A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, is a fleshy drupe. The cherry fruits of commerce are obtained from cultivars of a limited number of species such as the sweet cherry and the sour cherry; the name'cherry' refers to the cherry tree and its wood, is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom". Wild cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside cultivation, although Prunus avium is referred to by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles. Many cherries are members of the subgenus Cerasus, distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together, by having smooth fruit with only a weak groove along one side, or no groove; the subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, the remainder in Asia. Other cherry fruits called bird cherries; the English word cherry derives from Old Northern French or Norman cherise from the Latin cerasum, referring to an ancient Greek region, Kerasous near Giresun, from which cherries were first thought to be exported to Europe.
The indigenous range of the sweet cherry extends through most of Europe, western Asia, parts of northern Africa, the fruit has been consumed throughout its range since prehistoric times. A cultivated cherry is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia known as the Pontus region, in 72 BC. Cherries were introduced into England at Teynham, near Sittingbourne in Kent, by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders. Cherries arrived in North America early in the settlement of Brooklyn, New York when the region was under Dutch sovereignty. Trades people leased or purchased land to plant orchards and produce gardens, "Certificate of Corielis van Tienlioven that he had found 12 apple, 40 peach, 73 cherry trees, 26 sage plants.. Behind the house sold by Anthony Jansen from Salee to Barent Dirksen... ANNO 18th of June 1639." The cultivated forms are of the species sweet cherry to which most cherry cultivars belong, the sour cherry, used for cooking.
Both species originate in western Asia. Some other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Irrigation, spraying and their propensity to damage from rain and hail make cherries expensive. Nonetheless, demand is high for the fruit. In commercial production, sour cherries, as well as sweet cherries sometimes, are harvested by using a mechanized'shaker'. Hand picking is widely used for sweet as well as sour cherries to harvest the fruit to avoid damage to both fruit and trees. Common rootstocks include Mazzard, Mahaleb and Gisela Series, a dwarfing rootstock that produces trees smaller than others, only 8 to 10 feet tall. Sour cherries require no pollenizer. A cherry tree will take three to four years once it's planted in the orchard to produce its first crop of fruit, seven years to attain full maturity. Like most temperate-latitude trees, cherry trees require a certain number of chilling hours each year to break dormancy and bloom and produce fruit.
The number of chilling hours required depends on the variety. Because of this cold-weather requirement, no members of the genus Prunus can grow in tropical climates. Cherries can grow in most temperate latitudes. Cherries blossom in April and the peak season for the cherry harvest is in the summer. In southern Europe in June, in North America in June, in England in mid-July, in southern British Columbia in June to mid-August. In many parts of North America, they are among the first tree fruits to flower and ripen in mid-Spring. In the Southern Hemisphere, cherries are at their peak in late December and are associated with Christmas.'Burlat' is an early variety which ripens during the beginning of December,'Lapins' ripens near the end of December, and'Sweetheart' finish later. The cherry can be a difficult fruit tree to grow and keep alive. In Europe, the first visible pest in the growing season soon after blossom is the black cherry aphid, which causes leaves at the tips of branches to curl, with the blackfly colonies exuding a sticky secretion which promotes fungal growth on the leaves and fruit.
At the fruiting stage in June/July, the cherry fruit fly lays its eggs in the immature fruit, whereafter its larvae feed on the cherry flesh and exit through a small hole, which in turn is the entry point for fungal infection of the cherry fruit after rainfall. In addition, cherry trees are susceptible to bacterial canker, cytospora canker, brown rot of the fruit, root rot from overly wet soil, crown rot, several viruses; the following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: See cherry blossom and Prunus for ornamental trees. In 2014, world production of sweet cherries was 2.25 million tonnes, with Turkey producing 20% of this total. Other major producers of sweet cherries were Iran. World production of sour cherries in 2014 was 1.36 million tonne
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
The Moselle is a river flowing through France and Germany. It is a left tributary of the Rhine. A small part of Belgium is drained by the Moselle through the Sauer and the Our; the Moselle "twists and turns its way between Trier and Koblenz along one of Germany's most beautiful river valleys." It flows through a region, influenced by mankind since it was first cultivated by the Romans. Today, its hillsides are covered by terraced vineyards where "some of the best Rieslings grow", numerous ruined castles dominate the hilltops above wine villages and towns that line the riverbanks. Traben-Trarbach with its art nouveau architecture and Bernkastel-Kues with its traditional market square are two of the many popular tourist attractions on the Moselle river; the name Moselle is derived from the Celtic name form, via the Latin Mosella, a diminutive form of Mosa, the Latin description of the Meuse, which used to flow parallel to the Moselle. So the Mosella was the "Little Meuse"; the Moselle is first recorded in Book 4 of his Histories.
