The Hawaiian Islands are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll. The group was known to Europeans and Americans as the Sandwich Islands, a name chosen by James Cook in honor of the First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich; the contemporary name is derived from the name of Hawaii Island. The U. S. state of Hawaii now occupies the archipelago in its entirety, with the sole exception of Midway Island, which instead separately belongs to the United States as one of its unincorporated territories within the United States Minor Outlying Islands. The Hawaiian Islands are the exposed peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, formed by volcanic activity over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle; the islands are about 1,860 miles from the nearest continent. Captain James Cook visited the islands on January 18, 1778, named them the "Sandwich Islands" in honor of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, one of his sponsors as the First Lord of the Admiralty.
This name was in use until the 1840s, when the local name "Hawaii" began to take precedence. The Hawaiian Islands have a total land area of 6,423.4 square miles. Except for Midway, an unincorporated territory of the United States, these islands and islets are administered as Hawaii—the 50th state of the United States; the eight main islands of Hawaii are listed here. All except Kahoolawe are inhabited. Smaller islands and reefs form the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, or Hawaiian Leeward Islands: Nihoa Necker French Frigate Shoals Gardner Pinnacles Maro Reef Laysan Lisianski Island Pearl and Hermes Atoll Midway Atoll Kure Atoll The state of Hawaii counts 137 "islands" in the Hawaiian chain; this number includes all minor islands and islets, or small islands, offshore of the main islands and individual islets in each atoll. These are just a few: Ford Island Lehua Ka'ula Kaohikaipu Mānana Mōkōlea Rock Nā Mokulua Molokini Mokoliʻi Moku Manu Moku Ola Moku o Loʻe Sand Island Grass Island This chain of islands, or archipelago, developed as the Pacific Plate moved northwestward over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle at a rate of 32 miles per million years.
Thus, the southeast island is volcanically active, whereas the islands on the northwest end of the archipelago are older and smaller, due to longer exposure to erosion. The age of the archipelago has been estimated using potassium-argon dating methods. From this study and others, it is estimated that the northwesternmost island, Kure Atoll, is the oldest at 28 million years; the only active volcanism in the last 200 years has been on the southeastern island, Hawaiʻi, on the submerged but growing volcano to the extreme southeast, Loʻihi. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory of the USGS documents recent volcanic activity and provides images and interpretations of the volcanism. Kīlauea has been erupting nearly continuously since 1983. All of the magma of the hotspot has the composition of basalt, so the Hawaiian volcanoes are composed entirely of this igneous rock. There is little coarser-grained gabbro and diabase. Nephelinite is exposed on the islands but is rare; the majority of eruptions in Hawaiʻi are Hawaiian-type eruptions because basaltic magma is fluid compared with magmas involved in more explosive eruptions, such as the andesitic magmas that produce some of the spectacular and dangerous eruptions around the margins of the Pacific basin.
Hawaiʻi island is the youngest island in the chain, built from five volcanoes. Mauna Loa, taking up over half of the Big Island, is the largest shield volcano on the Earth; the measurement from sea level to summit is more than 2.5 miles, from sea level to sea floor about 3.1 miles.. The Hawaiian Islands have many earthquakes caused by volcanic activity. Most of the early earthquake monitoring took place in Hilo, by missionaries Titus Coan, Sarah J. Lyman and her family. From 1833 to 1896 4 or 5 earthquakes were reported per year. Hawaii accounted for 7.3% of the United States' reported earthquakes with a magnitude 3.5 or greater from 1974 to 2003, with a total 1533 earthquakes. Hawaii ranked as the state with the third most earthquakes over this time period, after Alaska and California. On October 15, 2006, there was an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7 off the northwest coast of the island of Hawaii, near the Kona area of the big island. The initial earthquake was followed five minutes by a magnitude 5.7 aftershock.
Minor-to-moderate damage was reported on most of the Big Island. Several major roadways became impassable from rock slides, effects were felt as far away as Honolulu, nearly 150 miles from the epicenter. Power outages lasted for several hours to days. Several water mains ruptured. No deaths or life-threatening injuries were reported. On May 4, 2018 there was a 6.9 earthquake in the zone of volcanic activity from Kīlauea. Earthquakes are monitored by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory run by the USGS; the Hawaiian Islands are subjec
Geography of Tuvalu
The Western Pacific nation of Tuvalu known as the Ellice Islands, is situated 4,000 kilometers and is 26 km northeast of Australia and is halfway between Hawaii and Australia. It lies east-northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands, southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa and Wallis and Futuna and north of Fiji. Tuvalu consists of six atolls; the reef islands have a different structure to the atolls, are described as reef platforms as they are smaller tabular reef platforms that do not have a salt-water lagoon, although they have a closed rim of dry land, with the remnants of a lagoon that has no connection to the open sea or that may be drying up. For example, Niutao has two lakes; the islands of Tuvalu have a total land area of only about 26 km ², less than 10 sq mi. The land is low-lying, with narrow coral atolls; the highest elevation is 4.6 metres above sea level on Niulakita. Over 4 decades, there had been a net increase in land area of the islets of 73.5 ha, although the changes are not uniform, with 74% increasing and 27% decreasing in size.
