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Geography of Vatican City

The geography of Vatican City is unique due to the country's position as an urban, landlocked enclave of Rome, Italy. With an area of 44 ha, it is the world's smallest independent state. Outside the Vatican City, thirteen buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo enjoy extraterritorial rights; the country contains no major natural resources, no known natural hazards other than those that affect Rome in general, such as earthquakes. The city state has the same climate as Rome: temperate, rainy winters with hot, dry summers. Vatican City sits on a low hill; the hill has been called the Vatican Hill since long. An Etruscan settlement called Vatica or Vaticum, may have existed in the area known by the ancient Romans as "Vatican territory", but if so no archaeological trace of it has been discovered; this is a list of the extreme points of Vatican City: the points that are farther north, east or west than any other location, as well as the highest and lowest points. North: at the intersection of the Viale Vaticano and the Via Leone IV South: at the intersection of the Via della Stazione Vaticana and the Via di Porta Cavalleggeri West: at the intersection of the Viale Vaticano and the Via Aurelia East: easternmost edge of Saint Peter's Square The lowest point in Vatican City is an unnamed location at 63 feet.

The highest point is another unnamed location at 250 feet. The tallest building is at 452 feet; the nature of the estate is fundamentally urban and none of the land is reserved for significant agriculture or other exploitation of natural resources. The city state displays an impressive degree of land economy, born of necessity due to its limited territory. Thus, the urban development is optimized to occupy less than 50% of the total area, while the rest is reserved for open space, including the Vatican Gardens; the territory holds many diverse structures that help provide autonomy for the sovereign state, including a rail line and train station, post office, radio station, military barracks, government palaces and offices, public plaza, part of an audience hall, old defensive wall marking the border, institutions of higher learning, cultural/art centers. In July 2007, the Vatican accepted an offer that would make it the only carbon neutral state for the year, due to the donation of the Vatican Climate Forest in Hungary.

The forest was to be sized to offset the year's carbon dioxide emissions. Party to: Ozone Layer Protection Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution, Environmental Modification Geography of Italy Properties of the Holy See Index of Vatican City-related articles This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. Notes Interactive Vatican City Map

Nagaur district

Nagaur District is one of the 33 districts of the state of Rajasthan in western India. Panchayati Raj was introduced here. Area of the district is 17,718 km2; the city of Nagaur is the district headquarters. Nagaur District is situated between 26°25' & 27°40' North Latitude & 73°.10' & 75°.15' East Longitude. The district is bounded by Bikaner District to the northwest, Churu District to the north, Sikar District to the northeast, Jaipur District to the east, Ajmer District to the southeast, Pali District to the south, Jodhpur District to the southwest and west; the district lies in the Marwar region of Rajasthan, in the Northwestern thorn scrub forests belt surrounding the Thar Desert. The Aravalli Range extends across the southeastern portion of the district, the saline Sambhar Lake, India's largest salt lake and Rajasthan's largest lake, lies at the southwestern corner of the district, straddling the boundary with Jaipur District. Kheduli is a historic palace where pupil of khawaja moiniddin chisti hamiduddin nagouri lived for 10 years and located on the railway line of Jaipur-Jodhpur.

The district consists 13 Main tehsils. These are Nagaur, Jayal, Merta City, Didwana, Parbatsar, Kuchaman City, Mundwa, all of these 12 are Sub-divisions also. There are 1607 villages in the district. Charbhujanath temple and meera bai mandir situated at mertacity, known as the birth place of bhakta shiromani meerabai. According to the 2011 census Nagaur district has a population of 3,307,743 equal to the nation of Uruguay or the US state of Connecticut; this gives it a ranking of 102nd in India. The district has a population density of 187 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 19.25%. Nagaur has a sex ratio of 948 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 64.08%. At the time of the 2011 Census of India, 98.15% of the population in the district spoke Hindi and 1.71% Urdu as their first language. Nagaur Fort was one of the first Muslim strongholds in northern India and one of the finest examples of Jat-Mughal architecture. Built in the early 12th century and altered over subsequent centuries, it witnessed many battles.

