “about ten years ago” as of 2007. Crime has always been low since the mid-1970s. According to an International Special Reports study, the average Liechtenstein resident doesn't lock their door. Liechtenstein jails hold few, if any, with sentences over two years being transferred to Austria. However, officers in the Liechtenstein National Police Force have been armed since a shooting took place. In 2004, Liechtenstein drafted 300 Swiss and Austrian police to assist security forces in the potential aftermath of a Liechtenstein victory over England, in a Euro Cup qualifying match, at Rheinpark Stadion.
Liechtenstein National Police Force are divided into three divisions, two independently operated subdivision: Security and Traffic Control. Criminal Investigation. Officers are issued a SIG Sauer pistol the standard issue being the SIG Sauer P226. Executive Support. Security Corps The Security Corps are a paramilitary force, composed of Liechtensteiners, who can be called upon in case of a natural disaster, or riot situation; the Corps performs honorary roles such as changing the guard, presenting the Coat of Arms at official occasions. Differing from all other units the Corps are both trained and equipped with automatic weapons, most notably the Heckler & Koch UMP and MP5. Law enforcement in Liechtenstein is handled by the Liechtenstein National Police Force, although a paramilitary force is maintained inside the police body. Liechtenstein follows a policy of neutrality, is one of few countries in the world that maintains no active military. Liechtenstein's Army was abolished in 1868, soon after the Austro-Prussian War in which Liechtenstein fielded an army of 80 men, although they were not involved in any fighting.
However, Liechtenstein can reinstate its military if deemed necessary, although this is unlikely. Switzerland has a active military due to conscription. Several incidents have occurred during routine training: On 5 December 1985, antitank rocket RL-83 Blindicide fired by the Swiss Armed Forces landed in a forest in Switzerland owned by Balzers, a municipality of Liechtenstein, causing a forest fire. Compensation was paid to the private owner. On 13 October 1992, following written orders, Swiss Army cadets unknowingly crossed the border and went to Triesenberg to set up an observation post. Swiss commanders had overlooked the fact. Switzerland apologized to Liechtenstein for the incident. On 3 March 2007, a company of 171 Swiss soldiers mistakenly entered Liechtenstein by bad weather and by night, after taking a wrong turn in the darkness; the troops returned to Swiss territory. The Liechtenstein authorities did not discover the "invaders", were informed by the Swiss after the incident; the incident was disregarded by both sides.
A Liechtenstein spokesman said "It's not like they invaded with attack helicopters". Since 1933, Liechtenstein National Police Force has signed seven strategic treaties. Working Group Southwest Europol International Police Association Interpol Eastern Swiss police Concordat Police union boss Constance Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe The national emergency telephone number is 112, for police it is 117, for the Fire Brigade it is 118, for the Ambulance Service it is 144, for the Rega it is 1414; the Fire Brigade operates a 30-man volunteer Mountain Rescue Service. Officer uniforms are similar to that of the Swiss cantonal police, both in color, design; the Swiss border between Switzerland and Liechtenstein is opened, but Swiss customs officers used to secure Liechtenstein's border with Austria. Before December 2011, there were 21 Swiss, 4 Liechtenstein National Police, 28 Austria border guards, who secured the 11.6 km long Liechtensteiner-Austrian border, only 20 percent is passable.
Though the Liechtenstein National Police Force maintain a border unit, the Swiss border police are responsible for border protection of both countries according to a customs union adopted in 1924. In February 2007, there were hundreds of people trying to seek asylum in Liechtenstein, m
The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
Politics of Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein is a principality governed under a constitutional monarchy. It has a form of mixed constitution in which political power is shared by the monarch and a democratically elected parliament. There is a two-party system and a form of representative democracy in which the prime minister and head of government is responsible to parliament; however the Prince of Liechtenstein exercises considerable political powers. The executive power is exercised by the Cabinet of Liechtenstein. Legislative power is vested in the Landtag; the party system is dominated by the conservative Progressive Citizens' Party and the liberal-conservative Patriotic Union. The Judiciary is independent of the legislature. On 15 August 2002, in his National Day Address, Prince Hans-Adam II announced that after months of intensive negotiations, a compromise in the debate on constitutional reform had been reached. On 13 September, Prime Minister Otmar Hasler confirmed to Parliament that his government was drafting a bill for Parliament based on the compromise reached between the Prince and the Citizens' Forum.
