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Geography of Mali

Mali is a landlocked nation in West Africa, located southwest of Algeria, extending south-west from the southern Sahara Desert through the Sahel to the Sudanian savanna zone. Mali's size is 1,240,192 square kilometers. Desert or semi-desert covers about 65 percent of Mali's total area; the Niger River creates a large and fertile inland delta as it arcs northeast through Mali from Guinea before turning south and emptying into the Gulf of Guinea. The territory encompasses three natural zones: the southern cultivated Sudanese zone, central semi-desert Sahelian zone, northern desert Saharan zone; the terrain is savanna in the south and flat to rolling plains or high plateau in the north. There are rugged hills in the northeast, with elevations of up to 1,000 meters; the Niger and Senegal are Mali's two largest rivers. The Niger is described as Mali's lifeblood, a source of food, drinking water and transportation; the country's lowest point is on the Senegal River and its highest point is Hombori Tondo.

Mali is one of the hottest countries in the world. The thermal equator, which matches the hottest spots year-round on the planet based on the mean daily annual temperature, crosses the country Most of Mali receives negligible rainfall and droughts are frequent Late April to early October is the rainy season in the southernmost area. During this time, flooding of the Niger River is common, creating the Inner Niger Delta; the vast northern desert part of Mali has a hot desert climate with long hot summers and scarce rainfall which decreases northwards. The central area has a hot semi-arid climate with high temperatures year-round, a long, intense dry season and a brief, irregular rainy season; the southern areas have a tropical wet and dry climate high temperatures year-round with a dry season and a rainy season. During the hottest season of the year, temperatures are high throughout the country. Timbuktu, Araouane, Kidal, Tessalit are some of the hottest spots on Earth during their warmest months.

Kayes, with an average high temperature of about 44° in April is nicknamed "the pressure cooker of Africa" due to his extreme heat year-round. The heat is more extreme to the north in the Sahara Desert. Mali has overall a hot and dry climate dominated by the subtropical ridge. Geologically, Mali consists of vast flatlands of granite and shale covered by sandstone and alluvial quartz. Mali extends over two main geological structures, the West African craton in the west and the Tuareg shield in the southeast, which came together at the end of the Precambrian era between 600 and 550 million years ago; the suture zone is to the west of the Adrar des Ifoghas mountains. The underlying rocks of the West African craton are covered in the northwest by sediments of the Taoudeni basin, with two main outcrops of crystalline rocks in the northern Reguibat shield in Mauritania and the southern Leo shield which includes the Bougouni and Kenieba outcrops, both of which contain valuable minerals. There may be petroleum reserves in the Taoudeni basin.

Mali shares a total of 7,243 kilometers of land boundaries with seven bordering states: North and northeast: Algeria- 1,376 km/855 mi East: Niger- 821 km/510 mi Southeast: Burkina Faso- 1,000 km/621 mi South: Ivory Coast- 532 km/330 mi Southwest: Guinea- 858 km/533 mi West: Senegal and Mauritania- 419 km/260 mi and 2,237 km/1,390 mi Mali is endowed with bauxite, diamonds, Granite, iron ore, limestone, manganese, salt, silver and zinc. Not all deposits are being exploited, some may not be commercially viable. Mali has ample hydropower. Sixty-five percent of Mali's land area is semi-desert. According to estimates in 2011, only 5.63 percent of Mali's area can be classified as arable land, 0.1 percent was planted to permanent crops. Mali was estimated to have 2,358 square kilometers of irrigated land in 2003. Mali has 100 cubic kilometers of total renewable water resources as off 2011 estimates. Mali faces numerous environmental challenges, including desertification, soil erosion and inadequate supplies of potable water.

Deforestation is an serious and growing problem. According to the Ministry of the Environment, Mali's population consumes 6 million tons of wood per year for timber and fuel. To meet this demand, 400,000 hectares of tree cover are lost annually ensuring destruction of the country's savanna woodlands. Mali is a party to international treaties on Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection and Whaling, it has signed, but not ratified the selected agreements. Natural hazards in Mali include: Desert sandstorms in the north Dust-laden harmattan wind is common during dry seasons, bringing a dust haze which may ground aircraft and damage computers and sensitive electronics and machines, as well as aggravating respiratory diseases. Recurring droughts Wildfires in the south Occasional floods, for example in July 2007. Tropical thunderstorms in the south, which may bring wind and lightning damage as well as flash floods.

Occasional Niger River flooding This is a list of the extreme points

Ekenäs Archipelago National Park

Ekenäs Archipelago National Park is situated in the Ekenäs archipelago, in the Uusimaa region of Finland. It covers 52 square kilometres; the park is maintained by Metsähallitus. Most of the park's area is composed of rock islets near the open sea, the water areas surrounding them. Landing on and using motorboats near the most important bird islands is forbidden from April 1 to July 17, to protect the nesting of aquatic birds; the park can only be accessed by boat. Visitors without a boat can reach it by a water taxi. Ekenäs Archipelago National Park received the European Diploma of Protected Areas on June 19, 1996, it is valid until June 2011. List of national parks of Finland Protected areas of Finland – Ekenäs Archipelago National Park

Goran Jelisić

Goran Jelisić is a Bosnian Serb war criminal, found guilty of having committed crimes against humanity and for violating the customs of war by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia at the Luka camp in Brčko during the Bosnian War. He styled himself, has been referred to in the media, as "Serb Adolf". Jelisić joined the Republika Srpska police force in February 1992 as an opportunity for early release from his check fraud prison sentence. In May, he was sent to a Brcko police station. Jelisić commanded the Luka camp during the war; this camp was among the most notorious prison camps in Bosnia. It was located on the most important arterial road near Brcko in north Bosnia, which connected the two parts of Republika Srpska. During Jelisić's trial, many witnesses came forward describing other sorts acts by the man during the war. An old Muslim friend of Jelisić's noted that Jelisić gave his wife money while he was in captivity to help her flee abroad. Another friend of Jelisić's described how he helped the friend's sister and her husband escape in a similar way.

Many others submitted similar sorts of testimony regarding Jelisić's acts to safeguard and help Muslim and non-Muslim friends before and during the war. In his hometown of Bijeljina, Jelisić paid hospital costs for Bosnian Muslims. Jelisić was apprehended in Serb-dominated Bijeljina by the American Stabilisation Force troops of NATO on 22 January 1998. Ryan Zinke, a Navy SEAL elected to the U. S. House of Representatives. Jelisić's apartment was surrounded by U. S. forces, he was taken without incident. This capture was the first performed by U. S. forces against a Bosnian war criminal. Jelisić was first transferred to a U. S. base at Tuzla, was soon flown to The Hague. U. S. Forces reported; the operation occurred during a week in which human rights groups were pressuring the Clinton administration to use U. S. troops to help detain some of the dozens of war criminals still at large. Jelisić faced trial for one count of genocide, sixteen counts of violating the customs of war and fifteen counts of crimes against humanity in relation to his involvement in the inhumane treatment and systematic killing of detainees at the Luka camp, where he was alleged to have, every day, "entered Luka’s main hangar, where most detainees were kept, selected detainees for interrogation, beat them and often shot and killed them".

A specific instance of this type of allegation is that Jelisić beat an elderly Muslim man to death with a metal pipe, a shovel, a wooden stick. In 1999, Jelisić pleaded guilty to the charges of crimes against humanity and violating the customs of war, he was acquitted on the charge of genocide as the court did not believe the prosecution had proved this beyond reasonable doubt. He was sentenced to 40 years imprisonment; the same sentence was confirmed by the appeals chamber. The sentence was at that time the most severe given by the Hague, superseding the 20-year ruling against Duško Tadić; the court suggested Jelisić receive psychiatric treatment. In 2001, the prosecution requested a retrial on Jelisić's dismissed charge of genocide, but an appeals court upheld his 40-year sentence. On 29 May 2003, Jelisić was transferred to Italy to serve the remainder of his sentence with credit for time served since his 1998 arrest. Jelisić's trial was unusual due to the number of sympathetic witnesses, including Muslim friends.

Friends and schoolmates, many of whom were Muslim, appeared to defend him. The trial's defense lawyer noted that the trial was peculiar given the number of people from the victimized group defending the Serbian war criminal. Jelisić's trial is considered important for setting a high standard of evidence for charges of genocide, his was significant for being one of only three people to admit to their crimes before the Hague tribunal. Jelisić attended the war crimes trial of Esad Landjo, a Muslim who committed war crimes against Serbians at the Čelebići camp, he provided a passionate character witness in defense of the Bosnian Muslim, noting how Landjo had aided other prisoners in the prison at the Hague. Jelisić was born in 1968 in Bijeljina, a town, at the time 40% Muslim. Born to a working mother, he was raised by his grandmother, he had a variety of Serb and Muslim friends. Prior to the war, Jelisić enjoyed fishing. During his trial, members of his fishing groups appeared to defend him as character witnesses.

After committing check fraud in Bosnia, he was imprisoned for severeral months. He was released in February 1992 via the opportunity to volunteer for Republica Srpska's war effort. On 21 December 2011, his wife, Monika Karan-Ilić, was detained on suspicion of having committed war crimes against non-Serbs at the Luka camp. A native of Brčko, she had been in custody since 21 December 2011, she was found guilty of having participated in torture, inhumane treatment and infliction of suffering on Bosniak and Croat civilians in the Luka camp and Brčko police station between May and June 1992, when she was a teenager. Her sentence was reduced to two-and-a-half years of prison in 2013

Gianni Riotta

Gianni Riotta is an Italian journalist, a regular contributor for the daily newspaper La Stampa and a former Editor in chief of the financial newspaper Il Sole 24 Ore, Rai 3 and the news bulletin TG1. He has contributed to the Washington Post, Le Monde, Foreign Policy, the New York Times. Riotta sits on the Advisory Council of the Department of Italian at Princeton University, he collaborates with IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca. He received the America Award of the Italy-USA Foundation in 2013. Riotta is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. NY, on the September 11 attacks. Global War, essays on the Iraq War Prince of the Clouds The Coming Identity War Foreign Policy SEPTEMBER 1, 2000 Books by Gianni Riotta Riotta interview of George W. Bush

Canceled expressways in Florida

There have been plans in Florida for expressways, but some were never constructed due to financial problems, community opposition and environmental issues. In the 1970s, most of South Florida's proposed new freeways were cancelled due to voters choosing to direct funding away from roads toward mass transit projects and the planned Miami Metrorail. Hialeah in particular is anti-freeway, as many proposals for freeways in the city have been cancelled due to community opposition. Cypress Creek Expressway: The Cypress Creek Expressway would have been a west–east expressway that would have run along the present-day Cypress Creek Road, serving Pompano Beach, Fort Lauderdale, North Lauderdale, Tamarac; the Cypress Creek Expressway would have begun at State Road A1A at the Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach border, run along what is presently the eastern disjointed section of McNab Road. West of Old Dixie Highway, the road would have dipped south and run along present-day Cypress Creek Road, until terminating at the proposed University–Deerfield Expressway.

There was no projected interchange with the Florida's Turnpike. It was to be four lanes for its entire length, its total cost was slated at $22.6 million. It was never built due to opposition. Dolphin Expressway Airport Spur: The Dolphin Expressway was planned to be built on Northwest 20th Street, instead of its current alignment more or less paralleling Northwest 14th Street. A 1964 plan called for two options to solving the traffic problems near Miami International Airport; the first option was to convert LeJeune Road into an 8-lane freeway between the Dolphin Expressway and the Airport Expressway. The second option was to build a spur route from the Dolphin Expressway that would connect to the entrance of the airport, thus relieving LeJeune Road; the spur would branch off the tollway just east of NW 37th Avenue and run south–north on the west side of NW 37th Avenue. North of the golf course, it would cross the Tamiami Canal and head west to the airport's terminal entrance on Northwest 21st Street.