Underwent major renovations in 2007. 90 fountains are now running in the buildings. The fort's buildings and spaces, both external and internal, serve as venue and home to a Sufi Music Festival. Rol known as Rol Sharif is a village in Jayal tehsil of Nagaur district in the Indian state of Rajasthan; the village has many mosques, including Shahi Jama Masjid. There is Jubba Mubarak of Muhammad, which are said to possess holy relic brought by Qazi Hamiduddin Nagauri from Bukhara, Russia. Devotees from various parts of the country gather on urs of Quazi Sahab to celebrate the occasion. There is an annual Urs Mela organised in village. Ladnun - 10th century's Jain temples are rich with historical attraction. Jain Vishva Bharti University - A centre of Jainism. Khinvsar town - Khimsar Fort - Situated 42 km from Nagaur on the National Highway No. 65 towards Jodhpur. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb used to stay here. Jayal- Dadhimati Mata Temple - Also known as Goth-Manglod temple. Merta - Meera Bai Temple - Also known as the Charbhuja temple.

Kuchaman City - Kuchaman Fort - One of the oldest & most inaccessible forts of Rajasthan, this fort is situated on top of a straight hill. Jodhpur rulers used to mint their silver currency here, it has been converted into a hotel. Khatu - Khatu's old name was Shatkup; when Shak rulers came to India they brought two new wells with them which were called Shakandhu & Kalandh. According to Prathviraj Raso, Khatu's old name was Khatwan. Old Khatu is destroyed. Now there are two villages, one is called other Chhoti Khatu. On the hillock of Chhoti Khatu a small fort is standing. Fort was built by Prithviraj Chauhan. An old stepwell is located in Chhoti Khatu, known as Phool Bawadi, it is believed that this stepwell was constructed in Gurjara Pratihara period. Kurki - Kurki is a small village in the Merta Tehsil of Nagaur district, it is the birthplace of Meera Bai, about 30 km from Merta. Kharnal - It is situated on the Nagaur-Jodhpur National Highway near about 15 km from Nagaur, it is the birthplace of Lok Devta Veer Tejaji.

It is believed that Kharnal was established by Dhawal Khichi, in the 5th generation of the Choudhan ruler Gundal Rao Khichi of Jayal state. Veer Tejaji was born in Dholiya Gotra of Jat. Untwaliya - It is situated 15 km from Nagaur and 10 km from Alai. Jhorda - It is situated on the north of Nagaur about 30 km away, it is the birthplace of the Saint Baba Hariram. Official website Nagaur district Nagaur Map

Gary Antonick

Gary Antonick is an American journalist and recreational mathematician who for many years wrote a puzzle-based column called "Numberplay" for the New York Times. Antonick has a BS in Engineering from the University of Michigan and an MBA from Harvard Business School. From December 2009 to October 2016 Antonick wrote the puzzle themed "Numberplay" column for the New York Times; the puzzles involved math or logic problems. They came from many sources, many were descended from columns by the celebrated Scientific American columnist Martin Gardner, he wrote about Gardner and considered him to be the leading popularizer of recreational mathematics. Conferences called Gathering 4 Gardner are held every two years to celebrate Gardner's legacy, Antonick has twice spoken at these events, he supports the Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival. Among the many classic problems of recreational mathematics featured in "Numberplay" are The Prisoner's Dilemma, The Two Child Problem, The Monty Hall Problem, The Monkey and the Coconuts, The Two-cube Calendar, The Zebra Puzzle.

Sometimes "Numberplay" was used to celebrate other mathematicians such as Paul Erdős, or to report a breakthrough in mathematics or game theory."Numberplay" columns led to five sequences originated by Antonick being listed in the On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences list of articles by Gary Antonick in the New York Times