Príncipe is the smaller, northern major island of the country of São Tomé and Príncipe lying off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea. It has an area of 136 square kilometres and a population of 7,324; the island is a eroded volcano speculated to be over three million years old, surrounded by smaller islands including Ilheu Bom Bom, Ilhéu Caroço, Tinhosa Grande and Tinhosa Pequena. Part of the Cameroon Line archipelago, Príncipe rises in the south to 947 metres at Pico do Príncipe; the island is the main constituent of the Autonomous Region of Príncipe, established in 1995, of the coterminous district of Pagué. The island was uninhabited when discovered by the Portuguese on 17 January 1471 and was first named after Saint Anthony; the island was renamed Príncipe by King John II of Portugal in honour of his son Afonso, Prince of Portugal. The first settlement, the town Santo António, was founded in 1502. Subsequently, the north and centre of the island were made into plantations by Portuguese colonists using slave labor.
These concentrated on producing sugar and after 1822 on cocoa, becoming the world's greatest cocoa producer. Since independence, these plantations have reverted to forest; the island's fortress named Fortaleza de Santo António da Ponta da Mina on a point inside Baía de Santo António was built in 1695. In 1706, the city and the fortress were destroyed by the French. From 1753 until 1852, Santo António was the colonial capital of Príncipe. Príncipe was the site where Einstein's theory of relativity was experimentally corroborated by Arthur Stanley Eddington and his team during the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919. On April 29, 1995, the Autonomous Region of Príncipe was established, corresponding with the existing Pagué District. Príncipe has one town, Santo António, an airport; some other smaller settlements are Porto Real. Portuguese is the main language of the island. Portuguese creoles are spoken: Principense or Lunguyê and, in some scale, Forro are spoken. In 1771, Príncipe had a population of 5,850: 111 whites, 165 free mulattoes, 6 mulatto slaves, 900 free blacks, 4,668 black slaves.
In 1875, the year when slavery was abolished in the archipelago, Príncipe’s population had dropped to only 1,946, of whom 45 were Europeans, 1,521 were free natives, 380 were freemen. In 2006, the Parque Natural Obô do Príncipe was established, covering the mountainous, densely forested and uninhabited southern part of the island of Príncipe. There are numerous endemic species of fauna on Príncipe, including birds such as the Príncipe kingfisher, Principe seedeater, Principe starling, Príncipe sunbird, black-capped speirops, Dohrn's thrush-babbler, the Príncipe weaver and the Príncipe white-eye, geckos include the Príncipe gecko, frogs include the palm forest tree frog and the Phrynobatrachus dispar. Marine fauna includes a mollusc and the West African mud turtle. UNESCO established the Island of Príncipe Biosphere Reserve in 2012 under the Man and the Biosphere Programme; the reserve encompasses the entire emerged area of the island of Príncipe, its islets Bom Bom, Boné do Jóquei, Mosteiros and Pedra da Galei, the Tinhosas islands.
Damião Vaz d'Almeida, former Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe João Paulo Cassandra, former autonomous president of the island José Cassandra, current president of the island Sara Pinto Coelho, colonial born Portuguese writer Camilo Domingos, singer Manuela Margarido, writer Map of Príncipe Principe portal "Príncipe: a haven on earth" Financial Times Wikimedia Atlas of São Tomé and Príncipe Sao Tome and Principe travel guide from Wikivoyage Príncipe at Curlie
Gulf of Guinea
The Gulf of Guinea is the northeasternmost part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean between Cape Lopez in Gabon and west to Cape Palmas in Liberia. The intersection of the Equator and Prime Meridian is in the gulf. Among the many rivers that drain into the Gulf of Guinea are the Volta; the coastline on the gulf includes the Bight of Bonny. The origin of the name Guinea is thought to be an area in the region, although the specifics are disputed. Bovill gives a thorough description: The name Guinea is said to have been a corrupt form of the name Ghana, picked up by the Portuguese in the Maghrib; the present writer finds this unacceptable. The name Guinea has been in use both in Europe long before Prince Henry's time. For example, on a map dated about 1320 by the Genoese cartographer Giovanni di Carignano, who got his information about Africa from a fellow-countryman in Sijilmas, we find Gunuia, in the Catalan atlas of 1375 as Ginyia. A passage in Leo points to Guinea having been a corrupt form of Jenne, less famous than Ghana but for many centuries famed in the Maghrib as a great market and a seat of learning.
The relevant passage reads: "The Kingdom of Ghinea... called by the merchants of our nation Gheneoa, by the natural inhabitants thereof Genni and by the Portugals and other people of Europe Ghinea." But it seems more probable that Guinea derives from the Berber for Negro. Marrakech has a gate, built in the twelfth century, called the Bab Aguinaou, the Gate of the Negro; the modern application of the name Guinea to the coast dates only from 1481. In that year the Portuguese built a fort, São Jorge da Mina, on the Gold Coast region, their king, John II, was permitted by the Pope to style himself Lord of Guinea, a title that survived until the recent extinction of the monarchy; the name "Guinea" was applied to south coast of West Africa, north of the Gulf of Guinea, which became known as "Upper Guinea", the west coast of Southern Africa, to the east, which became known as "Lower Guinea". The name "Guinea" is still attached to the names of three countries in Africa: Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, as well as New Guinea in Melanesia.
The main river shedding its waters in the gulf is the Niger River. Different definitions of the geographic limits of the Gulf of Guinea are given; the Gulf of Guinea contains a number of islands, the largest of which are in a southwest-northeast chain, forming part of the Cameroon line of volcanoes. Annobón known as Pagalu or Pigalu, is an island, part of Equatorial Guinea. Bobowasi Island is an island off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, part of Western region Ghana. Bioko is an island off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea, part of Equatorial Guinea. Corisco is an island belonging to Equatorial Guinea. Elobey Grande and Elobey Chico are two small islands belonging to Equatorial Guinea. São Tomé and Príncipe is a Portuguese-speaking island nation in the Gulf of Guinea that became independent from Portugal in 1975, it is located off the western equatorial coast of Africa and consists of two islands, São Tomé and Príncipe. They are located about 140 kilometres apart and about 250 and 225 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Gabon.
Both islands are part of an extinct volcanic mountain range. São Tomé, the sizeable southern island, is situated just north of the Equator. Media related to Gulf of Guinea at Wikimedia Commons The Gulf of Guinea Commission - CGG - GGC
Pico de São Tomé
Pico de São Tomé is the highest mountain in São Tomé and Príncipe at 2,024 m elevation. It lies just west of the centre of São Tomé Island, in the Parque Natural Obô de São Tomé and in the Lembá District; the second highest point, Pico de Ana Chaves, lies about 3 km to its south east. The town Santa Catarina is 8 km to the west; the entire island of São Tomé is a massive shield volcano which rises from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, over 3,000 m below sea level. It formed along the Cameroon line, a linear rift zone extending from Cameroon southwest into the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the lava erupted on São Tomé over the last million years has been basalt; the most recent activity was about 36,000 years ago. On old maps of São Tomé and Príncipe, the mountain is named "Pico Gago Coutinho", after Portuguese naval officer Carlos Viegas Gago Coutinho who, together with Sacadura Cabral, was the first to cross the South Atlantic Ocean by air; the mountain is clad in forest. On the lower slopes are plantations of coffee and cocoa, higher up are large trees swathed in orchids and other epiphytes.
The upper parts of the mountain are swathed in mist. It can be climbed from two sides. One way starts above the Ponta Figo plantation and necessitates a camp at Pico Mesa at 1,875 m; the summit can be reached in about an hour before descending via Carvalho to the Bombaim Plantation house. The other route ascends from the botanic garden at Bom Sucesso to Carvalho where there is a rest area and camping facilities. On the next day, the summit can be reached with a descent being made to Ponta Figo; the ascent can be made in a single eighteen hour hike from Ponta Figo, but this does not allow much time for viewing the flora and fauna. The trek is not difficult but the rainy weather tends to make the path slippery. List of mountains in São Tomé and Príncipe List of Ultras of Africa
Equatorial Guinea the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, is a country located on the west coast of Central Africa, with an area of 28,000 square kilometres. The colony of Spanish Guinea, its post-independence name evokes its location near both the Equator and the Gulf of Guinea. Equatorial Guinea is the only sovereign African state; as of 2015, the country had an estimated population of 1,222,245. Equatorial Guinea consists of an insular and a mainland region; the insular region consists of the islands of Bioko in the Gulf of Guinea and Annobón, a small volcanic island, the only part of the country south of the equator. Bioko Island is the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea and is the site of the country's capital, Malabo; the Portuguese speaking island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located between Annobón. The mainland region, Río Muni, is bordered by Cameroon on Gabon on the south and east, it is the location of Bata, Equatorial Guinea's largest city, Ciudad de la Paz, the country's planned future capital.
Rio Muni includes several small offshore islands, such as Corisco, Elobey Grande, Elobey Chico. The country is a member of the African Union, Francophonie, OPEC and the CPLP. Since the mid-1990s, Equatorial Guinea has become one of sub-Saharan Africa's largest oil producers, it is the richest country per capita in Africa, its gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power parity per capita ranks 43rd in the world. The country ranks 135th on the UN's 2016 Human Development Index; the UN says that less than half of the population has access to clean drinking water and that 20% of children die before reaching the age of five. The sovereign state totalitarian government is cited as having one of the worst human rights records in the world ranking among the "worst of the worst" in Freedom House's annual survey of political and civil rights. Reporters Without Borders ranks President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo among its "predators" of press freedom. Human trafficking is a significant problem.
S. Trafficking in Persons Report stated that Equatorial Guinea "is a source and destination for women and children subjected to forced labor and forced sex trafficking." The report rates Equatorial Guinea as a government that "does not comply with minimum standards and is not making significant efforts to do so." Pygmies once lived in the continental region, now Equatorial Guinea, but are today found only in isolated pockets in southern Río Muni. Bantu migrations started around 4,000 BP from between south-east Nigeria and north-west Cameroon, they must have settled continental Equatorial Guinea around 2,500 BP at the latest. The earliest settlements on Bioko Island are dated to 1480 BP; the Annobón population native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via São Tomé island. The Portuguese explorer Fernando Pó, seeking a path to India, is credited as being the first European to discover the island of Bioko in 1472, he called it Formosa, but it took on the name of its European discoverer. Fernando Pó and Annobón were colonized by Portugal in 1474.
In 1778, Queen Maria I of Portugal and King Charles III of Spain signed the Treaty of El Pardo which ceded Bioko, adjacent islets, commercial rights to the Bight of Biafra between the Niger and Ogoue rivers to Spain. Spain thereby tried to gain access to a source of slaves controlled by British merchants. Between 1778 and 1810, the territory of Equatorial Guinea was administered by the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, based in Buenos Aires. From 1827 to 1843, the United Kingdom had a base on Bioko to control the slave trade, moved to Sierra Leone under an agreement with Spain in 1843. In 1844, on restoration of Spanish sovereignty, the area became known as the "Territorios Españoles del Golfo de Guinea." Spain had neglected to occupy the large area in the Bight of Biafra to which it had right by treaty, the French had busily expanded their occupation at the expense of the area claimed by Spain. The treaty of Paris in 1900 left Spain with the continental enclave of Rio Muni, a mere 26,000 km2 out of the 300,000 stretching east to the Ubangi river which the Spaniards had claimed.
The plantations of Fernando Pó were run by a black Creole elite known as Fernandinos. The British occupied the island in the early 19th century, settling some 2,000 Sierra Leoneans and freed slaves there. Limited immigration from West Africa and the West Indies continued after the British left. To this were added Cubans and Spaniards of various colours deported for political or other crimes, as well as some assisted settlers. There was a trickle of immigration from the neighbouring Portuguese islands, escaped slaves and prospective planters. Although a few of the Fernandinos were Catholic and Spanish-speaking, about nine-tenths of them were Protestant and English-speaking on the eve of the First World War, pidgin English was the lingua franca of the island; the Sierra Leoneans were well placed as planters while labor recruitment on the Windward coast continued, for they kept family and other connections there and could arrange a supply of labor. The opening years of the twentieth century saw a new generation of Spanish immigrants.
Land regulations issued in 1904–1905 favoured Spaniards
Ponta Figo is a village on São Tomé Island. It is 2 km south of Neves, its population is 615
Bioko is an island 32 km off the west coast of Africa, the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea. Its population was 334,463 at the 2015 census and it covers an area of 2,017 km2; the island is located in the Bight of Bonny portion of the Gulf of Guinea. Its geology is volcanic. Bioko has a total area of 2,017 km2, it is about 32 km across. It is volcanic and mountainous with the highest peak Pico Basile, it thus resembles neighbouring islands São Príncipe. Like them, it lies on the Cameroon line, its southernmost point is called Punta Santiago. Bioko used to be the end of a peninsula attached to the mainland in what is now Cameroon, but it was cut off when sea levels rose 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age; the island has a population of 334,463 inhabitants. Its historic indigenous people are the Bubi people who constitute 58% of the population. Other ethnicities include the Fang at 16%, Fernandinos at 12%, the Igbo at 7%, as well as African and European immigrants. Bioko's native name is Etulá in the Bube language.
Between 1973 and 1979 the island was named Macías Nguema Biyogo after the president of Equatorial Guinea. The island was inhabited in the middle of the first millennium BC by Bantu tribes from the mainland, who formed the Bubi ethnic group. Unlike other islands in the area, Bioko had an indigenous African population; the Bubi speak a Bantu language. The island has been inhabited by this or other Bantu-speaking groups since before the 7th century BC. In 1472, the Portuguese navigator Fernão do, he named it Formosa Flora. In 1494 it was renamed Fernando Pó in his honor after being claimed as a colony by the Portuguese; the Portuguese developed the island for sugarcane crops, while considered poor quality, the refineries' output was such that Fernando Po sugar dominated the trade centres in Europe. In 1642, the Dutch East India Company established trade bases on the island without Portuguese consent, it temporarily centralized from there its slave trade in the Gulf of Guinea. The Portuguese appeared again on the island in 1648, replacing the Dutch Company with one of their own dedicated to slave trading and established in its neighbour island Corisco.
Parallel with this establishment, the Bubi clans began the slow process of establishing the core of a new kingdom on the island after the activity of some local chiefs such as Molambo. During a period when enslavement was increasing in the region, local clans abandoned their coastal settlements and settled in the safer hinterland. Under the 1778 Treaty of El Pardo, Portugal ceded Fernando Po, Annobón, the Guinea coast, Rio Muni, to Spain, together forming modern Equatorial Guinea; the treaty was signed by Queen Mary I of Portugal and King Charles III of Spain, in exchange for territory on the American continent. Spain mounted an expedition to Fernando Po, led by the Conde de Argelejos, who stayed for four months. In October 1778, Spain installed a governor on the island who stayed until 1780, when the Spanish mission left the island. Chief Molambo was succeeded by another local leader, succeeded by Lopoa. After abolishing the British Atlantic slave trade, from 1827 to 1843 the British leased bases at Port Clarence and San Carlos for anti-slavery patrols.
The settlement at Port Clarence was constructed under the supervision of William Fitzwilliam Owen. He had mapped most of the coasts of Africa and was a zealous anti-slaver. During his three-year command, his forces liberated 2,500 slaves; the Court of Mixed Commission was moved from Freetown, Sierra Leone, to Clarence to hasten the legal process of emancipating slaves liberated from slave ships. In March 1843, Juan José Lerena planted the Spanish flag in Malabo, starting the decline of British influence on the island. Spain revoked the British lease in 1855. Madabita and Sepoko were principal local chiefs during the period when Spain re-established its control of the island; this period was marked by Spain's transport deportation here of several hundred Afro-Cubans, as well as tens of Spanish scholars and politicians considered politically undesirable. In addition Spain exiled 218 rebels here from Philippine Revolution, of whom only 94 survived for long. In 1923–1930, the League of Nations investigated the transportation of contract migrant labour between Liberia and the Spanish colony of Fernando Po.
Although the League concentrated its attention on arrangements in Liberia, a closer examination revealed that labour abuse arose from conditions on Fernando Po. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Krio planters on the island had shifted from palm oil trading to cocoa cultivation, their dependence on migrant labour and increasing competition with Europeans resulted in an economic crisis in the first years of the twentieth century. Planters detained labour but failed to pay their contracts, resulting in a situation of de facto slavery. Liberia prohibited labor traders from contracting with their citizens. During the Nigerian civil war in the 20th century, relief agencies used the island as a base for flights into Biafra. Given the numerous ethnic groups and peoples who operated on Bioko, a creole language developed, known as Pichi. It
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe