Pukapuka Danger Island, is a coral atoll in the northern group of the Cook Islands in the Pacific Ocean. It is one of most remote islands of the Cook Islands, situated about 1,140 kilometres northwest of Rarotonga. On this small island, an ancient culture and distinct language has been maintained over many centuries; the traditional name for the atoll is Te Ulu-o-Te-Watu, the northern islet where the people reside is affectionately known as Wale. The name Pukapuka is ancient and referred to the people. Pukapuka is shaped like a three bladed fan. There are three islets on the triangular reef, with a total land area of 3 square kilometres. Motu Kō, the biggest island is to the southeast. Kō and Motu Kotawa are uninhabited food reserves, with taro and pulaka gardens and coconut plantations. Pukapuka Airport is on Kō; the three villages are located on the crescent-shaped bay of the northernmost islet of the atoll: Yātō, Loto and Ngake. Loto is host to the Island Administration; the traditional names for these villages are Kotipolo and Te Lāngaikula.
In daily life, the islanders call them Tiapani, Malike or Amelika and Ōlani respectively. In sports competitions between the villages, the villagers use the names and flags of these countries. Although the island has a well-maintained airstrip, flights from Rarotonga are infrequent; the five-hour flight from Rarotonga via Air Rarotonga now operates when there is a Government charter once every six weeks or so. The island is closer to Samoa than to the rest of the Cook Islands and transport via Samoa is becoming a preferred option for Pukapukans visiting in organised groups from New Zealand and Australia; the submerged Tima Reef is situated 23 km southeast of Pukapuka. About 60 km away is Nassau, owned by the people of Pukapuka and considered part of it for administrative purposes. Since the 1950s it has been governed by the Council of Chiefs of Pukapuka; the Nassau Island Committee advises the Pukapuka Island Committee on matters relating to its own island. In the 1980s Japanese archaeologists discovered evidence of human settlement dating back about 2,000 years.
The remnants include the bones of dogs. Pukapuka's closest prehistoric associations appear to be with Tonga and Samoa and other islands to the west, but there was a lot of contact with islands to the east. Pukapuka was the first of the Cook Islands; the Spanish explorer Álvaro de Mendaña saw it on the feast day of Saint Bernard, on Sunday 20 August 1595 and named it San Bernardo. On 21 June 1765 the British Naval expedition under Commodore John Byron, consisting of HMS Dolphin and HMS Tamar, sighted the island. Byron gave the name "Islands of Danger" because of the reefs and the high surf that made it too dangerous to land; the name "Danger Island" still appears on some maps. According to oral tradition, an unknown ship called at Pukapuka in the mid 18th century, when the Yalongo lineage chief Tāwaki boldly took the captain's pipe out of his mouth, he was shot.. Thirty years Pukapuka was given the name "Isles de la Loutre" by Pierre François Péron, a French adventurer, acting as first mate on board the American merchant ship, Otter after it was sighted on 3 April 1796.
The following day, Péron, Thomas Muir of Huntershill, a small party landed ashore but the inhabitants would not allow them to inspect the island. Trading took place near the ship, when adzes and other artifacts were exchanged for knives and European goods. "Everything united to convince us that we had the right to attribute to ourselves the honour of having discovered three new islands. In order to distinguish them, we named the eastern one'Peron and Muir', the one to the north'Dorr', the name of'Brown' was given to the third, after one of our officers." Péron believed that they were the first to discover the island because the people were so afraid of them. The Pukapukans' fear of the visitors was because Tāwaki had been killed during the ship visit about 30 years previously; because of Pukapuka's isolation, few vessels visited before 1857 when the London Missionary Society landed teachers from Aitutaki and Rarotonga. Luka Manuae of Aitutaki wrote an extended account of the first days of contact 5–8 December 1857: "No te taeanga o te tuatua a te Atua ki Pukapuka".
Some lineages wanted to kill the newcomers in revenge for an incident that had happened a month earlier, but Vakaawi, chief of Yālongo lineage, protected them. In the following days, the island accepted Luka's Christian message because of an encounter when two dead people were raised back to life. In 1862 Rev. William Wyatt Gill found most of the people on the island converted to Christianity. Early in 1863 Peruvian slavers took away a total of 145 men and women; the London Missionary Society barque John Williams was wrecked on the western side in May 1864. In 1868 the buccaneer Bully Hayes took about 40 people to go on a labour scheme, but none of them returned home. Pukapuka wa
Penrhyn is an island in the northern group of the Cook Islands in the south Pacific Ocean. The northernmost island in the group, it is located at 1,365 km north-north-east of the capital island of Rarotonga, 9 degrees south of the equator, its nearest neighbours are Rakahanga, Manihiki 350 kilometres to the southwest. Penrhyn is a circular coral atoll with a circumference of 77 km, enclosing a lagoon with an area of 233 square kilometres; the atoll is atop the highest submarine volcano in the Cook Islands, rising 4,876 metres from the ocean floor. The atoll is low-lying, with a maximum elevation of less than 5 metres; the total land area is 9.84 square kilometres. The population according to the 2001 census was 351 inhabitants, with a decrease by 2011 to only 213 inhabitants. Penrhyn's original name was Tongareva. Academic research published by the Cook Islands Library and Museum says this is variously translated as "Tonga floating in space", "Tonga-in-the-skies" and "A way from the South". However, the most used name in English is Penrhyn after the Lady Penrhyn commanded by Captain William Crofton Sever, who passed by the island on 8 August 1788.