The Roman poet Ausonius made it a literary theme as early as the 4th century. In his poem dated 371, called Mosella, published in 483 hexameters, this poet of the Late Antiquity and teacher at the Trier Imperial Court described a journey from Bingen over the Hunsrück hills to the Moselle and following its course to Trier on the road named after him, the Via Ausonius. Ausonius describes flourishing and rich landscapes along the river and in the valley of the Moselle, thanks to the policies of their Roman rulers; the river subsequently gave its name to two French republican départements: Moselle and Meurthe-et-Moselle. The source of the Moselle is at 715 m above sea level on the Col de Bussang on the western slopes of the Ballon d'Alsace in the Vosges. After 544 km it discharges into the Rhine at the Deutsches Eck in Koblenz at a height of 59 m above NHN sea level; the length of the river in France is 314 km, for 39 km it forms the border between Germany and Luxembourg, 208 km is within Germany.
The Moselle flows through west of the Vosges. Further downstream, in Germany, the Moselle valley forms the division between the Eifel and Hunsrück mountain regions; the average flow rate of the Moselle at its mouth is 328 m3/s, making it the second largest tributary of the Rhine by volume after the Aare and bigger than the Main and Neckar. The section of the Moselle from the France–Germany–Luxembourg tripoint near Schengen to its confluence with the Saar near Konz shortly before Trier is in Germany known as the Upper Moselle; the section from Trier to Pünderich is the Middle Moselle, the section between Pünderich and its mouth in Koblenz as the Lower Moselle or Terraced Moselle. Characteristic of the Middle and Lower Moselle are its wide meanders cut into the highlands of the Rhenish Massif, the most striking of, the Cochemer Krampen between Bremm and Cochem. Typical are its vineyard terraces. From the tripoint the Moselle marks the entire Saarland–Luxembourg border; the catchment area of the Moselle is 28,286 km2 in area.
The French part covers about 54 percent of the entire catchment. The German state of Rhineland-Palatinate has 6,980 km2, the Saarland 2,569 km2, Luxembourg 2,521 km2, Wallonia in Belgium 767 km2 and North Rhine-Westphalia, 88 km2; the three largest tributaries of the Moselle are, in order, the Saar and the Sauer. The Meurthe was the old upper course of the Moselle, until the latter captured the former upper reaches of the Meuse and took it over. However, the Meuse only delivered a little more water than the Meurthe at its confluence; the Saar is the biggest of all the tributaries as well as the longest. The Sauer is the largest left-hand tributary and drains the region on either side of the German-Luxembourg border; the largest tributary relative to the Moselle at its confluence is the Moselotte, about 40% greater by volumetric flow and thus represents the main branch of the Moselle system. At its mouth, the Moselle delivers 328 m3/s of water into the Rhine after flowing for 544 km. From the left Madon, Esch, Rupt de Mad, Fensch, Syre, Kyll, Lieser, Endert, Elz.
From the right Moselotte, Meurthe, Saar, Olewiger Bach, Ruwer, Feller Bach, Ahringsbach, Kautenbach, Lützbach, Altlayer Bach, Ehrbach. Towns along the Moselle are: in France: Épinal, Pont-à-Mousson and Thionville in Luxembourg: Schengen, Remich and Wasserbillig in Germany: Konz, Schweich, Bernkastel-Kues, Traben-Trarbach, Zell and Koblenz From Trier downstream the Moselle separates the two Central Upland ranges of the Eifel and the Hunsrück; the Vosges, the present source region of the Moselle, were formed about 50 million years ago. In the Miocene and Pliocene epochs the ancient Moselle was a tributary of the ancient Rhine. When, in the Quaternary period, the Rhenish Massif rose, the meanders of the Moselle were formed between the Trier Valley and the Neuwied Basin; the highest navigable water level is 6.95 m and normal level is 2.00 m at the Trier Gauge. High water: 11.28 m, Trier Gauge on 21 December 1993 10.56
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, juice, grape seed extract, raisins and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit occurring in clusters; the cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine; the earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East, thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, history attests to the ancient Greeks and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production.
The growing of grapes would spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, in North America. In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the genus Vitis proliferate in the wild across the continent, were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by early European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. In the 19th century, Ephraim Bull of Concord, cultivated seeds from wild Vitis labrusca vines to create the Concord grape which would become an important agricultural crop in the United States. Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, can be crimson, dark blue, green and pink. "White" grapes are green in color, are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.
Grapes are an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid. Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: Vitis amurensis, the most important Asian species Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines, sometimes used for wine, are native to the Eastern United States and Canada. Vitis mustangensis, found in Mississippi, Louisiana and Oklahoma Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam, it is native to the entire Eastern U. S. and north to Quebec. Vitis rotundifolia used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".
The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. There are no reliable statistics, it is believed that the most planted variety is Sultana known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2 dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Grenache, Tempranillo and Chardonnay. Commercially cultivated grapes can be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw or used to make wine. While all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit with thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller seeded, have thick skins. Wine grapes tend to be sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is around 15% sugar by weight.
Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction, it is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes and Venus, have been cultivated for hardiness and quality in the cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario. An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical conten
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds, the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone. Mature plum fruit may have a dusty-white waxy coating; this is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax bloom". Dried plum fruits are called "dried plums" or prunes, although, in many countries, prunes are a distinct type of dried plum having a wrinkled appearance. Plums may have been one of the first fruits domesticated by humans. Three of the most abundant cultivars are not found in the wild, only around human settlements: Prunus domestica has been traced to East European and Caucasian mountains, while Prunus salicina and Prunus simonii originated in Asia. Plum remains have been found in Neolithic age archaeological sites along with olives and figs; the name plum derived from Old English plume or "plum, plum tree," which extended from Germanic language or Middle Dutch, Latin prūnum, from Ancient Greek προῦμνον, believed to be a loanword from Asia Minor.
In the late 18th century, the word, was used to indicate "something desirable" in reference to tasty fruit pieces in desserts. Plums are a diverse group of species; the commercially important plum trees are medium-sized pruned to 5–6 metres height. The tree is of medium hardiness. Without pruning, the trees can reach 12 metres in spread across 10 metres, they blossom in different months in different parts of the world. Fruits are of medium size, between 2 and 7 centimetres in diameter, globose to oval; the flesh is juicy. The fruit's peel is smooth, with a natural waxy surface; the plum is a drupe. Plum cultivars include: Damson Greengage Mirabelle Satsuma plum Victoria Yellowgage or golden plum Different plum cultivars When it flowers in the early spring, a plum tree will be covered in blossoms, in a good year 50% of the flowers will be pollinated and become plums. Flowering starts after 80 growing degree days. If the weather is too dry, the plums will not develop past a certain stage, but will fall from the tree while still tiny, green buds, if it is unseasonably wet or if the plums are not harvested as soon as they are ripe, the fruit may develop a fungal condition called brown rot.
Brown rot is not toxic, some affected areas can be cut out of the fruit, but unless the rot is caught the fruit will no longer be edible. Plum is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera, including November moth, willow beauty and short-cloaked moth; the taste of the plum fruit ranges from sweet to tart. It can be eaten fresh or used in jam-making or other recipes. Plum juice can be fermented into plum wine. In central England, a cider-like alcoholic beverage known as plum jerkum is made from plums. Dried, salted plums are used as a snack, sometimes known as salao. Various flavors of dried plum are available at Chinese grocers and specialty stores worldwide, they tend to be much drier than the standard prune. Cream, ginseng and salty are among the common varieties. Licorice is used to intensify the flavor of these plums and is used to make salty plum drinks and toppings for shaved ice or baobing. Pickled plums are another type of preserve available in Asia and international specialty stores.
The Japanese variety, called umeboshi, is used for rice balls, called onigiri or omusubi. The ume, from which umeboshi are made, is more related, however, to the apricot than to the plum. In the Balkans, plum is converted into an alcoholic drink named slivovitz. A large number of plums, of the Damson variety, are grown in Hungary, where they are called szilva and are used to make lekvar, plum dumplings, other foods; as with many other members of the rose family, plum kernels contain cyanogenic glycosides, including amygdalin. Prune kernel oil is made from the fleshy inner part of the pit of the plum. Though not available commercially, the wood of plum trees is used by hobbyists and other private woodworkers for musical instruments, knife handles and similar small projects. Plum has many species, taxonomists differ on the count. Depending on the taxonomist, between 19 and 40 species of plum exist. From this diversity only two species, the hexaploid European plum and the diploid Japanese plum, are of worldwide commercial significance.
The origin of these commercially important species is uncertain but may have involved P. cerasifera and P. spinosa as ancestors. Other species of plum variously originated in Europe and America; the subgenus Prunus is divided into three sections: Sect. Prunus – leaves in bud rolled inwards.
Esch-sur-Sûre is a commune and small town in north-western Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Wiltz, part of the district of Diekirch. At one point it was the second smallest commune by area in Luxembourg, until Neunhausen and Heiderscheid were merged into it in 2011; as of 2005, the town of Esch-sur-Sûre, which lies in the north of the commune, has a population of 314. Esch-sur-Sûre is situated by the river Sauer, just east and downstream of the artificial Upper Sauer Lake; the town's prominent castle, the main part of the town below, sit on a spur of a land within a sharp meander of the river. The suffix to its name distinguishes Esch-sur-Sûre from the city of Esch-sur-Alzette, known just as Esch. Above the town, the river has been dammed to form a hydroelectric reservoir extending some 6 miles up the valley; the Upper Sauer dam was built in the 1960s to meet the country's drinking water needs. Media related to Esch-sur-Sûre at Wikimedia Commons www.petitbourg.lu Le Paradis des Ardennes Luxembourgoises