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Geography of Qatar

Qatar is a peninsula in the east of Arabia, bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia, in a strategic location near major petroleum deposits. Qatar occupies 11,437 km2 on a peninsula that extends to 160 km north into the Persian Gulf from the Arabian Peninsula. Varying in width between 55 and 90 km, the land is flat and rocky. Notable features include coastal salt pans, elevated limestone formations along the west coast under which lies the Dukhan oil field, massive sand dunes surrounding Khawr al Udayd, an inlet of the Persian Gulf in the southeast known to local English speakers as the Inland Sea; the peninsula of Qatar is low-lying. Its shape is the surface expression of the Qatar Arch, one of the largest structural characteristics of the Arabian Plate, it is enveloped by loose sand and pebbles broken off the outcropping limestone. Smooth plains are found in the east; the south and south-west portion of the peninsula comprises sand dunes and salt flats. Hill ranges can be found in western Qatar near the Dukhan area and at Jebel Fuwayrit on the northeast coast.

Jebel Nakhsh is a notable mountain ridge south of Dukhan and contains substantial deposits of gypsum. The coastline, 700km², is emergent and slopes toward the sea. Many flat, low-lying offshore islands are accompanied by coral reefs; as a result of salt water coming into contact with the low-lying land, many salt flats have formed near the coast. The coastline from Mesaieed to Khawr al Udayd is rich in sabkhas. Inland sabkhas can be found in western in Qatar near Sawda Natheel. A sabkha ecosystem known as the Dukhan Sabkha is found in the northern section of the Dukhan region in western Qatar; this sabkha, considered the largest inland sabkha in the Persian Gulf, runs for 20 km, occupies an area of 73 km², has a width of 2 to 4 km and a depth of between 6 and 7 meters. It accommodates the lowest point of Qatar, at six meters below sea level. Studies suggest that the sabkha is fed by seawater from the Bay of Zekreet, north by 3 km; the long summer is characterized by intense heat and alternating dryness and humidity, with temperatures reaching 50 °C.

Temperatures are moderate from November to April, ranging from as high as 39 °C in April to as low as 7 °C in January. Rainfall is negligible, averaging 100 mm per year, confined to the winter months, falling in brief, sometimes heavy storms that flood the small ravines and the dry wadis. Sudden, violent dust storms descend on the peninsula, blotting out the sun, causing wind damage, temporarily disrupting transport and other services; the scarcity of rainfall and the limited underground water, most of which has such a high mineral content that it is unsuitable for drinking or irrigation, restricted the population and the extent of agricultural and industrial development the country could support until desalination projects began. Although water continues to be provided from underground sources, most is obtained by desalination of seawater. Although most of the country consists of sand deserts, a small part of the country houses different vegetation zones, where trees and shrubs like tamarind and mace can grow.

These regions are to the east, near the coast. The inherent limiting factor for vegetation growth is water availability. Certain geographical features alleviate this water scarcity, such as rawdas, which are large depressions found on the soil surface and which help recharge the aquifers; as these sites constitute the most obtainable sources of shallow groundwater, they are among the areas most abundant in wild vegetation. In the south, where groundwater is exceedingly scarce, vegetation can found growing in wadis fed by run-off from nearby hills and in rawdas. There are 21 species of mammals. Larger terrestrial mammals such as the Arabian oryx and Arabian gazelle are protected animals and are held in nature reserves; the Arabian gazelle is the only native gazelle species to Qatar and is locally referred to as'rheem'. Qatar's territorial waters in the Persian Gulf are rich in marine life. Sea turtles nest en masse on the coastline from Fuwayrit to Ras Laffan; the Ministry of Environment carries out routine patrols of nesting areas to ensure their conservation.

Dugongs are known to congregate off the country's coasts. In the course of a study being carried out in 1986 and 1999 on the Persian Gulf, the largest-ever group sightings were made of more than 600 individuals to the west of Qatar. Qatar has one land border; the country borders Saudi Arabia to the south. The boundary with Saudi Arabia was settled in 1965 but never demarcated. Qatar's northwest coast is fewer than 30 km from the main islands of Bahrain, while the small Hawar Islands of Bahrain are only 1.4 km off that coast. The peninsula's northernmost point is Ras Rakan. Contiguous zone: 24 nmi exclusive economic zone: 31,590 km2 as determined by bilateral agreements, or the median line territorial sea: 12 nmi Of the islands belonging to Qatar, Halul is the most important. Lying about 90 km east of Doha, it serves as a storage area and loading terminal for oil from the surrounding offshore fields. Hawar and the adjacent islands off the west coast are the subject of a territorial dispute between Qatar and Bahrain.