Penrhyn means "peninsula" in Welsh. Another European name was Bennett Island. Lady Penrhyn was one of a fleet of 11 ships which sailed from the Isle of Wight to found the earliest convict colony in Australia. Penrhyn Atoll has two villages; the main village of Omoka, seat of Penrhyn Island Council, is on Moananui Islet, on the western rim of the atoll, north of the airport. The village of Te Tautua is on the eastern rim; the inhabitants of the island are Christian, with 92% of the population belonging to the Cook Islands Christian Church while the remaining 8% adhere to the Roman Catholic Church. Polynesians are believed to have lived on Penrhyn since at least 900 or 1000 AD. Following its discovery by Europeans, the Russian explorer Otto von Kotzebue visited the island in April 1816, he found its people ‘so numerous, in proportion to the island’ that he could not think how so many could ‘find subsistence’. Indeed, this was one of the most densely inhabited atolls in Polynesia; some 30 years after this first encounter with Europeans, a count in 1853 estimated 2500 people.
Kotzebue was followed by the American brig USS Purpose, under command of Lieutenant Commander Cadwalader Ringgold as part of the United States Exploring Expedition in February 1841. The brig Chatham under command of Edward Henry Lamont, ran aground at Penrhyn during a storm in January 1853; the London Missionary Society, which had begun missionary activities in the Cook Islands from 1821, sent a team to Penrhyn in 1854. Robert Louis Stevenson visited Penrhyn in May 1890. In 1864, Penrhyn was completely depopulated by Peruvian expeditions. An estimated 1,000 men and children were taken to South America. Native pastors of the London Missionary Society had introduced Christianity from Rarotonga in 1854; the new religion had been accepted enthusiastically, the villagers started to build churches. Promises from the slavers of good pay and safe return offered a way to obtain money for churches, but all who accepted died in exile slaves. Another source states that in 1863, 410 inhabitants out of a total population of about 500 were kidnapped by blackbirding by the Peruvian blackbirders who were assisted by four native missionary teachers, who sold their people for five dollars per head.
The missionaries accompanied the slaves to Peru as their interpreters. Penrhyn was annexed for Great Britain by Captain Sir William Wiseman of the HMS Caroline on 22 March 1888; the island was considered to have a strategic location on the route of a proposed Trans-Pacific telegraphic connection between Canada and Australia. The Cook Islands were a British protectorate 1888 to 1900, when annexed to New Zealand, until independence in 1965 when residents chose self-government in free association with New Zealand. From 1856 to 1980, the United States claimed sovereignty over the island under the Guano Islands Act; that claim had never been recognized by Britain, New Zealand or the Cook Islands and New Zealand sovereignty was recognized during World War II U. S. military operations involving the islands. On 11 June 1980, in connection with establishing the maritime boundary between the Cook Islands and American Samoa, the United States signed Cook Islands – United States Maritime Boundary Treaty acknowledging that Penryhn was under Cook Islands sovereignty.
In early 1942 Japanese advances had placed the South Pacific air ferry route's initial path at some risk so that an alternate route was directed. In March Leif J. Sverdrup determined on a tour of potential island sites that Penrhyn was suitable and, though all land was owned by the local population and it was illegal to sell, use could be arranged and local labour could help build an airfield. Work on the airfield began in July 1942 with aviation gasoline storage tanks added to the completed field. During the war, US Navy PBY Catalina and USAAF B-24 Liberator bombers were stationed on the island and with about a thousand support personnel. A communications link through the island was established by the U. S. Army Signal Corps. American forces were withdrawn in September 1946; the US Army vessel Southern Seas struck an uncharted reef on 22 July 1942 and was damaged with flooded engine rooms and abandoned in Taruia Pass while on an island charting assignment in support of the construction. The ship was salvaged by the Navy and commissioned for naval use.
Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is greater near the equator, the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, is richest in the tropics; these tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth's surface, contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity tends to cluster in hotspots, has been increasing through time, but will be to slow in the future. Rapid environmental changes cause mass extinctions. More than 99.9 percent of all species that lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.
