Bequia is the second largest island in the Grenadines at 7 square miles. It is part of the country of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and is 15 kilometres from the nation's capital, Kingstown, on the main island, Saint Vincent. Bequia means "island of the clouds" in the ancient Arawak; the island's name was also'Becouya' as part of the Grenadines. The island's unofficial anthem is considered to be'Only in Bequia' by island native Raphael "Socony" Holder. Bequia is a small island, measuring 7 square miles with a population of 5,300; the native population are a mixture of people of African and Island Carib descent. A substantial number of white Barbadians settled the Mount Pleasant area of Bequia in the 1860s. Many of their descendants still inhabit the area. Other populated areas include the island capital, Port Elizabeth, which hosts the ferry terminal and Paget Farm, which hosts the airport. There are villages at Lower Bay, La Pompe and Belmont. Other prominent areas of Bequia include Spring, the site of a former coconut plantation and home to agricultural animals, Industry Bay and Park Bay, where the Old Hegg Turtle Sanctuary is located.
The island's hills are much lower than the peaks of St. Vincent, 10 miles to the north, so they do not receive as many rain showers. Princess Margaret, who had a home on nearby Mustique, visited Bequia and had a beach named in her honour. Princess Margaret Beach is next to Port Elizabeth and is situated inside Admiralty Bay on the west coast; the beach is known as Tony Gibbons, though the origin of this name is uncertain. On the west coast are the island's main port and a large natural harbour. Bequia is popular among cruising yachts and tourists. One of the busiest times of the year is the annual Easter Music Fest. Two scuba diving stores run dive trips to 28 identified dive sites around Bequia. There are shallow caves accessible to advanced divers, it is not unusual to see Hawksbill turtles, moray eels and many kinds of fish when diving around Bequia. There are tour companies which allow you to book sailing tours and day trips online. There are many tour companies operating in Bequia. Bequia has most of them with 20 rooms or fewer.
The waterfront Belmont walkway in Port Elizabeth is home to the oldest. Next door is the Gingerbread hotel & cafe, both hotels converted from traditional family homes to small inns. Of particular note are Sugar Reef, Firefly Plantation, Bequia Plantation and the largest. There are over 100 villas available to rent on the island; as a result of the Treaty of Utrecht, which brought an end to the War of Spanish Succession and established peace between the Spanish and British Empires, Great Britain obtained the lucrative monopoly over the Asiento slave trade. Runaway and shipwrecked slaves inhabited the island of St. Vincent in the 17th century. According to an early account of the French West Indies, which considered Bequia as part of Grenada, Bequia was too inaccessible to colonize and Caribs and Arawaks used the island for fishing and farming. A few Portuguese and Dutch slave ships en route to Sint Eustatius from West Africa shipwrecked on the Grenadine reefs. Bequia was under French control in the 18th century and during the Seven Years' War with England, the island was used by the fleets of their Spanish and Dutch allies to take on supplies, while British ships were banned.
The Treaty of Paris produced a significant re-alignment in the map of the Caribbean. The name Petit Martinique comes from this era. In 1779 the French seized the island, despite the Treaty of Paris, but were forced to relinquish control to Britain again soon after; the early 18th century saw the development of a sugar industry and the production of related products including molasses and rum. Other major produce included coffee and arrowroot. At one point in time, the islands of St. Vincent and the Grenadines were the single largest producer of arrowroot starch in the world. Hairoun and Vincy strong rum are major export products to the European Union. Under a programme instituted by Great Britain to give land to indigent settlers, James Hamilton, father of Alexander Hamilton, moved from St. Croix to Bequia in 1774 where he remained until 1790; the land granted to Hamilton lies along the shore of Southeast Bay. Despite his son's frequent gifts of money and entreaties to immigrate or at least visit him, neither visited the other.
Some historians believe. The opening shot of the movie Blackbeard, Pirate of the Caribbean, made by the BBC, displays a replica of his first ship off the coast of Bequia in the St. Vincent passage. According to local legend, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was not only Teach's base, but the place from which Sir Francis Drake planned his attacks on the Spanish admiralty in Don Blas de Lezo's Cartagena. Indeed, it is thought that Henry Morgan may have anchored in Admiralty Bay, as it was the safest natural harbour in the Eastern Caribbean during hurricane season. Bequia was used as a repair facility for ships. Beside Nelson's Dockyard on Antigua, the Carlyle in Bridgetown, there were no other drydocks or shipyards in the area. Wooden shipbuilding and ship-repair on Bequia was possible due to the presence of Cedar trees on the island and a sufficiently deep and sheltered harbour. Bequia i
Windward and leeward
Windward is the direction upwind from the point of reference, alternatively the direction from which the wind is coming. Leeward is the direction downwind from the point of reference; the leeward region of mountains remains dry as compared to the windward. The side of a ship, towards the leeward is its lee side. If the vessel is heeling under the pressure of the wind, this will be the "lower side". During the age of sail, the term weather was used as a synonym for windward in some contexts, as in the weather gage. Windward and leeward directions are important factors to consider. Other terms with broadly the same meaning are used upwind and downwind; the windward vessel is the more maneuverable vessel. For this reason, rule 12 of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea stipulates that the windward vessel gives way to the leeward vessel. In warfare, a square rigged warship would try to enter battle from the windward direction, thus gaining an important tactical advantage over the opposing warship – the warship to windward could choose when to engage and when to withdraw.
The opposing warship to leeward could do little but comply without exposing itself unduly. This was important once artillery was introduced to naval warfare; the ships heeled away from the wind so that the leeward vessel was exposing part of her bottom to shot. Leeward and windward refer to what a game stalker would call downwind and upwind; the terms are used by seamen in relation to their ships but in reference to islands in an archipelago and to the different sides of a single island. In the latter case, the windward side is that side of an island subject to the prevailing wind, is thus the wetter side; the leeward side is the side protected by the elevation of the island from the prevailing wind, is the drier side of an island. Thus, leeward or windward siting is an important climate factor on oceanic islands. In the case of an archipelago, windward islands are upwind and leeward islands are the downwind ones. In these contexts the terms windward and layward are not used. Hunting: In hunting, the animal, downwind has an advantage.
S/he can smell the upwind animal. The downwind animal has the advantage of surprise. Architecture and urban planning: Part of a house, or a community, is located upwind of something downwind, malodorous — an outhouse, a garbage dump, a feedlot, a factory or meatpacker, it is sometimes the case that part of a house or a community, or sometimes the entire house or community, will be downwind of some pleasant odor. These odors are either plant-based — flowers, fruit or flowering trees, forests —, or moving water — rivers, rain. Barlavento and Sotavento in Cape Verde Islands Downstream and upstream Foehn wind Lee shore Northwestern Hawaiian Islands known as Leeward Islands Windward Islands, Leeward Islands and Leeward Antilles Windward Islands and Leeward Islands
The Windward Islands known as the Islands of Barlovento, are the southern larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies. They lie south of the Leeward Islands between latitudes 10° and 16° N and longitudes 60° and 62° W; as a group they start from Dominica and reach southward to the north of Trinidad and Tobago and west of Barbados. The Windward Islands are called such because they were more windward to sailing ships arriving to the New World than the Leeward Islands, given that the prevailing trade winds in the West Indies blow east to west; the trans-Atlantic currents and winds that provided the fastest route across the ocean brought these ships to the rough dividing line between the Windward and Leeward islands. Dominica is the dividing line between the Leeward islands. Guadeloupe and islands to the north became known as the "Leeward Islands". Vessels in the Atlantic slave trade departing from the British Gold Coast and Gulf of Guinea in Africa would first encounter the southeasternmost "Windward" islands of the Lesser Antilles in their west-northwesterly heading to final destinations in the Caribbean and North and Central America.
The chain of Windward Islands forms a part of the easternmost boundary of the Caribbean Sea. Most of the present "Windward Islands" were once colonial island territories of France known as the French West Indies; the Windward Islands are as follows: Dominica Martinique Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Grenada Trinidad and Tobago Leeward Islands Southern Caribbean Lesser Antilles topics Windward Islands topics Leeward Islands topics Windward Islands cricket team Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Windward Islands". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. Cambridge University Press. P. 716
Mayreau is the smallest inhabited island of the Grenadines, with an area of about 1.5 sq. miles and a population of about 271. The population is centered in an unnamed village, located on Station Hill, a hilltop in the south-west of the island, it is an isolated community, accessible only by boat. Electricity was only provided by a central generator located on Saline Bay. There is a single-lane concrete road leading from the wharf on Saline Bay through the village to Saltwhistle Bay; the top of the island is crested with the small elementary school. From the crest of the hill behind the Catholic Church, there is an overlook of the Tobago Cays and Union Island; the island gets much of its water from three catchments set on the east side of the island. One serves the resort at two serve the village. Saline Bay is named for the salt pond just east of the sandy beach. Salt is now harvested only for local use; the island is populated by fishermen and supported by tourism. The school has about 50 students from kindergarten to Grades 6.
Upon completing their primary/elementary education, students attend secondary schools on neighbouring Union Island or the main island, St. Vincent. Mayreau has a small resort area on Saltwhistle Bay, a popular spot for anchoring yachts. Mayreau and the Tobago Cays at grenadines.net
La Soufrière (volcano)
La Soufrière or Soufrière Saint Vincent is an active volcano on the island of Saint Vincent in the Windward Islands of the Caribbean. Many volcanoes in the Caribbean are named Soufrière; these include Soufrière Hills on Montserrat and La Grande Soufrière on Guadeloupe, the subject of Werner Herzog's 1977 film La Soufrière. At 1,234 m, La Soufrière is the highest peak on Saint Vincent as well as the highest point in the island country of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Soufrière is a stratovolcano with a crater lake and is the island's youngest and northernmost volcano. La Soufrière violently erupted in 1718, 1812, 1902, 1971, 1979; the Saint Vincent eruption of 6 May 1902, just hours before the eruption of Mount Pelée on Martinique, killed 1,680 people. The death zone, where all persons were killed, was close to Carib; this last large remnant of Carib culture was destroyed, the island of Dominica's Carib Territory being much smaller in comparison at that time. The last recorded eruption was in April 1979.
A famous painting by J. M. W. Turner of the eruption on 13 April 1812 belongs to the Victoria Gallery & Museum, University of Liverpool. List of volcanic eruptions by death toll The University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program | Soufrière St. Vincent USGS/CVO West Indian Volcanoes UND Soufriere St. Vincent
Island arcs are long chains of active volcanoes with intense seismic activity found along convergent tectonic plate boundaries. Most island arcs originate on oceanic crust and have resulted from the descent of the lithosphere into the mantle along the subduction zone, they are the principal way. Island arcs can either be inactive based on their seismicity and presence of volcanoes. Active arcs are ridges of recent volcanoes with an associated deep seismic zone, they possess a distinct curved form, a chain of active or extinct volcanoes, a deep-sea trench, a large negative Bouguer anomaly on the convex side of the volcanic arc. The small positive gravity anomaly associated with volcanic arcs has been interpreted by many authors as due to the presence of dense volcanic rocks beneath the arc. While inactive arcs are a chain of islands which contains older volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks; the curved shape of many volcanic chains and the angle of the descending lithosphere are related. If the oceanic part of the plate is represented by the ocean floor on the convex side of the arc, if the zone of flexing occurs beneath the submarine trench the deflected part of the plate coincides with the Benioff zone beneath most arcs.
Most modern island arcs are near the continental margins. However, no direct evidence from within the arcs shows that they have always existed at their present position with respect to the continents. Though, evidence from some continental margins suggests that some arcs may have migrated toward the continents during the late Mesozoic or early Cenozoic; the movement of the island arcs towards the continent could be possible if, at some point, the ancient Benioff zones dipped toward the present ocean rather than toward the continent, as in most arcs today. This will have resulted in the loss of ocean floor between the arc and the continent, in the migration of the arc during spreading episodes; the fracture zones in which some active island arcs terminate may be interpreted in terms of plate tectonics as resulting from movement along transform faults, which are plate margins where the crust is neither being consumed nor generated. Thus the present location of these inactive island chains is due to the present pattern of lithospheric plates.
However, their volcanic history, which indicates that they are fragments of older island arcs, is not related to the present plate pattern and may be due to differences in position of plate margins in the past. Understanding the source of heat that causes the melting of the mantle was a contentious problem. Researchers believed. However, this is unlikely because the viscosity of the asthenosphere decreases with increasing temperature, at the temperatures required for partial fusion, the asthenosphere would have such a low viscosity that shear melting could not occur, it is now believed. It has been shown that the amount of water present in the down-going slab is related to the melting temperature of the mantle; the greater the amount of water present, the more the melting temperature of the mantle is reduced. This water is released during the transformation of minerals as pressure increases, with the mineral carrying the most water being serpentinite; these metamorphic mineral reactions cause the dehydration of the upper part of the slab as the hydrated slab sinks.
Heat is transferred to it from the surrounding asthenosphere. As heat is transferred to the slab, temperature gradients are established such that the asthenosphere in the vicinity of the slab becomes cooler and more viscous than surrounding areas near the upper part of the slab; this more viscous asthenosphere is dragged down with the slab causing less viscous mantle to flow in behind it. It is the interaction of this down-welling mantle with aqueous fluids rising from the sinking slab, thought to produce partial melting of the mantle as it crosses its wet solidus. In addition, some melts may result from the up-welling of hot mantle material within the mantle wedge. If hot material rises enough so that little heat is lost, the reduction in pressure may cause pressure release or decompression partial melting. On the subducting side of the island arc is a deep and narrow oceanic trench, the trace at the Earth's surface of the boundary between the down-going and overriding plates; this trench is created by the downward gravitational pull of the dense subducting plate on the leading edge of the plate.
Multiple earthquakes occur along this subduction boundary with the seismic hypocenters located at increasing depth under the island arc: these quakes define the Benioff zone. Island arcs can be formed in intra-oceanic settings, or from the fragments of continental crust that have migrated away from an adjacent continental land mass or at subduction-related volcanoes active at the margins of continents. Below are some of the generalized features present in most island arcs. Fore-arc: This region comprises the trench, the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin. A bump from the trench in the oceanward side of the system is present; the fore-arc basin forms between the island arc. Trenches: These are the deepest features of ocean basins, they are formed by developing on the ocean side of island arcs. Back-arc basin: They are referred to as marginal sea
An endangered species is a species, categorized as likely to become extinct. Endangered, as categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, is the second most severe conservation status for wild populations in the IUCN's schema after Critically Endangered. In 2012, the IUCN Red List featured 3,079 animal and 2,655 plant species as endangered worldwide; the figures for 1998 were 1,102 and 1,197. Many nations have laws that protect conservation-reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development or creating preserves. Population numbers and species' conservation status can be found at the lists of organisms by population; the conservation status of a species indicates the likelihood. Many factors are considered; the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the best-known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Over 50% of the world's species are estimated to be at risk of extinction. Internationally, 199 countries have signed an accord to create Biodiversity Action Plans that will protect endangered and other threatened species.
In the United States, such plans are called Species Recovery Plans. Though labelled a list, the IUCN Red List is a system of assessing the global conservation status of species that includes "Data Deficient" species – species for which more data and assessment is required before their status may be determined – as well species comprehensively assessed by the IUCN's species assessment process; those species of "Near Threatened" and "Least Concern" status have been assessed and found to have robust and healthy populations, though these may be in decline. Unlike their more general use elsewhere, the List uses the terms "endangered species" and "threatened species" with particular meanings: "Endangered" species lie between "Vulnerable" and "Critically Endangered" species, while "Threatened" species are those species determined to be Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endangered; the IUCN categories, with examples of animals classified by them, include: Extinct no remaining individuals of the species Extinct in the wild Captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population.
Critically endangered Faces an high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Endangered Faces a high risk of extinction in the near future. Vulnerable Faces a high risk of endangerment in the medium term. Near-threatened May be considered threatened in the near future. Least concern No immediate threat to species' survival. A) Reduction in population size based on any of the following: An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 70% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the causes of the reduction are reversible AND understood AND ceased, based on any of the following: direct observation an index of abundance appropriate for the taxon a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence or quality of habitat actual or potential levels of exploitation the effects of introduced taxa, pathogens, competitors or parasites. An observed, inferred or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1.
A population size reduction of ≥ 50%, projected or suspected to be met within the next 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on any of to under A1. An observed, inferred, projected or suspected population size reduction of ≥ 50% over any 10 year or three generation period, whichever is longer, where the time period must include both the past and the future, where the reduction or its causes may not have ceased OR may not be understood OR may not be reversible, based on any of to under A1. B) Geographic range in the form of either B1 OR B2 OR both: Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5,000 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations. Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Area of occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km², estimates indicating at least two of a-c: Severely fragmented or known to exist at no more than five locations.
Continuing decline, observed or projected, in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy area, extent or quality of habitat number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individuals Extreme fluctuations in any of the following: extent of occurrence area of occupancy number of locations or subpopulations number of mature individualsC) Population estimated to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals and either: An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two generations, whichever is longer, OR A continuing decline, projected