The sea level at the Funafuti tide gauge has risen at 3.9 mm per year, twice the global average. The rising sea levels are identified as creating an increased transfer of wave energy across reef surfaces, which shifts sand, resulting in accretion to island shorelines, although this process does not result in additional habitable land. Tuvalu experiences two distinct seasons, a wet season from November to April and a dry season from May to October. Westerly gales and heavy rain are the predominate weather conditions from October to March, the period, known as Tau-o-lalo, with tropical temperatures moderated by easterly winds from April to November. In terms of size, it is the second-smallest country in Oceania. Location: Oceania, island group of nine islands comprising three reef islands and six true atolls in the South Pacific Ocean; the islands of Tuvalu are spread out between the latitude of 5° to 10° south and longitude of 176° to 180°, west of the International Date Line. Geographic coordinates: 5°41′S 176°12′E to 10°45′S 179°51′E Map references: Oceania Area: total: 26 km² land: 26 km² water: 0 km² Area - comparative: 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 24 kilometres Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nmi exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi territorial sea: 12 nmi Tuvalu’s Exclusive Economic Zone covers an oceanic area of 900,000 km2.
On 29 August 2012 an Agreement between Tuvalu and Kiribati concerning their Maritime Boundary, was signed by their respective leaders that determined the boundary as being seaward of Nanumea and Niutao in Tuvalu on the one hand and Tabiteuea and Arorae in Kiribati on the other hand, along the geodesics connecting the points of latitude and longitude set out in the agreement. In October 2014 the prime ministers of Fiji and Tuvalu signed the Fiji-Tuvalu Maritime Boundary Treaty, which establishes the extent of the national areas of jurisdiction between Fiji and Tuvalu as recognized in international law under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Climate: tropical. Terrain: low-lying and narrow coral atolls. Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location, 4.6 metres on Niulakita. Extreme points: This is a list of the extreme points of Tuvalu, the points that are farther north, east or west than any other location: Northernmost point – Lakena islet, Nanumea Easternmost point – Niuoko islet, Nukulaelae Southernmost point – Niulakita Westernmost point - Lakena islet, Nanumea Natural resources: fish Land use: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 60% other: 40% Irrigated land: NA km² The islets of the Funafuti Conservation Area have 40% of the remaining native broadleaf forest on Funafuti atoll.
While Coconut palms are common in Tuvalu, they are cultivated rather than seeding and growing. Tuvaluan traditional histories are that the first settlers of the islands planted Coconut palms as they were not found on the islands; the native broadleaf forest of Funafuti would include the following species, that were described by Charles Hedley in 1896, which include the Tuvaluan name: Fala or Screw Pine, Futu, Ferra, native fig Fau or Fo fafini, or woman's fibre tree Lakoumonong, Meili, fern bird's-nest fern, Asplenium nidus Miro, Ngashu or Naupaka, Ngia or Ingia, bush Nonou, Sageta, vine Talla talla gemoa, fern Tausoun, found around swamps Tulla tulla, whose prostrate stems trailed for several feet over the ground Valla valla, The blossoms that are valued for their scent and for use in flower necklaces and headdresses include: Fetau,. Charles Hedley identified the uses of plants and trees from the native broadleaf forest as including: Food plants: Coconut.
The tropics are the region of the Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by The Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.4″ S. The tropics are referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone; the tropics include all the areas on the Earth where the Sun contacts a point directly overhead at least once during the solar year - thus the latitude of the tropics is equal to the angle of the Earth's axial tilt. The tropics are distinguished from the other climatic and biomatic regions of Earth, which are the middle latitudes and the polar regions on either side of the equatorial zone; the tropics contain 36 % of the Earth's landmass. As of 2014, the region is home to 40% of the world population, this figure is projected to reach 50% by the late 2030s. "Tropical" is sometimes used in a general sense for a tropical climate to mean warm to hot and moist year-round with the sense of lush vegetation.
Many tropical areas have a wet season. The wet season, rainy season or green season is the time of year, ranging from one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region falls. Areas with wet seasons are disseminated across portions of the subtropics. Under the Köppen climate classification, for tropical climates, a wet-season month is defined as a month where average precipitation is 60 millimetres or more. Tropical rainforests technically do not have dry or wet seasons, since their rainfall is distributed through the year; some areas with pronounced rainy seasons see a break in rainfall during mid-season when the intertropical convergence zone or monsoon trough moves poleward of their location during the middle of the warm season. When the wet season occurs during the warm season, or summer, precipitation falls during the late afternoon and early evening hours; the wet season is a time when air quality improves, freshwater quality improves and vegetation grows leading to crop yields late in the season.
Floods cause rivers to overflow their banks, some animals to retreat to higher ground. Soil nutrients erosion increases; the incidence of malaria increases in areas. Animals have survival strategies for the wetter regime; the previous dry season leads to food shortages into the wet season, as the crops have yet to mature. However, regions within the tropics may well not have a tropical climate. Under the Köppen climate classification, much of the area within the geographical tropics is classed not as "tropical" but as "dry", including the Sahara Desert, the Atacama Desert and Australian Outback. There are alpine tundra and snow-capped peaks, including Mauna Kea, Mount Kilimanjaro, the Andes as far south as the northernmost parts of Chile and Argentina. Tropical plants and animals are those species native to the tropics. Tropical ecosystems may consist of tropical rainforests, seasonal tropical forests, dry forests, spiny forests and other habitat types. There are significant areas of biodiversity, species endemism present in rainforests and seasonal forests.
Some examples of important biodiversity and high endemism ecosystems are El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, Costa Rican and Nicaraguan rainforests, Amazon Rainforest territories of several South American countries, Madagascar dry deciduous forests, the Waterberg Biosphere of South Africa, eastern Madagascar rainforests. The soils of tropical forests are low in nutrient content, making them quite vulnerable to slash-and-burn deforestation techniques, which are sometimes an element of shifting cultivation agricultural systems. In biogeography, the tropics are divided into Neotropics. Together, they are sometimes referred to as the Pantropic; the Neotropical region should not be confused with the ecozone of the same name. "Tropicality" refers to the geographic imagery that many people outside the tropics have of that region. The idea of tropicality gained renewed interest in modern geographical discourse when French geographer Pierre Gourou published Les Pays Tropicaux, in the late 1940s.
Tropicality encompasses at least two contradictory imageries. One is that the tropics represent a Garden of a heaven on Earth; the latter view was discussed in Western literature—more so than the first. Evidence suggests that over time the more primitive view of the tropics in popular literature has been supplanted by more nuanced interpretations that reflect historical changes in values associated with tropical culture and ecology, although some primitive associations are persistent. Western scholars theorized about the reasons that tropical areas were deemed "inferior" to regions in the Northern Hemisphere. A popular explanation focused on the differences in climate—tropical regions have much warmer weather than northern regions; this theme led some scholars, including Gourou, to argue that warmer climates correlate to primitive indigenous populations lacking control over nature, compared to northern popul
Geography of the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, that lies east of Papua New Guinea. The Solomon Islands consists of an extensive archipelago: Choiseul, the Shortland Islands, the New Georgia Islands, Santa Isabel, the Russell Islands, the Florida Islands, Guadalcanal, Maramasike, Uki, Santa Ana, Rennell and the Santa Cruz Islands; the distance between the most western and most eastern islands is about 1,500 km. The Santa Cruz Islands, north of Vanuatu, are isolated at more than 200 km from the other islands. Bougainville is geographically part of the Solomon Islands archipelago, but politically an autonomous region of Papua New Guinea. Volcanoes with varying degrees of activity are situated on some of the larger islands, while many of the smaller islands are tiny atolls covered in sand and palm trees; the climate is tropical, though temperatures are extreme due to cooling winds blowing off the surrounding seas. Daytime temperatures are 25 to 32 °C, falling to about 13 to 15 °C at night.
From April to October, the southeast trade winds blow. November to March is the wet season -- the northwest monsoon -- wetter. Cyclones arise in the Coral Sea and the area of the Solomon Islands, but they veer toward Vanuatu and New Caledonia or down the coast of Australia. Geographic coordinates: 8°00′S 159°00′E Area: total: 28,896 km² land: 27,986 km² water: 910 km² Coastline: 5,313 km Maritime claims: Measured from claimed archipelagic baselines continental shelf: 200 nmi exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi territorial sea: 12 nmi Terrain: Mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Popomanaseu 2,332 m Natural resources: fish, gold, phosphates, zinc, nickel Land use: arable land: 0.62% permanent crops: 2.04% other: 97.34% Irrigated land: NA Natural hazards: Typhoons, but they are destructive. Northernmost point – Ontong Java Atoll, Malaita Province Easternmost point – Fatutaka, Santa Cruz Islands, Temotu Province Southernmost point – South Reef, Indispensable Reef and Bellona Province Westernmost point - Mono Island, Treasury Islands, Western Province Provinces of Solomon Islands List of mammals of the Solomon Islands This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
The Territory of Cocos Islands is an Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean, comprising a small archipelago midway between Australia and Sri Lanka and closer to the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It is in the Southern Hemisphere; the territory's dual name reflects that the islands have been known as either the Cocos Islands or the Keeling Islands. The territory consists of two atolls made up of 27 coral islands, of which only two – West Island and Home Island – are inhabited; the population of around 600 people consists of Cocos Malays, who practise Sunni Islam and speak a dialect of Malay as their first language. The territory is administered by the Australian federal government's Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities, together with Christmas Island forms the Australian Indian Ocean Territories administrative unit. However, the islanders do have a degree of self-government through the local shire council. Many public services – including health and policing – are provided by the state of Western Australia, Western Australian law applies except where the federal government has determined otherwise.
The islands were first discovered in 1609 by William Keeling, but no settlement occurred until the early 19th century. One of the first settlers was a Scottish merchant; the Clunies-Ross family ruled the islands as a private fiefdom for 150 years, with the head of the family recognised as resident magistrate. The British formally annexed the islands in 1857, for the next century they were administered from either Ceylon or Singapore; the territory was transferred to Australia in 1955, although until 1979 all of the island's real estate still belonged to the Clunies-Ross family. The islands have been called the Cocos Islands, the Keeling Islands, the Cocos–Keeling Islands and the Keeling–Cocos Islands. Cocos refers to the abundant coconut trees, while Keeling is William Keeling, who discovered the islands in 1609. John Clunies-Ross, who sailed there in the Borneo in 1825, called the group the Borneo Coral Isles, restricting Keeling to North Keeling, calling South Keeling "the Cocos properly so called".
The form Cocos Islands, attested from 1916, was made official by the Cocos Islands Act 1955. The territory's Malay name is Pulu Kokos. Sign boards on the island feature Malay translations; the Cocos Islands consist of two flat, low-lying coral atolls with an area of 14.2 square kilometres, 26 kilometres of coastline, a highest elevation of 5 metres and thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation. The climate is pleasant, moderated by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year and with moderate rainfall. Tropical cyclones may occur in the early months of the year. North Keeling Island is an atoll consisting of just one C-shaped island, a nearly closed atoll ring with a small opening into the lagoon, about 50 metres wide, on the east side; the island is uninhabited. The lagoon is about 0.5 square kilometres. North Keeling Island and the surrounding sea to 1.5 km from shore form the Pulu Keeling National Park, established on 12 December 1995. It is home to the only surviving population of the endemic, endangered, Cocos Buff-banded Rail.
South Keeling Islands is an atoll consisting of 24 individual islets forming an incomplete atoll ring, with a total land area of 13.1 square kilometres. Only Home Island and West Island are populated; the Cocos Malays maintain weekend shacks, referred to as pondoks, on most of the larger islands. There are no lakes on either atoll. Fresh water resources are limited to water lenses on the larger islands, underground accumulations of rainwater lying above the seawater; these lenses are accessed through shallow wells. Cocos Islands experiences tropical monsoon climate according to Köppen climate classification as the archipelago lies in the midway between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn; the archipelago has two distinct precipitation totals between the dry season. The wettest month is April with precipitation total 250.0 millimetres, while the driest month is October with precipitation total 50.9 millimetres. The temperature varies a little as its location away from the Equator; the hottest month is March with average high temperature 29.8 °C, while the coolest month is August with average low temperature 23.6 °C.
In 2010, the population of the islands is estimated at just over 600. The population on the two inhabited islands is split between the ethnic Europeans on West Island and the ethnic Malays on Home Island. A Cocos dialect of Malay and English are the main languages spoken, 80% of Cocos Islanders are Sunni Muslim; the archipelago was discovered in 1609 by Captain William Keeling of the East India Company, on a return voyage from the East Indies. North Keeling was sketched by Ekeberg, a Swedish captain, in 1749, showing the presence of coconut palms, it appears on a 1789 chart produced by British hydrographer Alexander Dalrymple. In 1825, Scottish merchant seaman Captain John Clunies-Ross stopped at the islands on a trip to India, nailing up a Union Jack and planning to ret
The conservation movement known as nature conservation, is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future. The early conservation movement included fisheries and wildlife management, soil conservation, sustainable forestry; the contemporary conservation movement has broadened from the early movement's emphasis on use of sustainable yield of natural resources and preservation of wilderness areas to include preservation of biodiversity. Some say the conservation movement is part of the broader and more far-reaching environmental movement, while others argue that they differ both in ideology and practice. Chiefly in the United States, conservation is seen as differing from environmentalism in that it aims to preserve natural resources expressly for their continued sustainable use by humans. Outside the U. S. the term conservation more broadly includes environmentalism. The conservation movement can be traced back to John Evelyn's work Sylva, presented as a paper to the Royal Society in 1662.
Published as a book two years it was one of the most influential texts on forestry published. Timber resources in England were becoming dangerously depleted at the time, Evelyn advocated the importance of conserving the forests by managing the rate of depletion and ensuring that the cut down trees get replenished; the field developed during the 18th century in Prussia and France where scientific forestry methods were developed. These methods were first applied rigorously in British India from the early-19th century; the government was interested in the use of forest produce and began managing the forests with measures to reduce the risk of wildfire in order to protect the "household" of nature, as it was termed. This early ecological idea was in order to preserve the growth of delicate teak trees, an important resource for the Royal Navy. Concerns over teak depletion were raised as early as 1799 and 1805 when the Navy was undergoing a massive expansion during the Napoleonic Wars; the first forestry officer was appointed in 1806 to regulate and preserve the trees necessary for shipbuilding.
This promising start received a setback in the 1820s and 30s, when laissez-faire economics and complaints from private landowners brought these early conservation attempts to an end. Conservation was revived in the mid-19th century, with the first practical application of scientific conservation principles to the forests of India; the conservation ethic that began to evolve included three core principles: that human activity damaged the environment, that there was a civic duty to maintain the environment for future generations, that scientific, empirically based methods should be applied to ensure this duty was carried out. Sir James Ranald Martin was prominent in promoting this ideology, publishing many medico-topographical reports that demonstrated the scale of damage wrought through large-scale deforestation and desiccation, lobbying extensively for the institutionalization of forest conservation activities in British India through the establishment of Forest Departments. Edward Percy Stebbing warned of desertification of India.
The Madras Board of Revenue started local conservation efforts in 1842, headed by Alexander Gibson, a professional botanist who systematically adopted a forest conservation program based on scientific principles. This was the first case of state management of forests in the world; these local attempts received more attention by the British government as the unregulated felling of trees continued unabated. In 1850, the British Association in Edinburgh formed a committee to study forest destruction at the behest of Dr. Hugh Cleghorn a pioneer in the nascent conservation movement, he had become interested in forest conservation in Mysore in 1847 and gave several lectures at the Association on the failure of agriculture in India. These lectures influenced the government under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie to introduce the first permanent and large-scale forest conservation program in the world in 1855, a model that soon spread to other colonies, as well the United States. In the same year, Cleghorn organised the Madras Forest Department and in 1860 the Department banned the use shifting cultivation.
Cleghorn's 1861 manual, The forests and gardens of South India, became the definitive work on the subject and was used by forest assistants in the subcontinent. In 1861, the Forest Department extended its remit into the Punjab. Sir Dietrich Brandis, a German forester, joined the British service in 1856 as superintendent of the teak forests of Pegu division in eastern Burma. During that time Burma's teak forests were controlled by militant Karen tribals, he introduced the "taungya" system, in which Karen villagers provided labor for clearing and weeding teak plantations. After seven years in Burma, Brandis was appointed Inspector General of Forests in India, a position he served in for 20 years, he helped establish research and training institutions. The Imperial Forest School at Dehradun was founded by him. Germans were prominent in the forestry administration of British India; as well as Brandis, Berthold Ribbentrop and Sir William P. D. Schlich brought new methods to Indian conservation, the latter becoming the Inspector-General in 1883 after Brandis stepped down.
Schlich helped to establish the journal Indian Forester in 1874, became the founding director of the first forestry school in England at Cooper's Hill in 1885. He authored the five-volume Manual of Forestry on silviculture, forest management, forest protection, fores