More in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth with only one-thousandth of one percent described. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all organisms living on Earth; the age of the Earth is about 4.54 billion years. The earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates at least from 3.5 billion years ago, during the Eoarchean Era after a geological crust started to solidify following the earlier molten Hadean Eon. There are microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia. Other early physical evidence of a biogenic substance is graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old meta-sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland. More in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.
According to one of the researchers, "If life arose quickly on Earth.. it could be common in the universe."Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in biodiversity. The Phanerozoic eon marked a rapid growth in biodiversity via the Cambrian explosion—a period during which the majority of multicellular phyla first appeared; the next 400 million years included repeated, massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. In the Carboniferous, rainforest collapse led to a great loss of animal life; the Permian–Triassic extinction event, 251 million years ago, was the worst. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago and has attracted more attention than others because it resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs; the period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused by human impacts habitat destruction.
Conversely, biodiversity positively impacts human health in a number of ways, although a few negative effects are studied. The United Nations designated 2011–2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity. 1916 - The term biological diversity was used first by J. Arthur Harris in "The Variable Desert," Scientific American, JSTOR 6182: "The bare statement that the region contains a flora rich in genera and species and of diverse geographic origin or affinity is inadequate as a description of its real biological diversity." 1975 - The term natural diversity was introduced 1980 - Thomas Lovejoy introduced the term biological diversity to the scientific community in a book.. It became used. 1985 -The contracted form biodiversity was coined by W. G. Rosen 1985 - The term "biodiversity" appears in the article, "A New Plan to Conserve the Earth's Biota" by Laura Tangley. 1988 - The term biodiversity first appeared in a publication. The present - the term has achieved widespread use. "Biodiversity" is most used to replace the more defined and long established terms, species diversity and species richness.
Biologists most define biodiversity as the "totality of genes and ecosystems of a region". An advantage of this definition is that it seems to describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional types of biological variety identified: taxonomic diversity ecological diversity morphological diversity functional diversity This multilevel construct is consistent with Datman and Lovejoy. An explicit definition consistent with this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. Wilcox commissioned by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources for the 1982 World National Parks Conference. Wilcox's definition was "Biological diversity is the variety of life forms...at all levels of biologi
Geography of the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, that lies east of Papua New Guinea. The Solomon Islands consists of an extensive archipelago: Choiseul, the Shortland Islands, the New Georgia Islands, Santa Isabel, the Russell Islands, the Florida Islands, Guadalcanal, Maramasike, Uki, Santa Ana, Rennell and the Santa Cruz Islands; the distance between the most western and most eastern islands is about 1,500 km. The Santa Cruz Islands, north of Vanuatu, are isolated at more than 200 km from the other islands. Bougainville is geographically part of the Solomon Islands archipelago, but politically an autonomous region of Papua New Guinea. Volcanoes with varying degrees of activity are situated on some of the larger islands, while many of the smaller islands are tiny atolls covered in sand and palm trees; the climate is tropical, though temperatures are extreme due to cooling winds blowing off the surrounding seas. Daytime temperatures are 25 to 32 °C, falling to about 13 to 15 °C at night.
From April to October, the southeast trade winds blow. November to March is the wet season -- the northwest monsoon -- wetter. Cyclones arise in the Coral Sea and the area of the Solomon Islands, but they veer toward Vanuatu and New Caledonia or down the coast of Australia. Geographic coordinates: 8°00′S 159°00′E Area: total: 28,896 km² land: 27,986 km² water: 910 km² Coastline: 5,313 km Maritime claims: Measured from claimed archipelagic baselines continental shelf: 200 nmi exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi territorial sea: 12 nmi Terrain: Mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Popomanaseu 2,332 m Natural resources: fish, gold, phosphates, zinc, nickel Land use: arable land: 0.62% permanent crops: 2.04% other: 97.34% Irrigated land: NA Natural hazards: Typhoons, but they are destructive. Northernmost point – Ontong Java Atoll, Malaita Province Easternmost point – Fatutaka, Santa Cruz Islands, Temotu Province Southernmost point – South Reef, Indispensable Reef and Bellona Province Westernmost point - Mono Island, Treasury Islands, Western Province Provinces of Solomon Islands List of mammals of the Solomon Islands This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
Geography of New Zealand
New Zealand is an archipelago of around 600 islands located in the south-western Pacific Ocean, near the centre of the water hemisphere. The two main islands by size are the North Island and the South Island, separated by the Cook Strait; the three largest islands stretch 1,500 kilometres across latitudes 34° to 47° south. The great majority of New Zealand's population live in the two main islands, with three-quarters inhabiting the North Island. Smaller islands include Waiheke Island, Chatham Island, Great Barrier Island and more, although many are uninhabited. New Zealand's terrain ranges from the fiord-like sounds of the southwest to the sandy beaches of the far north; the South Island is dominated by the Southern Alps while a volcanic plateau covers much of the central North Island. Temperatures fall below 0 °C or rise above 30 °C and conditions vary from wet and cold on the South Island's west coast to dry and continental a short distance away across the mountains and near subtropical in the northern reaches of the North Island.
