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Geography of Rwanda

Rwanda is located in central Africa, to the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, at the co-ordinates 2°00′S 30°0′E. At 26,338 square kilometres, Rwanda is the world's 149th-largest country, it is comparable in the state of Massachusetts in the United States. The entire country is at a high altitude: the lowest point is the Rusizi River at 950 metres above sea level. Rwanda is located in Central/Eastern Africa, is bordered by the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, Uganda to the north, Tanzania to the east, Burundi to the south, it is landlocked. The capital, Kigali, is located near the centre of Rwanda; the watershed between the major Congo and Nile drainage basins runs from north to south through Rwanda, with around 80 percent of the country's area draining into the Nile and 20 percent into the Congo via the Rusizi River. The country's longest river is the Nyabarongo, which rises in the south-west, flows north and southeast before merging with the Akanyaru to form the Akagera.

The Nyabarongo-Akagera drains into Lake Victoria, its source in Nyungwe Forest is a contender for the as-yet undetermined overall source of the Nile. Rwanda has the largest being Lake Kivu; this lake occupies the floor of the Albertine Rift along most of the length of Rwanda's western border, with a maximum depth of 480 metres, it is one of the twenty deepest lakes in the world. Other sizeable lakes include Burera, Muhazi and Ihema, the last being the largest of a string of lakes in the eastern plains of Akagera National Park. Mountains dominate western Rwanda; these mountains are part of the Albertine Rift Mountains that flank the Albertine branch of the East African Rift. This branch runs from north to south along Rwanda's western border; the highest peaks are found in the Virunga volcano chain in the northwest. This western section of Rwanda, which lies within the Albertine Rift montane forests ecoregion, has an elevation of 1,500 metres to 2,500 metres; the centre of the country is predominantly rolling hills, while the eastern border region consists of savanna and swamps.

Rwanda has a temperate tropical highland climate, with lower temperatures than are typical for equatorial countries due to its high elevation. Kigali, in the centre of the country, has a typical daily temperature range between 12 °C and 27 °C, with little variation through the year. There are some temperature variations across the country. There are two rainy seasons in the year; the first runs from the second from September to December. These are separated by two dry seasons: the major one from June to September, during which there is no rain at all, a shorter and less severe one from December to February. Rainfall varies geographically, with the west and northwest of the country receiving more precipitation annually than the east and southeast. Rwanda borders Burundi for 290 km, the Democratic Republic of the Congo for 217 km, Tanzania for 217 km, Uganda for 169 km. Rwanda has an area of 26 thousands square kilometers. Rwanda possesses the following natural resources: gold cassiterite wolframite columbite-tantalite methane hydropower coffee tea arable land green beansThe use of land in Rwanda is for arable land, other purposes.

40 km² of land in Rwanda is irrigated. The table below describes the land use in Rwanda, as of 2011. Natural hazards in Rwanda include periodic droughts and the volcanic activity of the Virunga Mountains, located in the northwest of the country, along the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Current issues concerning the environment in Rwanda include: the result of uncontrolled deforestation for fuel, soil exhaustion and widespread poaching. Rwanda is a party to the following international agreements: Biodiversity Climate Change Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Desertification Endangered Species Hazardous Wastes Nuclear Test Ban Ozone Layer Protection WetlandsRwanda has signed, but not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; this is a list of the extreme points of Rwanda, the points that are farther north, east or west than any other location. Northernmost point - unnamed location on the border with Uganda north-west of the village of Kagitumba, Eastern province Easternmost point - unnamed location on the border with Tanzania in the Kagera river, Eastern province Southernmost point - unnamed location on the border with Burundi, Southern province Westernmost point - unnamed location on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the Ruzizi river south of the DRC town of Bukavu, Western province List of lakes in Rwanda

Walterdale, Edmonton

Walterdale is a former industrial and residential neighbourhood in Edmonton, Canada within the North Saskatchewan River valley. It is located on the south shore of the river in an area now occupied by Kinsmen Park within a river valley neighbourhood named River Valley Walterdale; the preparation work for a reconstruction of the Walterdale Bridge in 2012 revealed evidence of human habitation in the area going back 1,000 years including stone artifacts, butchered animal bones, evidence of plant use in association with a defined hearth feature. The neighbourhood was named for John Walter who, in 1875, was the first person to construct a house on the south side of the river opposite of Fort Edmonton, became a prominent businessman and local politician. With the numerous businesses he established in the area, the Walterdale neighbourhood built up around his original residence in part of what became Strathcona. Known as South Edmonton, Strathcona incorporated as a town in 1899 incorporating as a city in 1907 and subsequently amalgamating with the City of Edmonton in 1912.