Based on estimates in 2011 estimates, 5.6% of the land is agricultural. Arable l


ECryptfs is a package of disk encryption software for Linux. Its implementation is a POSIX-compliant filesystem-level encryption layer, aiming to offer functionality similar to that of GnuPG at the operating system level, has been part of the Linux kernel since version 2.6.19. The eCryptfs package has been included in Ubuntu since version 9.04 and is being used for implementing Ubuntu's encrypted home directory feature.eCryptfs is derived from Erez Zadok's Cryptfs. It uses a variant of the OpenPGP file format for encrypted data, extended to allow random access, storing cryptographic metadata with each individual file, it encrypts file and directory names which makes them internally longer. The reason is it needs to uuencode the encrypted names to eliminate unwanted characters in the resulting name; this lowers the maximum usable byte name length of the original file system entry depending on the used file system. Disk encryption Disk encryption software Comparison of disk encryption software EncFS dm-crypt FileVault Encrypting File System ArchWiki: System Encryption with eCryptfs eCryptfs FAQ Cryptfs: A Stackable Vnode Level Encryption File System

Alexios III of Trebizond

Alexios III Megas Komnenos, or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. He is the best-documented ruler of that country, his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations, he was the son of his second wife, Irene of Trebizond. Alexios III was named John, took the name Alexios either in memory of his older brother who had died prematurely or of his paternal grandfather, Emperor Alexios II of Trebizond, his personal appearance was described by George Finlay as "extremely noble". Finlay contributes the following details: "He was florid and regular-featured, with an aquiline nose, his flatterers reminded him, was considered by Plato to be a royal feature. In person he was well formed; when Basil died on April 6, 1340, his first wife Irene Palaiologina succeeded him, she sent all the children of her dead husband to Constantinople together with their mother. Alexios was raised at the Byzantine court; when he was eleven years old, he was sent to Trebizond by Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos to replace his deposed great-uncle Michael, an instrument of the regency Kantakouzenos had displaced.

Alexios arrived in Trebizond on December 22, 1349, was accepted as emperor by the nobility headed by megas doux Niketas Scholares without opposition. It was at this point that he adopted the name Alexios, he was crowned on January 21, 1350, in the company of his mother Irene and of John Lazaropoulos. Alexios' position was safeguarded by confining the deposed Emperor Michael to a monastery. In 1351 the connection to John VI Kantakouzenos was strengthened by further diplomatic initiatives; the deposed Emperor Michael was exiled to Constantinople, on September 20, 1351, Alexios III married Theodora Kantakouzene, a relative of the Byzantine Emperor, in the newly rebuilt Church of St. Eugenios. For the time being, Alexios was accepted as emperor because of his youth and, to quote William Miller, "not calculated to bring peace to the state, distracted for the previous decade by the jealousies and ambitions of rival gangs of noble place-hunters". While the aristocrats squabbled with each other, Alexios despaired of security in his capital and retired to the coastal castle of Tripolis.

The young emperor was supported by his mother and some loyal generals and courtiers, including Michael Panaretos, whose laconic chronicle is the principal source on the political history of the Empire of Trebizond. Insubordinate nobles had to be overwhelmed one by one by the emperor's forces. Alexios and his court strengthened their position by fostering peaceful relations with the Turkmen, cemented by marriage alliances such as that between the emperor's oldest sister Maria and Fahreddin Kutlubeg of Aq Qoyunlu in 1352; as Alexios' position improved, it became less necessary to rely on the kingmaker Niketas. The megas doux was forced to flee to Kerasous in June 1354, where he prepared a fleet consisting of one galley and eleven smaller vessels that sailed against Trebizond in March 1355; the rebels abandoned their expedition. Alexios fitted out his own fleet of galleys and several smaller crafts, in May sailed to Kerasous with the company of his mother and the Metropolitan of Trebizond, conquered the town in the absence of Niketas.