The draft bill, which would increase the executive powers of the monarch, went before Parliament for a first reading in November. Once approved by Parliament, the bill was presented to voters in a referendum, approved by 64% of those voting on 16 March 2003; the monarch is hereditary. Following legislative elections, the head of government is appointed by the prince and proposed and voted on by the parliament, thus the government is composed of the members of the majority party. It is, however customary that the leader of the largest minority party in the Diet is appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch. According to the constitution of Liechtenstein, the government is a collegiate body and consists of the head of government and four governmental councilors. Amendment to the constitution or new law have to be adopted by Parliament, signed by both the Prince and the head of government, published in the Principality's Law Gazette. Prince Hans Adam II is the current head of state, his constitutional powers include the power to veto any legislation, to be used at his discretion, as well as the dissolution of the parliament.
He represents. He signs international treaties either in delegates this function to a plenipotentiary; some treaties under international law only become valid. On the basis of the names put forward by Parliament, the Prince nominates the government and high court judges, the judges of the Supreme Court, the presidents and their deputies of the Constitutional Court and of the Administrative Court of Appeal; the Prince's other authorities include exercising the right to mitigate and commute punishments that have been imposed with legal force and the abolition — i.e. the dismissal — of investigations that have been initiated. All judgments are issued in the name of the Prince; the Government of Liechtenstein is based on the principle of collegiality. The government consists of the head of four Councilors; the members of the government are appointed by the Prince. Only men or women born in Liechtenstein, who are eligible to be elected to Parliament, may be elected to the government committee; the two electoral areas of the country, the highlands and the lowlands, are entitled to at least two members of the government, their respective deputies must come from the same area.
The Prince's involvement in legislation consists in a right to take initiatives in the form of government bills and in the right to veto parliamentary proposals. The Prince has the power to enact princely decrees. Emergency princely decrees are possible when the welfare of the country is at stake. A countersignature by the head of government is required; the Prince has the right to convene and adjourn parliament and, for serious reasons, to adjourn it for 3 months or to dissolve it. The Landtag of Liechtenstein has 25 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in two multi-seat constituencies; until 1989, 15 members represented the population of the two constituencies. Since 1989 the lowland constituency has been entitled to have 10 members and the highland area 15; the Landtag's main task is to discuss and adopt resolutions on constitutional proposals and draft government bills. It has the additional duties of giving its assent to important international treaties; the Landtag observes its rights and duties in the course of sessions of the whole Landtag and through the parliamentary commissions that it elects.
All members of the Landtag exercise their mandates in addition to their normal professions or occupations. The President of the Landtag and his deputy are both elected at the opening meeting for the current year; the president convenes the individual meetings during the session, leads them, represent the Landtag externally. During the parliamentary recess — from January to February/March — a "state committee" assumes Parliament's duties, such a committee must be elected in the case of any adjournment or dissolution of Parliament. A "state committee" consists of the president of four other members; the duties and working procedures of Parl
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that global warming is occurring and it is likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. There are 192 parties to the Protocol; the Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to reduce the onset of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to "a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system". The Kyoto Protocol applies to the six greenhouse gases listed in Annex A: Carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide, Hydrofluorocarbons and Sulphur hexafluoride; the Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities: it acknowledges that individual countries have different capabilities in combating climate change, owing to economic development, therefore puts the obligation to reduce current emissions on developed countries on the basis that they are responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
The Protocol's first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012. A second commitment period was agreed in 2012, known as the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, in which 37 countries have binding targets: Australia, the European Union, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Ukraine. Belarus and Ukraine have stated that they may withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol or not put into legal force the Amendment with second round targets. Japan, New Zealand, Russia have participated in Kyoto's first-round but have not taken on new targets in the second commitment period. Other developed countries without second-round targets are the United States; as of January 2019, 124 states have accepted the Doha Amendment, while entry into force requires the acceptances of 144 states. Of the 37 countries with binding commitments, 7 have ratified. Negotiations were held in the framework of the yearly UNFCCC Climate Change Conferences on measures to be taken after the second commitment period ends in 2020; this resulted in the 2015 adoption of the Paris Agreement, a separate instrument under the UNFCCC rather than an amendment of the Kyoto Protocol.