As part of this canceled freeway project, a stack interchange was built at LeJeune Rd and Northwest 21st Street, which serves as the access road to the airport. It is today used between the airport. In addition, as part of the Miami Intermodal Center, LeJeune Road between Northwest 14th Street and the interchange with Northwest 21st Street has been converted into a full freeway using land obtained through demolishing businesses on the east side of a car rental agency's parking lot; the Miami Intermodal Center lies on the northeast corner of the LeJeune Road interchange with Northwest 21st Street, why the interchange has been improved to allow access to the new transportation hub. Gratigny Parkway: Today's Gratigny Parkway is much shorter than it was supposed to be, its original western terminus was planned to be at the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike. The eastern terminus was supposed to be a few blocks short of Interstate 95; the portion east of Northwest 32nd Avenue was canceled by a combination of community opposition and race politics.

The project was put off in the 1960s. By the time it was revived, what had been a white neighborhood in the 1960s had become a black neighborhood by the 1980s. Despite its appearance indicating otherwise, the Gratigny is not an outgrowth of some failed plot to extend I-75 toward I-95; when the Gratigny was planned, I-75 was being planned to follow a route along the Tamiami Trail through the Everglades and along today's Dolphin Expressway, with a connection to the planned Everglades Jetport. After that, it was planned to follow today's route along Alligator Alley and I-595 straight east to downtown Fort Lauderdale and the Fort Lauderdale airport; the Gratigny continues to the west as I-75 and curves north at Northwest 138th Street/Hialeah Gardens Drive. An extension to the Turnpike in the west is in MDX's 2025 master plan, which would run concurrent with a small length of I-75. Hialeah Expressway: The Hialeah Expressway was to have been a third west–east route across Dade County, cutting through Hialeah, the second-most populated city in Dade County.

Its eastern terminus would have been Alton Road and 47th Street in Miami Beach, crossing Biscayne Bay over the planned Beach Causeway. It would cross the proposed Interama Expressway and I-95, run along a path between NW 79th and 62nd Street. Upon crossing Okeechobee Road, it would parallel NW 74th Street until reaching the West Dade Expressway, now the Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike, for a distance of 16 miles. Despite its cancellation, Northwest 74th Street was converted into a freeway. Northwest 74th Street was extended west to meet the Turnpike extension. Interama Expressway: The Interama Expressway known as the Midbay Causeway was planned to be a south–north expressway in eastern Dade County as an alternative route and reliever to Biscayne Boulevard, it would have run from an interchange with I-95 and the proposed Snake Creek Expressway, paralleled US 1 from there to an interchange with proposed South Dixie Expressway and I-95, slicing through downtown Miami along the way. LeJeune-Douglas Expressway: The freeway was to run from US 1 in Coral Gables to the Palmetto Expressway in Carol City/Miami Gardens as a reliever to traffic between the Palmetto Expressway and I-95 on a LeJeune Road–Douglas

Clinton Avenue Historic District (Albany, New York)