The emperor's cavalry besieged the last fortress loyal to the megas doux and obtained its surrender. Niketas and his aristocratic supporters were taken captive and brought to Trebizond, where he died in 1360. With the imprisonment of Niketas, Michael Panaretos' leaves off writing of the civil war. Most writers conclude this means the civil war itself ended, but an attempt by the Kabasitai and other nobles to assassinate Alexios III in 1363 may be part of that conflict. Alexios escaped their ambush and with the help of loyal soldiers, arrested all of them; the Metropolitan Niphon was deposed for his complicity in the plot and died confined in a monastery the following year. He was replaced with the emperor's supporter John Lazaropoulos, who became Metropolitan of Trebizond under the monastic name Joseph. In spite of his victories over the nobles, Alexios showed restraint and willingness to compromise by granting charters to noble families confirming them in possession of their lands. Alexios III began dealing with strengthening the frontier against the Turkmen before the end of the civil unrest.

In this he was less successful, suffered a major defeat in battle in 1355. Alexios and Panaretos escaped with their lives. A raid on Matzouka by Hajji'Umar, the emir of Chalybia, was neutralized by diplomacy, he was married to Alexios' sister Theodora in 1358. Alexios continued this policy of seeking diplomatic alliances with the neighboring Muslim princes, with the marriages of four of his daughters. Alexios was unable to displace the Genoese and Venetians from their dominant position in Trebizond's commerce; the position of Venice had declined following the concession of Leonkastron to the Genoese in 1349, in 1360 Alexios attempted to restore commercial relations with Venice to offset the power of the Genoese. In 1364 he confirmed to the Venetians their old privileges and assigned them a depot "below the monastery of the holy martyr, Theodore Gabras", but the Venetians were not jealously quarreled with the Genoese. Another concession to Venice followed in 1367, lowere

Shenyang J-15

The Shenyang J-15 NATO reporting name: Flanker-X2 known as Flying Shark, is a 4th generation, twin-jet, all-weather, carrier-based fighter aircraft in development by the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation and the 601 Institute for the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy's aircraft carriers. It is developed from J-11B as well as from studying of a prototype of Su-33. An unfinished Su-33 prototype, the T-10K-3, was acquired from Ukraine in 2001 and is said to have been studied extensively, reverse engineered, with development on the J-15 beginning afterward. While the J-15 appears to be structurally based on the prototype of Su-33, the indigenous fighter features Chinese technologies as well as avionics from the J-11B program. In February 2018, discussions about replacing the aircraft appeared in several Chinese media outlets including Xinhua and China's main military newspaper, discussing that it belongs to the 4th or 4.5 generation fighters. Thus, the J-15 is viewed as an interim carrier-based fighter until a 5th generation successor enters service, one that may be based on the J-20 or J-31.

China has sought to purchase Su-33s from Russia on several occasions—an unsuccessful offer was made as late as March 2009—but negotiations collapsed in 2006 after it was discovered that China had developed a modified version of the Sukhoi Su-27SK designated the Shenyang J-11B, in violation of intellectual property agreements. However, according to Chinese sources, the reason why China withdrew from talks is because Russia wanted big money to re-open Su-33 production lines and insisted China must buy at least 50 Su-33s which China is reluctant and believes it would become outdated in a few years, the same reason why China decided to modify it instead of continuing to assemble the licensed Su-27, or J-11, its name in China. J-15 program was started in 2006; the deputy general designer of J-15 is Wang Yongqing. The first J-15 prototype made its maiden flight on 31 August 2009, believed to be powered by Russian-supplied AL-31 turbofan engines. Video and still images of the flight were released in July 2010, showing the same basic airframe design as the Su-33.

On 6 May 2010 the aircraft conducted its first takeoff from a simulated ski-jump. On 25 November 2012, the aircraft performed its first takeoff and landing on China's first aircraft carrier Liaoning. A twin-seat variant made its maiden flight on 4 November 2012; the initial WS-10 engines proved to be unreliable under oceanic conditions, the early J-15s were fitted with Russian-made AL-31F. Several years WS-10 entered mass-production and late J-15 variants were replacing their engines with modified WS-10. An article in the China Signpost believes the J-15 "likely exceeds or matches the aerodynamic capabilities of all fighter aircraft operated by regional militaries, with the exception of the U. S. F-22 Raptor", alleging that the J-15 possesses a 10% superior thrust-to-weight ratio and a 25% lower wing loading than the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. However, one of the authors of that same article described the J-15 in another as no game changer. Hu Siyuan of the National Defense University PLA China has said that "the current weak point of the J-15 is its Russia-made Al-31 engines which are less powerful than that of the American F-35 fighter".

