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Geography of Romania

With an area of 238,397 km2, Romania is the twelfth-largest country in Europe. Located in Southeastern Europe, bordering on the Black Sea, the country is halfway between the equator and the North Pole and equidistant from the westernmost part of Europe—the Atlantic Coast—and the most easterly—the Ural Mountains. Romania has 3,195 kilometers of border. Republic of Moldova and Ukraine lie to the east, Bulgaria lies to the south, Serbia and Hungary to the west. In the southeast, 245 kilometers of sea coastline provide an important outlet to the Black Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Traditionally Romania is divided into several historic regions that no longer perform any administrative function: Dobruja is the easternmost region, extending from the northward course of the Danube to the shores of the Black Sea. Moldavia stretches from the Eastern Carpathians to the Prut River on the Moldovan and Ukrainian border. Wallachia reaches south from the Transylvanian Alps to the Bulgarian border and is divided by the Olt River into Oltenia on the west and Muntenia on the east.

The Danube forms a natural border between Dobruja. The west-central region, known as Transylvania, is delimited by the arc of the Carpathians, which separates it from the Maramureș region in the northwest, it is these areas west of the Carpathians that contain the highest concentrations of the nation's largest ethnic minorities—Hungarians and Serbs. Romania's exterior boundaries are a result of recent events. At the outbreak of World War I, the country's territory included only the provinces of Walachia and Dobruja; this area, known as the Regat or the Old Kingdom, came into being with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire in the mid-nineteenth century. At the end of World War I, Romania acquired the Banat; some of this territory was lost during World War II. Although this acquisition united some 85 percent of the Romanian-speaking population of Eastern Europe into one nation, it left a considerable number of ethnic Hungarians under Romanian rule. Disputes between Hungary and Romania regarding this territory would surface as both considered the region part of their national heritage.

Questions were periodically raised as to the historical validity of the Soviet-Romanian border. Bukovina and Bessarabia, former Romanian provinces where significant percentages of the population are Romanian-speaking, were part of the Soviet Union from the end of World War II to its dissolution, subsequently part of the states of Ukraine and Moldova. Despite ongoing and potential disputes, since 1989 Romania has no territorial claims to make. Romania's current administrative divisions include 41 counties and one city - Bucharest - with special status, see Administrative divisions of Romania. Romania's natural landscape is evenly divided among mountains and hills; these varied relief forms spread rather symmetrically from the Carpathian Mountains, which reach elevations of more than 2,500 meters, to the Danube Delta, just a few meters above sea level. The arc of the Carpathians extends over 1,000 kilometers through the center of the country, covering an area of 71,000 square kilometers; these mountains are no wider than 100 kilometers.

They are fragmented by longitudinal and transverse valleys and crossed by several major rivers. These features and the fact that there are many summit passes—some at altitudes up to 2,256 meters—have made the Carpathians less of a barrier to movement than other European ranges. Another distinguishing feature is the many eroded platforms that provide tableland at high altitudes. There are permanent settlements here at above 1,200 meters. Romania's Carpathians are differentiated into three ranges: the Eastern Carpathians, the Southern Carpathians or Transylvanian Alps, the Western Romanian Carpathians; each of these ranges has important distinguishing features. The Eastern Carpathians are composed of three parallel ridges; the westernmost ridge is an extinct volcanic range with many preserved craters. The range has many large depressions, in the largest. Important mining and industrial centers as well as agricultural areas are found within these depressions; the Eastern Carpathians are covered with forests—some 32 percent of the country's woodlands are there.

They contain important ore deposits, including gold and silver, their mineral water springs feed numerous health resorts. The Southern Carpathians offer the highest peaks at Moldoveanu Peak and Negoiu and more than 150 glacial lakes, they have few large depressions and subsoil resources. At higher elevations, the wind and rain have turned the rocks into spectacular figures such as the Sphinx and Babele; the region was crisscrossed by an ancient network of trans-Carpathian roads, vestiges of the old Roman Way are still visible. Numerous passes and the valleys of the Olt and Danube rivers provide routes for roads and railways through the mountains; the Western Romanian Carpathians are the lowest of the three ranges and are fragmented by many deep structural depressions. They have functioned as "gates," which allow easy passage but can be defended; the most famous of these is the Iron Gate on the Danube. The Western Romanian Carpathians are the most densely settled, it is in the northernmost area of this range, the Apuseni Mountains, that permanent settlemen

Purqazi (Assembly constituency)

Purqazi Assembly constituency is one of the 403 constituencies of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is a part of the Muzaffarnagar district and one of the five assembly constituencies in the Muzaffarnagar. First election in this assembly constituency was held in 2012 after the "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" was passed and the constituency came into existence in the year 2008, it was famous for its legendary traffic Jams. Extant of Purqazi Assembly constituency is KCs Muzaffarnagar, Chhapar, Sisona, Bijopra, Khampur, Barla & Purqazi Nagar Panchayat of Muzaffarnagar Tehsil. Government of Uttar Pradesh Bijnor List of Vidhan Sabha constituencies of Uttar Pradesh Muzaffarnagar district Sixteenth Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly Uttar Pradesh


Skarstind is a prominent part of the Galdhøpiggen mountain range in northwestern Jotunheimen, is the sixth highest summit in the country. The mountain has three summits, the main summit at 2,373 meters above sea level, Nåle, the Needle, at 2,310 m and the small western summit at 2,215 m, it is located within the municipality of Lom, on the eastern side of the Leirdalen valley, the summit can be seen from the road along the valley floor. There are several other peaks in the vicinity, but only Galdhøpiggen, a few kilometers to the east, is higher; the mountain can be seen from most of the higher peaks in Jotunheimen and Breheimen to the northwest. The first part of the name Skarstind is one of the Norwegian words for mountain pass, although it is impossible to say which pass has given its name to the mountain, it might be the pass to the south or it might be the pass between the summit itself and the pinnacle, Nåle. Nåle, the Needle, has got its name from the local word for pinnacle, which describes the shape of it.

The summit was reached for the first time in 1884 by Sig. Thor, Oskar Kristiansen; the first ascent of the two lower summits remains unknown, but it is probable that they were climbed at the same time. The views, except towards the east, where Galdhøpiggen blocks the view, are among the best in Jotunheimen. To the west, you see the Smørstabbtindene range, the Hurrungane range and the Jostedalsbreen glacier. To the northwest you see the Hestbrepiggane range and to the south you see most of the summits in central Jotunheimen; the shape of the mountain is characteristic. Only from northwest does it look like a'tind' a high pointy summit in Norwegian. From the east, from Galdhøpiggen, it shows its steep wall with Nåle balancing on the left flank, as seen in the table; this wall is climbed rarely. The southwest face is less forbidding, it is possible to find a way up through the snow-covered talus slopes; the mountain, as its neighbors, consists of the hard gabbro rock, which withstands erosion better than most other rocks.

The orientation of the layers of gabbro in Skarstind is uncommon. They rise from northwest towards southeast, why many summits are easiest to reach from the north side. At Skarstind the layers rise from southwest towards northeast; this is seen on the photo in the table. The summit can be reached without equipment if the conditions are good and there is little snow on the talus slopes on the southwest face; the normal ascent starts from Leirdalen up to Dummhøe, an easy, but rather steep climb of more than 1000 meters. Up to 1500 meters, there is a path, made by sheep and goats, used by mountaineers, but from there one has to follow the ridge up to Dummhøe, more of a small plain than a mountain; the plain is followed up to the summit of Western Skarstind, but from that small summit you can see the difficult west wall of the main summit. There are four small walls to climb, but they may all be outflanked on the right side if the conditions are good. From the Western summit the flank seems nearly as forbidding as the wall itself, but at a close distance it is not too difficult and no equipment should be necessary.

However, on poor conditions, the Talus may be loose and great caution is advised. On days with fresh snow, like the last picture, equipment will be necessary on all routes. Nåle seems to be difficult, but it is much easier than the summit itself. Skarstind is quite popular, given the mountain's high rank among Norwegian peaks. A winter ascent is only for the experienced; the first element is the genitive of skard n'gap, pass', the last element is the finite form of tind m'mountain peak'. Norske fjelltopper over 2000 meter by Morten and Julia Mortensen - Glittertind forlag Jotunheimen bind 3 by Erik W. Thommesen and Tor Harald Skogheim - Valdres forlag Norges geografi by Hans Christian Kullerud and Hasse Raastad - Aschehougs forlag Interviews with several hikers visiting the summits 1995, 1996, 2003 and 2006

Tea, South Dakota

Tea is a city in Lincoln County, South Dakota, United States and is a suburb of Sioux Falls. The population was 3,806 at the 2010 census. Tea was laid out in 1894; the name "Tea" was selected on account of its brevity. Tea is located at 43°26′53″N 96°50′15″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.69 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,806 people, 1,254 households, 1,009 families living in the city; the population density was 2,252.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,354 housing units at an average density of 801.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.9% White, 0.7% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 1,254 households of which 59.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 19.5% were non-families.

