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Geography of the Maldives

See Atolls of the Maldives for an in-depth description of the atolls. Maldives is an island country in the South Asia, south-southwest of India, it has a total land size of 298 km2. It consists of 1,190 coral islands grouped in a double chain of 26 atolls, spread over 90,000 square kilometers, making this one of the most geographically dispersed countries in the world, it has the 31st largest exclusive economic zone of 923,322 km2. Composed of live coral reefs and sand bars, the atolls are situated atop a submarine ridge, 960 km long that rises abruptly from the depths of the Indian Ocean and runs from north to south. Only near the southern end of this natural coral barricade do two open passages permit safe ship navigation from one side of the Indian Ocean to the other through the territorial waters of Maldives. For administrative purposes the Maldives government organized these atolls into twenty-one administrative divisions; the largest island of Maldives is Gan, which belongs to Hahdhummathi Maldives.

In Addu Atoll the westernmost islands are connected by roads over the reef and the total length of the road is 14 km. Geographic coordinates: 3°15′N 73°00′E Most atolls of the Maldives consist of a large, ring-shaped coral reef supporting numerous small islands. Islands average only one to two square kilometers in area, lie between 1–1.5 m above mean sea level. Although some of the larger atolls are 50 km long from north to south, 30 km wide from east to west, no individual island is longer than eight kilometers; the Maldives has no hills, but some islands have dunes which can reach 2.4 meters above sea level, like the NW coast of Hithadhoo in Addu Atoll. The islands are too small to have rivers. On average, each atoll has 5 to 10 inhabited islands; some atolls, consist of one large, isolated island surrounded by a steep coral beach. The most notable example of this type of atoll is the large island of Fuvahmulah situated in the Equatorial Channel; the tropical vegetation of Maldives differs in the uninhabited islands.

Inhabited islands have small groves of banana, papaya and citrus trees by the homesteads, while breadfruit trees and coconut palms are grown in available patches of land. On the other hand, uninhabited islands have different kinds of bushes and mangroves along the waterline as well as some coconut trees; some islands are marshy, while others are higher owing to sand and gravel having been piled up by wave action. The soil is alkaline, a deficiency in nitrogen and iron limits agricultural potential. Ten percent of the land, or about 26 km², is cultivated with taro, bananas and other fruit. Only the lush island of Fuvammulah produces fruits such as oranges and pineapples - because the terrain of Fuvammulah sits higher than most other islands, leaving the groundwater less subject to seawater penetration. However, as population grows in this island the cultivated areas are shrinking rapidly. Freshwater floats in a layer known as "Ghyben/Herzberg lens" above the seawater that permeates the limestone and coral sands of the islands.

These lenses are shrinking on Male and on many islands where there are resorts catering to foreign tourists. Mango trees have been reported dying on Male because of salt penetration. Most residents of the atolls depend on rainwater for drinking purposes; the temperature of Maldives ranges between 33 °C throughout the year. Although the humidity is high, the constant sea breezes help to keep the air moving. Two seasons dominate Maldives' weather: the dry season associated with the winter northeast monsoon and the rainy season brought by the summer southwest monsoon; because the Maldives is the lowest country anywhere in the world, with the highest elevation in the island nation being only a little above 7 feet, the temperature is high and falls below 25°C at night. The annual rainfall averages 2,540 millimeters in 3,810 millimeters in the south; the weather in Maldives is affected by the large landmass of the South Asia to the north. The presence of this landmass causes differential heating of water.

Scientists cite other factors in the formation of monsoons, including the barrier of the Himalayas on the northern fringe of the South Asia and the sun's northward tilt, which shifts the jet stream north. These factors set off a rush of moisture-rich air from the Indian Ocean over the South Asia, resulting in the southwest monsoon; the hot air that rises over the South Asia during April and May creates low-pressure areas into which the cooler, moisture-bearing winds from the Indian Ocean flow. In Maldives, the wet southwest monsoon lasts from the end of April to the end of October and brings the worst weather with strong winds and storms. In May 1991 violent monsoon winds created tidal waves that damaged thousands of houses and piers, flooded arable land with seawater, uprooted thousands of fruit trees; the damage caused was estimated at US$30 million. The shift from the moist southwest monsoon to the dry northeast monsoon over the South Asia occurs during October and November. During this period, the northeast winds contribute to the formation of the northeast monsoon, which reaches Maldives in the beginning of December and lasts until the end of March.

However, the weather patterns of Maldives do not always con

Suzurannosato Station

Suzurannosato Station is a railway station in Sakai, in the town of Fujimi Town, Suwa District, Nagano Prefecture, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Suzurannosato Station is served by the Chūō Main Line and is 186.1 kilometers from the terminus of the line at Tokyo Station. Suzurannosato Station has two unnumbered opposed side platforms built on an embankment; the platforms are connected by an underpass. The station is not attended; the station opened on 31 October 1985. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR East. National Route 20 List of railway stations in Japan Official website

Leonard Lyell, 1st Baron Lyell

Leonard Lyell, 1st Baron Lyell, Bt, was a Scottish Liberal politician. The eldest son of Colonel Henry Lyell and Katharine Murray Lyell, he was a nephew of Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, the geologist, he served as Liberal Member of Parliament for Orkney and Shetland from 1885 to 1900, was commissioned a Deputy Lieutenant for Forfarshire in December 1901. He was created a baronet in 1894 and raised to the peerage as Baron Lyell of Kinnordy in the County of Forfar, on 8 July 1914, he married Mary Stirling in 1874, had one son, Charles Henry and two daughters, Mary Leonora, born 1877, Helen, born 1878. His only son Charles Henry Lyell was a Liberal MP but as he died in 1918 his son Charles Anthony Lyell succeeded to both the baronetcy and barony. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Leonard Lyell

Stephen Finney

Sir Stephen Finney CIE was a rugby union international who represented England from 1872 to 1873. Stephen Finney was born on 8 September 1852 in Marylebone, he was educated at the Royal Indian Engineering College, Cooper's Hill. As well as rugby, Finney played cricket at Clifton and was said to have been one of the school's finest players. Finney played. Which called from 1926 the now present Crewe & Nantwich R. U. F. C. Before his days at Crewe Finney made his international debut on 5 February 1872 at The Oval in the England vs Scotland match. Of the two matches he played, he played his final match for England on 3 March 1873 at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow in the Scotland vs England match. Of his prowess on the rugby field it was written after his death that "among those qualified to judge he is considered to have had no superior as a fearless and determined halfback". Finney entered the service of the Indian Public Works Department in 1874 and served as assistant and district engineer for four years.

He joined the administrative branch of the Railway Department and stayed there until 1891

2017–18 Township Rollers FC season

The 2017-18 season was Township Rollers's 14th consecutive in the Botswana Premier League, the top division of Botswana football. It was the first full season under Serbian manager Nikola Kavazovic. Beginning their campaign with a 2-1 victory over TAFIC on 23 September 2019, Rollers would go on to make history by becoming the first club to win the Botswana Premier League and Mascom Top 8 Cup double, they became the first Botswana team to qualify for the CAF Champions League group stage. Following the departure of English manager Mark Harrison during the previous season, Rollers appointed former Tajikistan manager Nikola Kavazovic as the new head coach, he was assisted by Mogomotsi Mpote. Having finished the 2016-17 Botswana Premier League season on first position, Rollers kicked off their Mascom Top 8 campaign against eighth-placed BDF XI. A 2-0 victory in the first leg followed by a 1-0 home win saw them glide into the semifinals, where they were drawn against Jwaneng Galaxy; the two teams drew 3-3 on aggregate, enabling Rollers to progress on away goals and lift the cup by defeating Orapa United in the final.

Township Rollers drew Sudan Premier League side Al-Merrikh. In the first leg, played on 10 February 2018 at Gaborone, Rollers saw off the Sudanese 3-0 courtesy of goals from Gaolaolwe and Boy. Although they lost the return leg 2-1 in Sudan, Rollers still managed to progress 4-2 on aggregate. Having eliminated Al-Merrikh, Rollers now faced Tanzanian champions Young Africans, who eliminated Seychelles champions Saint Louis in the previous round. A 2-1 victory away and a goalless home draw were enough to see Rollers progress to the group stage for the first time in history. In the group stage draw conducted in Cairo, Egypt 21 March 2018 Rollers was drawn in group A along with record winners Al Ahly, two-time winners Espérance and Ugandan club KCCA. Although they won their opening group match to go top of the group, Rollers would lose the next four games and draw the last, crashing out of the tournament as the lowest team in the group with only four points Statistics accurate as of 12 May 2019

Pakistan Locomotive Factory

Pakistan Locomotive Factory is a manufacturer of locomotives for Pakistan Railways of which Sheikh Rasheed Ahmad is minister from 20 August 2018, located in Risalpur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The company was established in 1993. A total of 2130 coaches have been manufactured at Carriage Factory Islamabad since 1971; the factory has rehabilitated 1039 coaches up to 30 June 2015. The factory was established in Risalpur in 1993 at a total cost of ₨2284 million, its function is to manufacture indigenous diesel electric locomotives and electric locomotives, thus allowing Pakistan Railways to have less dependency on foreign technology. In January 2016, the Minister for Railways, Khawaja Saad Rafique announced that Pakistan Locomotive Factory is to enter a joint venture with private sector participation; the designed production capacity of the factory is 25 diesel electric locomotives per year. The production capacity can however be increased by introducing double shifts. Technology for manufacturing of locomotives have been acquired over the years from Hitachi, General Electric and Dalian Locomotive and Rolling Stock Works.

The factory has manufactured a total of 102 new diesel electric locomotives of 2000-3000 horsepower for Pakistan Railways since 1993. 26 overage locomotive of 2000-2400 horsepower have been rehabilitated. Different spare parts of locomotives are being manufactured. According to a report for 2014-2015, a total of 1052 work orders have been completed for Pakistan Railways, amounting to ₨503.256 million. Work orders completed for private sector are 34 in number, amounting to ₨55.875 million and work orders completed for major repairs of DE locomotives are 138 number amounting to ₨268.660 million. 75 DE locomotives from General Electric, comprising:55 CBUs of 4000 hp 2 CBUs of 2000 hp 18 CKDs of 2000 hp Locomotive Rehabilitation Project MGPR 23 DE locomotives, 1993-97, Class PHA 20 Rehabilitation of 5 DE locomotives, 1997–98, Class RGE 20 30 DE locomotives, 1999-01, Class AGE 30 Rehabilitation of 21 DE locomotives, 2001-03, Class RGE 24 25 DE locomotives, 2003–08, Class DPU 20 44 DE locomotives, 2003–08, Class DPU 30 5 DE locomotives, 2014–15AbbreviationsCBU = Completely built unit CKD = Complete knock down DE = Diesel-electric hp = HorsepowerNoteThere are some disagreements between sources and

For example, on horsepower of Class DPU 30. There are minor differences in building dates. Locomotives of Pakistan Pakistan Railways Carriage Factory Moghalpura Railway Workshops