In September 2013, the Beijing-based Sina Military Network criticized the capabilities of the J-15 as nothing more than a "flopping fish" incapable of flying from the Liaoning with heavy weapons, “effectively crippling its attack range and firepower,” an unusual move as it contradicted state-owned media reports praising the fighter. SMN reported the J-15 could operate from the carrier equipped with two YJ-83K anti-ship missiles, two short-range PL-8 air-to-air missiles, four 500 kg bombs, but a weapons load exceeding 12 tons would not get it off the ski jump, prohibiting it from carrying heavier munitions such as PL-12 medium-range air-to-air missiles, making it an unlikely match if hostile fighters are encountered when flying strike missions; the J-15's chief designer, Sun Cong of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, has said that the J-15 could match the F/A-18 in bomb load, combat radius and mobility. However, in a similar statement, he said more work was required in its electronics and combat systems.

He indicated the lack of mature domestically produced engines as a current weak spot. Rear Admiral Yin Zhuo stated that the aircraft's air combat capabilities were better than that of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. However, he stated that its ability to attack land and sea targets was inferior to the F/A-18E/F. On 25 November 2012, Chinese media announced that two J-15s had made successful arrested landings on the aircraft carrier Liaoning; the first pilot to land on Liaoning was named as Dai Mingmeng. Luo Yang, the aircraft's head of production and designer, died the same day. PLA Daily newspaper indicated the first five naval pilots including Dai conducted J-15 fighter landing and taking off. Test and training program officials confirmed the carrier-borne aircraft and special equipment for the landing flight had gone through strict tests, fighter jets can be deployed on the carrier. In December 2013 Chinese media reported that mass production of J-15s in full operational condition with combat markings had begun.

In January


WUPN is an American radio station licensed to serve the community of Paradise, an unincorporated community in Whitefish Township, Chippewa County, Michigan. The station's broadcast license is held by Inc.. WUPN broadcasts a classic hits format to the Sault Ste. Marie, area. In May 2007, Darby Advertising, Inc. applied to the U. S. Federal Communications Commission for a construction permit for a new broadcast radio station to broadcast on a frequency of 94.7 megahertz. The FCC granted this permit on November 4, 2008, with a scheduled expiration date of November 4, 2011; the new station was assigned call sign "WUPN" on November 14, 2008. In January 2011, with construction underway, WUPN applied to relocate its broadcast transmitter and change frequencies to 95.1 MHz. The FCC granted the station a modified permit on July 8, 2011, with the same scheduled expiration as the original permit, November 4, 2011. After construction and testing were completed in October 2011, the station was granted its broadcast license on January 23, 2012.

The station began regular programming with its permanent Classic Hits format in October 2012. WUPN has been promoted on their website as an independent and locally focused alternative to the high number of regional stations owned by Sovereign Communications, while not a classic rock station, it has been promoted there as a spiritual successor to the former "Classic Rock: The Bear" station on 97.9 WIHC in nearby Newberry. The station attracted early attention by hiring alumni of Sault Ste. Marie top 40 station WYSS as on-air personalities to continue the former "Soo Morning Crew" morning drive programming that ended in 2010. Paul VanWagoner, a long-time morning host and program director at WKNW, worked at WUPN from its inception until leaving the area in December 2015. Former WYSS staffer and DJ Tim Ellis replaced him at that time, with fellow WYSS alum John Gilbert following suit in February 2017 in on-air and operations management roles. "Station Information Profile". Arbitron. Retrieved January 30, 2012.