The view that human activities are responsible for most of the observed increase in global mean temperature since the mid-20th century is an accurate reflection of current scientific thinking. Human-induced warming of the climate is expected to continue throughout the 21st century and beyond; the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change have produced a range of projections of what the future increase in global mean temperature might be. The IPCC's projections are "baseline" projections, meaning that they assume no future efforts are made to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; the IPCC projections cover the time period from the beginning of the 21st century to the end of the 21st century. The "likely" range is a projected increase in global mean temperature over the 21st century of between 1.1 and 6.4 °C. The range in temperature projections reflects different projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. Different projections contain different assumptions of future social and economic development, which in turn affects projections of future greenhouse gas emissions.
The range reflects uncertainty in the response of the climate system to past and future GHG emissions. 1992 – The UN Conference on the Environment and Development is held in Rio de Janeiro. It results in the Framework Convention on Climate Change among other agreements. 1995 – Parties to the UNFCCC meet in Berlin to outline specific targets on emissions. 1997 – In December the parties conclude the Kyoto Protocol in Kyoto, Japan, in which they agree to the broad outlines of emissions targets. 2004 – Russia and Canada ratify the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC bringing the treaty into effect on 16 February 2005. 2011 – Canada became the first signatory to announce its withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol.2012 – On 31 December 2012, the first commitment period under the Protocol expired. Most countries are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Article 2 of the Convention states its ultimate objective, to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere "at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."The natural and social sciences can provide information on decisions relating to this objective including the possible magnitude and rate of future climate changes.
However, the IPCC has concluded that the decision of what constitutes "dangerous" interference requires value judgements, which will vary between different regions of the world. Factors that might affect this decision include the local consequences of climate change impacts, the ability of a particular region to adapt to climate change, the ability of a region to reduce its GHG emissions; the main goal of the Kyoto Proto
Balzers is a village located in southern Liechtenstein. As of 2017, the village had a total population of 4,595; the main part of the village is situated along the east bank of the Rhine. The present-day form of the village consists of two different villages, the actual Balzers in the east and Mäls in the west. Not visible to the unaware, the division still persists in the local village culture, where it manifests in half-serious local competition; some customs, such as the "Funken" a springtime ritual with pre-Christian origins involving a huge bonfire, are still being practised by each separately. The two parts were first mentioned in 842 as Palazole. Balzers is the home of the Burg Gutenberg, built in the 12th-century and located on a rocky hill in the centre of the village. There is no airport in Liechtenstein, but Balzers has a small heliport available for charter flights; the heliport has no border-control facilities. The headquarters of the major thin film coating and vacuum technology company Oerlikon Balzers is located in Balzers.
Xaver Frick Olympic track and field athlete and cross-country skier. He competed in track sprinting events in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin and cross-country skiing at the 1948 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz. Frick is the only Liechtenstein athlete to date to have competed in both the Summer and Winter Olympic Games, he was awarded a Golden Laurel in 2003 by the government of Liechtenstein for outstanding contributions to sport. Saitama, Japan Alexander Suvorov Official website Heliport Balzers FL LSXB Heliport Balzers LSXB
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. It was agreed on 16 September 1987, entered into force on 16 September 1989, following a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989. Since it has undergone eight revisions, in 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2016 As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in Antarctica is recovering. Climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070. Due to its widespread adoption and implementation it has been hailed as an example of exceptional international co-operation, with Kofi Annan quoted as saying that "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol". In comparison, effective burden sharing and solution proposals mitigating regional conflicts of interest have been among the success factors for the ozone depletion challenge, where global regulation based on the Kyoto Protocol has failed to do so.
In this case of the ozone depletion challenge, there was global regulation being installed before a scientific consensus was established. Overall public opinion was convinced of possible imminent risks; the two ozone treaties have been ratified by 197 parties, making them the first universally ratified treaties in United Nations history. These universal treaties have been remarkable in the expedience of the policy-making process at the global scale, where only 14 years lapsed between a basic scientific research discovery and the international agreement signed; the treaty is structured around several groups of halogenated hydrocarbons that deplete stratospheric ozone. All of the ozone depleting substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol contain either chlorine or bromine; some ozone-depleting substances are not yet controlled by the Montreal Protocol, including nitrous oxide For a table of ozone-depleting substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol see:For each group of ODSs, the treaty provides a timetable on which the production of those substances must be shot out and eliminated.
This included a 10-year phase-in for developing countries identified in Article 5 of the treaty. The stated purpose of the treaty is that the signatory states "Recognizing that worldwide emissions of certain substances can deplete and otherwise modify the ozone layer in a manner, to result in adverse effects on human health and the environment. Determined to protect the ozone layer by taking precautionary measures to control equitably total global emissions of substances that deplete it with the ultimate objective of their elimination on the basis of developments in scientific knowledge" "Acknowledging that special provision is required to meet the needs of developing countries" shall accept a series of stepped limits on CFC use and production, including: from 1991 to 1992 its levels of consumption and production of the controlled substances in Group I of Annex A do not exceed 150 percent of its calculated levels of production and consumption of those substances in 1986. There was a faster phase-out of halon-1211, -2402, -1301, There was a slower phase-out of other substances and some chemicals were given individual attention.
The phasing-out of the less damaging HCFCs only began in 1996 and will go on until a complete phasing-out is achieved by 2030. There were a few exceptions for "essential uses", where no acceptable substitutes were found or Halon fire suppression systems used in submarines and aircraft; the substances in Group I of Annex A are: CFCl3 CF2Cl2 C2F3Cl3 C2F4Cl2 C2F5Cl The provisions of the Protocol include the requirement that the Parties to the Protocol base their future decisions on the current scientific, environmental and economic information, assessed through panels drawn from the worldwide expert communities. To provide that input to the decision-making process, advances in understanding on these topics were assessed in 1989, 1991, 1994, 1998 and 2002 in a series of reports entitled Scientific assessment of ozone depletion, by the Scientific Assessment Panel. In 1990 a Technology and Economic Assessment Panel was established as the technology and economics advisory body to the Montreal Protocol Parties.
The Technology and Economic Assessment Panel provides, at the request of Parties, technical information related to the alternative technologies that have been investigated and employed to make it possible to eliminate use of Ozone Depleting Substances, that harm the ozone layer. The TEAP is tasked by the Parties every year to assess and evaluate various technical issues including evaluating nominations for essential use exem
Foreign relations of Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein's foreign economic policy has been dominated by its customs union with Switzerland. This union led to its independent membership in the European Free Trade Association in 1991. Unlike Switzerland however, Liechtenstein is part of the European Economic Area. Liechtenstein was admitted to the United Nations in 1990, it is a member of most specialized organizations of the UN system, an exception being UNESCO. Liechtenstein has resorted two times to international dispute settlement by the International Court of Justice, in the Nottebohm case against Guatemala in the 1950s and in a case concerning art property of the Liechtenstein family against Germany in 2005, it lost in both cases. Liechtenstein maintains resident embassies in Austria, Germany, Holy See and the United States, along with a number of missions to international organisations. Under a 1919 agreement between Liechtenstein and Switzerland, ambassadors of Switzerland are authorised to represent Liechtenstein in countries and in diplomatic situations unless Liechtenstein opts to send its own ambassador.
Apart from Vatican City, Liechtenstein is the only country in the world not to host any embassy. There are, however, a number of honorary consulates in the principality. Most of these are situated in the capital Vaduz, some are found in Schaan and Triesen; the country has an international dispute with the Czech Republic and Slovakia concerning the estates of its princely family in those countries. After World War II, the predecessor of Czechia and Slovakia, acting to seize what they considered to be German possessions, expropriated the entirety of the Liechtenstein dynasty's hereditary lands and possessions in Bohemia and Silesia which compose Czechia; the expropriations included over 1,600 km² of agricultural and forest land in Moravia including several family castles and palaces. An offer from the Czech Republic to return the palaces and castles was rejected by Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein recognised and established diplomatic relations with the Czech Republic on 13 July 2009 and with Slovakia on 9 December 2009.
Liechtenstein's ruling prince, Hans-Adam II, has announced that the principality will take no further legal action to recover the appropriated assets. The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Principality of Liechtenstein and the Republic of Korea started in 1993. Liechtenstein and Armenia established diplomatic relations on May 7, 2008. UN, CE, EBRD, ECE, EEA, EFTA, IAEA, ICC, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO, WTO Liechtenstein was never a member of the League of Nations, its application to join that international organisation was refused in 1920 due to its small size. On 1 July 2007, Hans-Adam II and Liechtenstein's Prime Minister, Otmar Hasler, appointed Bruce S. Allen and Leodis C. Matthews, both in the United States of America, as the first two Honorary Consuls in history for the Principality of Liechtenstein; the U. S. does not maintain an embassy in Liechtenstein, it is Switzerland's role to conduct and continue good relations between Switzerland, the U.
S and the principality. List of ambassadors to Liechtenstein