14.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.04 and the average family size was 3.35. The median age in the city was 27.7 years. 37.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.6% male and 49.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,742 people, 590 households, 489 families living in the city; the population density was 2,877.8 people per square mile. There were 600 housing units at an average density of 991.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.67% White, 0.40% African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 1.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.86% of the population. There were 590 households out of which 55.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.3% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.1% were non-families.

13.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.95 and the average family size was 3.23. In the city, the population was spread out with 36.2% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 40.8% from 25 to 44, 12.5% from 45 to 64, 3.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $50,671, the median income for a family was $52,297. Males had a median income of $32,734 versus $23,860 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,719. About 2.1% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.8% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. Tea Public Schools are part of the Tea Area School District; the Tea Area School District has two elementary schools, one intermediate school, one middle school, one high school.

Students attend Tea Area High School. Tea contains three recreational areas: Tea Athletic Complex, Howling Ridge Park, Prairie Trails Park. Teapot Days is an annual community event held each June; the event features carnival rides, food vendors, musical concerts, craft/art shows and a parade. Hindu Temple of Siouxland is located here. Official website


Ginnorgarh is a fort in Sehore District, Madhya Pradesh. Located in the Ratapani Tiger Reserve on a rocky summit rising to 700m, Ginnorgarh has two natural water bodies and a fortified enclosure with the remains of several palaces and cisterns. Ginnorgarh was occupied late in the Paramara period, as testified by architectural fragments incorporated into the current structures, but the location first rose to prominence under the Gond rulers; the palace may have been constructed by a powerful Gond warlord. The building is one of the gems of Indian palace architecture, close in style to the Kharbuja Mahal at Dhar fort. After Nizam Shah was poisoned by his nephew, the chief of Chainpur Bari, his widow Rani Kamlapati and her son took refuge in the fort; the queen sought protection from Dost Muhammad Khan. With Kamalapati's death in 1723, her son Nawal Shah took charge of the fort. Dost Muhammad Khan organised an expedition to Ginnorgarh from Bhopal and was able to take the fort by stealth; the presence of the rulers of Bhopal at Ginnorgarh is testified by buildings and an inscription in Persian on one of the gatehouses dated 1725–26.

By the early twentieth century, C. E. Luard recorded. Despite being a protected monument under the Department of Archaeology and Museums, Madhya Pradesh, the structures continue to decline and have been vandalised

Sabaidee Luang Prabang

Sabaidee Luang Prabang is a 2008 romantic drama film directed by Sakchai Deenan and starring Ananda Everingham. It was the first commercial film shot in Laos since the country adopted communism in 1975. Sorn, a Thai photographer visiting Laos, falls in love with Noi; the film features several tourist sites in Laos. Ananda Everingham as Sorn Khamly Philawong as Noi Director Sakchai Deenan claimed the plotline was inspired by a visit to Laos in which he fell in love with a Laotian woman and imagining her as a tour guide, he deliberately created a simple plot "so it would not be too hard to get approval from the Lao government." The only Laotian films were propaganda and patriotism related, produced by the government. A government member oversaw the production of Sabaidee Luang Prabang so that it portrayed Laotian culture in a positive manner and cut any scenes that the Lao government may perceive to be controversial; the film premiered on May 24, 2008 at one of Laos' two theaters and was released in Thai on June 5.

Open-air screenings occurred throughout Laos, including the UNESCO World Heritage city of Luang Prabang. Upon its release, it was the first Laotian private film, authorities seeing Sabaidee Luang Prabang as the start of a new source of income; the aim of the film was to encourage bilateral cooperation between Thailand and Laos. Sabaidee Luang Prabang on IMDb