The North Saskatchewan River flooded in 1915 destroying much of John Walter's assets. North Saskatchewan River flood of 1915

Buka Suka Dimka

Lieutenant Colonel Bukar Suka Dimka was a Nigerian Army officer who played a leading role in the 13 February 1976 abortive military coup against the government of General Murtala Ramat Mohammed. Dimka participated in the Nigerian Counter-Coup of 1966 which toppled the government of General Aguiyi Ironsi. Bukar Suka Dimka was commissioned as a Second-Lieutenant from the Australian Army Officer Cadet School, into the Nigerian Army on 13 December 1963, he and another officer were the first two Nigerian Army officers to train in Australia and complete the 12 months course at the school with cadets from Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and the Pacific Islands. Dimka a lieutenant with the Nigerian Military Training College in Kaduna, was one of the many officers of northern Nigerian origin including Lt. Colonel Murtala Muhammed, 2nd Lieutenant Sani Abacha, Lieutenant Muhammadu Buhari, Lieutenant Ibrahim Bako, Lieutenant Ibrahim Babangida, Major Theophilus Danjuma among others), who staged what became known as the Nigerian Counter-Coup of 1966 because of grievances they felt towards the administration of General Aguiyi Ironsi's government which quelled the 15 January 1966 coup.

Dimka along with Lieutenant Dambo are alleged to have shot and killed Lieutenant Colonel Michael Okoro, Commander of the 3rd Battalion during the July mutiny. Another act of notoriety from the July mutiny was Dimka's pursuit and probable intent to murder his Brigade Major. Before the mutiny, Major Ogbemudia had detained Lieutenant Dimka for violating an order forbidding unauthorized troop movement. Under interrogation by Ogbemudia, Dimka complained of ethnic victimization and was subsequently released by Ogbemudia. Vexed by Ogbemudia's treatment of him, Dimka hatched a plot to kill Major Ogbemudia. Ogbemudia was tipped off by Major Abba Kyari and Colonel Hassan Katsina who provided an escape Landrover armed with an SMG gun. Dimka marshaled a group of northern soldiers who pursued Ogbemudia all the way from Kaduna to Owo, Ondo State where Ogbemudia abandoned his Landrover and scaled a 6-foot fence into a dense jungle to escape Dimka and his soldiers. General Mohammed was assassinated along with his aide-de-camp Lieutenant Akintunde Akinsehinwa when his Mercedes-Benz was ambushed by a group of assassins consisting of Lieutenant Colonel Dimka, Major Rabo, Captain Parwang and Lieutenant Seri in Ikoyi, Lagos.

In a planned broadcast to the nation, Lieutenant Colonel Dimka had cited corruption, indecision and detention without trial, weakness on the part of the Head of State and maladministration in general as the reasons for overthrowing the government. The coup was crushed several hours by forces loyal to the government and Dimka fled to the premises of Radio Nigeria at Ikoyi where he had made a broadcast to the nation, he was arrested in the company of a prostitute in Eastern Nigeria. Following a court martial, Lieutenant Colonel Dimka and another 38 military officers and civilians were executed by firing squad; the former military head of state, General Yakubu Gowon, was implicated in the abortive coup. The British Government refused to extradite Gowon. Years Gowon was granted an official pardon by civilian president Shehu Shagari and his rank and other benefits were restored in 1987 by General Ibrahim Babangida. General Murtala Mohammed was succeeded by Lieutenant General Olusegun Obasanjo. Lieutenant Colonel Dimka was publicly executed on 15 May 1976 at the Kirikiri Maximum Security Prison in Lagos.