WUPN official website Query the FCC's FM station database for WUPN Radio-Locator information on WUPN Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WUPN

Toy soldier

A toy soldier is a miniature figurine that represents a soldier. The term applies to depictions of uniformed military personnel from all eras, includes knights, American Indians, pirates and other subjects that involve combat-related themes. Toy soldiers vary from simple playthings to realistic and detailed models; the latter are of more recent development and are sometimes called model figures to distinguish them from traditional toy soldiers. Larger scale toys such as dolls and action figures may come in military uniforms, but they are not considered toy soldiers. Toy soldiers are made from all types of material, but the most common mass-produced varieties are metal and plastic. There are many different kinds of toy soldiers, including tin soldiers or flats, hollow cast metal figures, composition figures, plastic army men. Metal toy soldiers were traditionally sold in sets. S. Modern, collectable figures are sold individually. Scale for toy soldiers is expressed as the soldier's approximate height from head to foot in millimeters.

Because many figures do not stand up straight, height is an approximation. Standard toy soldier scale adopted by W. Britain, is 54 mm or 1:32 scale. Among different manufacturers, standard scale may range from 50 mm or 1:35 scale, to 60 mm or 1:28 scale. For gamers and miniatures enthusiasts, 25 mm and smaller scales are available. On the larger end of the scale are American Dimestore figures, many of the toy soldiers produced in Germany, which are 75 mm or 1:24 scale. Military figures have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs, have appeared in many cultures and eras. Tin soldiers were produced in Germany as early as the 1730s, by molding the metal between two pieces of slate. Toy soldiers became widespread during the 18th century, inspired by the military exploits of Frederick the Great. Miniature soldiers were used in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries by military strategists to plan battle tactics by using the figures to show the locations of real soldiers. In 1893, the British toy company William Britain revolutionized the production of toy soldiers by devising the method of hollow casting, making soldiers that were cheaper and lighter than their German counterparts.

In addition to Britains, there have been many other manufacturers of toy soldiers over the years. For example, John Hill & Company produced hollow cast lead figures in scale. Companies such as Elastolin and Lineol were well known for their composite figures made of glue and sawdust that included both military and civilian subjects. After 1950, rising production costs and the development of plastic meant that many shop keepers liked the lighter and far less prone to break in transit polythene figure; this led to greater numbers of plastic toy soldiers. The first American plastic soldiers were made by Beton as early as 1937; the first plastic toy soldiers produced in Great Britain were made in 1946 by Airfix before they became known for their famous model kits range. One large historical producer in plastic was Louis Marx and Company, which produced both realistic soldiers of great detail and historical collections of plastic men and women, including the "Presidents of the United States" collection, "Warriors of the World", "Generals of World War II", "Jesus and the Apostles", figures from the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.

Marx produced boxed playsets that featured many famous battles with armies of two sides, character figures, terrain features. Britains produced plastic figures under the brand names of Deetail. In England, the scale model company, Airfix produced a variety of high quality plastic sets, which were painted by hobbyists. Many Airfix figures were imitated by other companies and reproduced as inexpensive, bagged plastic army men. Timpo Toys, Britains main competitor in terms of sales and quality in the 1960s and 70s developed the'Over - Moulding' system. Different coloured plastics were injected into the mould at various stages, creating a coloured figure without the need of paint. During the 1990s, the production of metal toy-grade painted figures and connoisseur-grade painted toy soldiers increased to serve the demands of the collectors' market; the style of many of these figures shifted from the traditional gloss-coat enamel paint to the matte-finished acrylic paint, which allows for greater detail and historical accuracy.

The change was inspired by the introduction of high quality painted figures from St. Petersburg, Russia. There is a substantial hobby devoted to collecting both old and new toy soldiers, with an abundance of small manufacturers and toy soldier shows. There are specialty magazines devoted to the hobby, such as "Toy Soldier Collector", "Plastic Warrior" and "Toy Soldier and Model Figure". Collectors specialize in a particular type of soldier or historical period, though some people enjoy collecting many different kinds of figures; the most popular historical periods for collecting are Napoleonic, American Civil War, World War I, World War II. Many collectors modify and paint plastic figures, some cast and paint their own metal figures. Actor Douglas Fairbanks Jr had a collection of 3000 toy soldiers when he sold it in 1977. Fantasy novelist George R. R. Martin has a substantial collection of toy castles; the most extensive collection of toy soldiers was that of Malcolm Forbes, who began collecting toy soldiers in the late 1960s and amassed a collection of over 90,000 figures by the time of his death in 1990.

Anne Seddon Kinsolving Brown of Providence, Rhode Island, US