The Clinton Avenue Historic District in Albany, New York, United States, is a 70-acre area along that street between North Pearl and Quail streets. It includes some blocks along neighboring streets such as Lark and Lexington, it originated with the city's creation of Clinton Square at its east end, shortly after the opening of the Erie Canal. Herman Melville lived for a year in one of the early rowhouses on the square; the rowhouse became the standard form as development continued to the west in decades as the city industrialized. Today 92% of its nearly 600 buildings are 19th-century rowhouses in different architectural styles, predominantly Italianate, many built as speculative housing for the city's middle class; this is the greatest concentration of such houses in the city of Albany. All but 20 buildings are contributing properties. Many remain intact both outside and in, in 1981 it was recognized as a historic district by the city, seven years in 1988, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Urban decay still affects the district, the city has spent federal grant money on revitalization and stabilization efforts. The district centers along the 1.5-mile stretch of Clinton between North Quail. This stretch of the road rises from the flatlands next to the Hudson River to the plains of the city's western neighborhoods, first steeply up the side of the bluff known as Sheridan Hollow more to the Quail intersection, a total climb of 190 feet. Through here, Clinton remains unusually wide for Albany (briefly divided at its eastern end, where it receives traffic off Interstate 787 from the nearby Dunn Memorial Bridge, it is just north of the state buildings of Empire State Plaza. Other historic districts, such as Arbor Hill, Broadway-Livingston Avenue and Ten Broeck Triangle, abut it on the north, its boundaries were drawn to follow the rear lot lines along both side of Clinton Avenue. There are extrusions taking in some sections of side streets. On its east end, starting at the Palace, it includes the west side of North Pearl Street, just north of the First Church in Albany, itself listed on the Register, the east side north of the modern Leo O'Brien Federal Office Building.

Three rowhouses along the south side of Livingston are included. The area to the east of the intersection is included in the Broadway-Livingston Avenue Historic District. South of the Clinton-North Pearl intersection, the boundary takes in the two remaining rowhouses on Clinton Place, the oldest extant buildings in the district. After excluding the properties on either side of the Ten Broeck Street intersection, it continues westward along Clinton's rear property lines until the southern Lark Street intersection, where US 9W branches off to the south from Route 9, the beginning of a highway to the George Washington Bridge in Fort Lee, New Jersey. Here it extends down the street for several blocks, all the way to Elk Street, taking in the nine-house row along the north side to the east of the intersection. At the next intersection west along Clinton, Henry Johnson Boulevard, US 9 leaves Clinton Avenue for the latter; the district continues to follow the Clinton property lines to Lexington Avenue, where it includes the houses along the west side to midway between First and Second streets, short rows along either side of First Street west of the Lexington intersection.

From there the district returns to Clinton all the rest of the way to Quail, including 2 Judson Street only because it fronts on Clinton and is part of a row in that area. The 70 acres delineated by this boundary are urban and developed, with a few vacant lots. There are 576 buildings in it. Only 20 of them are considered non-contributing, most of them modern commercial intrusions like supermarkets and gas stations. Of the 556 contributing buildings, 530 are two- or three-story brick rowhouses, built over a century and reflecting different architectural styles; the remaining historic buildings include the theater, churches, an old police station and two schools. The development of Clinton Avenue from northern boundary of the city of Albany to densely developed urban residential area parallels the city's growth during the district's period of significance in response to changes in its economy, it begins with the creation of Clinton Square and ends with the construction of the Palace Theatre at that same intersection.

In 1686, when Albany received the Dongan Charter from the British, the future route of Clinton was set as the city's northern boundary, at this time the street's name was Patroon Street. To its north were the lands of the van Rensselaer family's patroonship. A decade before the Revolution, Stephen van Rensselaer II had the area just north of the city surveyed and laid out a grid plan for future growth. On March 7, 1788 the state of New York divided the entire state into towns eliminating districts as administrative units; this transformed the Western District of the Manor of Rensselaerswyck into the town of Watervliet, which incorporated the lands north of Patroon Street. The neighborhood in this town along the north edge of Patroon Street would be incorporated as a municipality under the name of Colonie in 1791 but would stay within Watervliet. Colonie would become incorporated again, this time as a district in 1801, a village in 1804 a separate town in 1808. In 1815 Colonie would be split between the town of Watervliet.

The area began to grow and the planned streets became reality. In 1815, with a thousand people living between the river and Knox Street