The Dimka's Coup Attempt of February 13, 1976

Kik Messenger

Kik Messenger called Kik, is a freeware instant messaging mobile app from the Canadian company Kik Interactive, available free of charge on iOS and Android operating systems. It uses a smartphone's data plan or Wi-Fi to transmit and receive messages, videos, mobile webpages, other content after users register a username. Kik is known for its features preserving users' anonymity, such as allowing users to register without providing a telephone number; as of May 2016, Kik Messenger had 300 million registered users, was used by 40% of United States' teenagers. Kik Messenger has drawn controversy due to its reported involvement in a number of incidents of child exploitation; the app has been criticized as unsafe for minors due to its anonymity features and weak parental control mechanisms. The company issued a controversial initial coin offering; as of October 2019, Kik Messenger is owned by MediaLab after Kik Interactive Inc's discontinuation announcement. Kik Interactive was founded in 2009 by a group of students from the University of Waterloo in Canada who wished to create new technologies for use on mobile smartphones.

Kik Messenger is the first app developed by Kik Interactive, was released on October 19, 2010. Within 15 days of its release, Kik Messenger reached one million user registrations, with Twitter being credited as a catalyst for the new application's popularity. On November 24, 2010, Research In Motion removed Kik Messenger from BlackBerry App World and limited the functionality of the software for its users. RIM sued Kik Interactive for patent infringement and misuse of trademarks. In October 2013, the companies settled the lawsuit, with the terms undisclosed. In November 2014, Kik announced a $38.3 million Series C funding round and its first acquisition, buying GIF Messenger "Relay". The funding was from Valiant Capital Partners, Millennium Technology Value Partners, SV Angel. By this time, Kik had raised a total of $70.5 million. On August 16, 2015, Kik received a $50 million investment from Chinese Internet giant Tencent, the parent company of the popular Chinese messaging service WeChat; the investment earned the company a billion dollar valuation.

Company CEO Ted Livingston stated Kik's aspirations to become "the WeChat of the West" and said that attracting younger users was an important part of the company's strategy. In 2017 Kik decided against more VC funding, instead raising nearly $100M in a high-profile initial coin offering on the Ethereum blockchain. In this crowd sale, they sold "Kin" digital tokens to the contributors. In November 2017, Kik Messenger was silently removed from the Windows Store; as of 23 January 2018, neither the developers nor Microsoft have provided a statement or an explanation on the removal of the app. In June 2018, the Kin Coin was released on the Kik platform in Beta. In July 2018, the Kin Foundation released the Kinit beta app on the Google Play store, restricted to US residents only, it offers different ways of spending the Kin coin natively. In September 2019, Kik's CEO and founder Ted Livingston, announced in a blog post that Kik Messenger would be shut down on 19 October 2019 to focus more on the Kin coin whilst in an ongoing legal battle with the SEC.

He further announced. An announcement on 13 October 2019 however retracted the decision to close Kik and it was announced that the app would remain. In October 2019, Kik announced in its blog. A main attraction of Kik that differentiates it from other messaging apps is its anonymity. To register for the Kik service, a user must enter a first and last name, e-mail address, birth date, select a username; the Kik registration process does not request or require the entry of a phone number, unlike some other messaging services that require a user to provide a functioning mobile phone number. The New York Times has reported that according to law enforcement, Kik's anonymity features go beyond those of most used apps; as of February 2016, Kik's guide for law enforcement said that the company cannot locate user accounts based on first and last name, e-mail address and/or birth date. The guide further said that the company does not have access to content or "historical user data" such as photographs and the text of conversations, that photographs and videos are automatically deleted shortly after they are sent.

A limited amount of data from a particular account, including first and last name, birthdate, e-mail address, link to a current profile picture, device-related information, user location information such as the most used IP address, can be preserved for a period of 90 days pending receipt of a valid order from law enforcement. Kik's anonymity has been cited as a protective safety measure for good faith users, in that "users have screennames. Users have the option to delete any offensive content or block another user from contacting them; these features were developed in response to the widespread use of Kik for "cross-app" communication, whereby a user who encounters people on another app (u

Mary Hay, 14th Countess of Erroll

Mary Hay, 14th Countess of Erroll was a Scottish noblewoman and suo jure Countess of Erroll. As 18th Hereditary Lord High Constable and Knight Marischal of Scotland, she was the Senior Great Officer among the Royal Officers of Scotland and Chief of the King's Household in Scotland, she inherited these titles in 1717 on the death of her unmarried brother, Charles Hay, 13th Earl of Erroll. She was the daughter of John Hay, 12th Earl of Erroll and his wife, Lady Anne Drummond, sister of the Jacobite Dukes of Perth and Melfort. Like her brothers, Countess Anne was an active Jacobite and a secret agent of the exiled court of the Old Pretender, "James III and VIII", at Saint Germain-en-Laye. Before August 1722, Hay married Alexander Falconer, an advocate and son of Sir David Falconer, Lord President of the Court of Session, his elder brother, succeeded a distant cousin as 5th Lord Falconer of Halkerton. Her husband adopted the Hay surname; as eldest sister and heir of their line, she succeeded to the dignities enjoyed by her brother under the nomination of 16 February 1674, was served his heir on 6 February 1718.

She had her claim as High Constable allowed at the coronation of King George II of Great Britain, although she was represented by a deputy. In 1745, she raised an army of Buchan men for Prince Charles Edward Stuart. Making Slains Castle the chief centre for landing Jacobite secret agents, she had an implied understanding with the naval officer patrolling the coast of Buchan to let her know when his ship was passing off Slains. Once landed at Slains, they were hurried inland to another of her strongholds, Delgatie Castle, with its hidey-holes and secret passage, she used Jamie Fleeman, the Laird of Udny's fool, as a messenger to contact Jacobite rebels when they were in hiding as he was able to roam unquestioned around the countryside. In 1747, under the Heritable Jurisdictions Act 1746 which abolished heritable jurisdictions, she received £1,200 for the regality of Slains, her husband having predeceased her in July 1745, she died on 19 August 1758 at Slains Castle, County Aberdeen. As she was childless, the family dignities went to her sister's grandson, Lord Boyd, son of William Boyd, 4th Earl of Kilmarnock, executed on Tower Hill and attainted in 1746, for his part in the Jacobite rising of 1745.

"Women in power 1700-1745" from, URL accessed 10/12/06

Graphic Classics

Graphic Classics was a comic book anthology series published by Eureka Productions of Mount Horeb, Wisconsin. Graphic Classics features adaptations of literary classics by authors such as Arthur Conan Doyle, H. P. Lovecraft, Edgar Allan Poe, with art by top professionals, many of whom hail from the underground or alternative comics world. Created and edited by Tom Pomplun, the series began publication in 2002. Designed for ages 12 and up, 22 of the Graphic Classics volumes have been included in Diamond Comic Distributors list of recommended books for the American Library Association's Common Core Standards curricula. Graphic Classics was an outgrowth of Rosebud, a literary journal co-founded by Pomplun which included comics. In 2002, Pomplun left Rosebud to start Graphic Classics; because of budget restrictions, one of the first decisions Pomplun made was to restrict adaptations in the series to works in the public domain. The series started out in black-and-white. Most volumes contain at least a few reprint of comics adaptations published by other companies, some going as far back as the 1970s.

Six of the first eight volumes are in second editions with additional material than in the first edition. Graphic Classics vol 6: Ambrose Bierce was nominated for the 2003 Bram Stoker Award for Best Illustrated Narrative. Graphic Classics vol. 10: Horror Classics was the first volume focusing on a theme rather than a single author. Eureka produced a special 68-page Free Comic Book Day Graphic Classics edition in 2008. Graphic Classics vol. 22: African American Classics was adapted and illustrated entirely by African American comics creators. Other comic book adaptations of literature: Classics Illustrated Marvel Classics Comics Marvel Illustrated PAICO Classics, Indian series similar to Classics Illustrated Pendulum Illustrated Classics, published by Pendulum Press Official website Graphic Classics at the Grand Comics Database Graphic Classics at the Comic Book DB New York Times article on publishers releasing classic literature in comics form