New Zealand's varied landscape has appeared in television shows, such as Xena: Warrior Princess. An increasing number of feature films have been filmed there, including the Lord of the Rings trilogy; the country is situated about 2,000 kilometres south-east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, its closest neighbours to the north being New Caledonia and Fiji. It is the southernmost nation in Oceania; the relative proximity of New Zealand north of Antarctica has made the South Island a gateway for scientific expeditions to the continent. New Zealand is mistakenly omitted from world maps due to the country's geographic isolation and its positioning on the bottom-right in many projections. New Zealand is located in the South Pacific Ocean at 41°S 174°E, near the centre of the water hemisphere, it is a long and narrow country, extending 1,600 kilometres along its north-north-east axis with a maximum width of 400 kilometres. New Zealand consists of a large number of islands, estimated around 600; the islands give it 15,134 km of coastline and extensive marine resources.
New Zealand claims the fifth-largest exclusive economic zone in the world, covering over 4,000,000 square kilometres, more than 15 times its land area. The South Island is the largest land mass of New Zealand, is the 12th-largest island in the world; the island is divided along its length by the Southern Alps. The east side of the island has the Canterbury Plains while the West Coast is famous for its rough coastlines, high rainfall high proportion of native bush, glaciers; the North Island is the second-largest island, the 14th-largest in the world. It is separated from the South Island by the Cook Strait, with the shortest distance being 23 kilometres; the North Island is less mountainous than the South Island, although a series of narrow mountain ranges form a north-east belt that rises up to 1,700 metres. Much of the surviving forest is located in this belt, in other mountain areas and rolling hills; the North Island has New Zealand's largest lake. Besides the North and South Islands, the five largest inhabited islands are Stewart Island, Chatham Island, Great Barrier Island, d'Urville Island and Waiheke Island.
The phrase "From Cape Reinga to The Bluff" is used within New Zealand to refer to the extent of the whole country. Cape Reinga is northwesternmost tip of the Aupouri Peninsula, at the northern end of the North Island. Bluff is Invercargill's port, located near the southern tip of the South Island, below the 46th parallel south. However, the extreme points of New Zealand are located in several outlying islands; the points that are farther north, east or west than any other location in New Zealand are as follows: The northernmost point is in Nugent Island in the Kermadec Islands. The southernmost point is Jacquemart Island in the Campbell Island group; the easternmost point is situated in a group of islands within the Chatham Islands called the Forty-Fours. The westernmost point is Cape Lovitt on Auckland Island. New Zealand is antipodal to the Iberian Peninsula of Europe; the northern half of the South Island corresponds to northern Portugal. Most of the North Island corresponds to central and southern Spain, from Valladolid, through Madrid and Toledo to Cordoba, Lorca, Málaga, Gibraltar.
Parts of the Northland Peninsula oppose Morocco, with Whangarei nearly coincident with Tangiers. The antipodes of the Chatham Islands lie in France, just north of the city of Montpellier; the Antipodes Islands were named for their supposed antipodal position to Britain. In Europe the term "Antipodes" is used to refer to New Zealand and Australia, "Antipodeans" to their inhabitants. New Zealand is part of Zealandia, a microcontinent nearly half the size of Australia that gradual
Geography of Niue
Niue is a small island in the South Pacific Ocean, to the east of Tonga. It has an area of 260 square kilometres, a coastline of 64 km, it claims an exclusive economic zone of 200 nm, a territorial sea of 12 nm. It is one of world's largest coral islands. Niue's climate is tropical, modified by south-east trade winds. Cyclones pose a natural hazard; the terrain consists of steep coastal cliffs made from a central plateau. The lowest point is at sea level, the highest is an unnamed point near Mutalau settlement, at 68 m; the island's natural resources are arable land. Land use in 1993 was as in the following table: A current environmental issue is increasing attention to conservationist practices to counter loss of soil fertility from traditional slash-and-burn agriculture. Niue is a party to the following international agreements regarding the environment: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification. Niue not ratified the Law of the Sea agreement. Niue has signed a treaty with the United States in which the parties delimited the east–west maritime boundary between Niue and American Samoa.
Niue is south of American Samoa. This is a list of the extreme points of Niue, the points that are farther north, east or west than any other location. Northernmost point – unnamed headland north-west of Uluvehi Easternmost point – unnamed headland south-east of Liku Southernmost point – Limufuafua Point Westernmost point - Halagigie Point
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred