The Netherlands Antilles was a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The country consisted of several island territories located in the Caribbean Sea; the islands were informally known as the Dutch Antilles. The country came into being in 1954 as the autonomous successor of the Dutch colony of Curaçao and Dependencies, was dissolved in 2010; the former Dutch colony of Surinam, although it was close by on the continent of South America, did not become part of Netherlands Antilles but became a separate autonomous country in 1954. All the island territories that belonged to the Netherlands Antilles remain part of the kingdom today, although the legal status of each differs; as a group they are still called the Dutch Caribbean, regardless of their legal status. The islands of the Netherlands Antilles are all part of the Lesser Antilles island chain. Within this group, the country was spread over two smaller island groups: a northern group and a western group. No part of the country was in the southern Windward Islands.
This island sub-group was located to the east of Puerto Rico. There were three islands, collectively known as the "SSS islands": Sint Maarten Saba Sint Eustatius, they lie 800–900 kilometers north-east of the ABC Islands. This island sub-group was located in the southern Caribbean Sea off the north coast of Venezuela. There were three islands collectively known as the "ABC Islands": Aruba Bonaire including an islet called Klein Bonaire Curaçao, including an islet called Klein Curaçao The Netherlands Antilles have a tropical trade-wind climate, with hot weather all year round; the Leeward islands are subject to hurricanes in the summer months, while those islands located in the Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier. Spanish-sponsored explorers discovered both the leeward and windward island groups. However, the Spanish Crown only founded settlements in the Leeward Islands. In the 17th century the islands were conquered by the Dutch West India Company and colonized by Dutch settlers. From the last quarter of the 17th century, the group consisted of six Dutch islands: Curaçao, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten.
In the past, the present-day British Virgin Islands, St. Croix and Tobago had been Dutch. During the American Revolution Sint Eustatius, along with Curaçao, was a major trade center in the Caribbean, with Sint Eustatius a major source of supplies for the Thirteen Colonies, it had been called "the Golden Rock" because of the number of wealthy merchants and volume of trade there. The British sacked the economy of the island never recovered. Unlike many other regions, few immigrants went to the Dutch islands, due to the weak economy. However, with the discovery of oil in Venezuela in the nineteenth century, British-Dutch Shell Oil Company established refineries in Curaçao, while the U. S. processed Venezuelan crude oil in Aruba. This resulted in booming economies on the two islands, which turned to bust in the 1980s when oil refineries were closed; the various islands were united as a single country — the Netherlands Antilles — in 1954, under the Dutch crown. The country was dissolved on 10 October 2010.
Curaçao and Sint Maarten became distinct constituent countries alongside Aruba which had become a distinct constituent country in 1986. From 1815 onwards Curaçao and Dependencies formed a colony of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Slavery was abolished in 1863, in 1865 a government regulation for Curaçao was enacted that allowed for some limited autonomy for the colony. Although this regulation was replaced by a constitution in 1936, the changes to the government structure remained superficial and Curaçao continued to be ruled as a colony; the island of Curaçao was hit hard by the abolition of slavery in 1863. Its prosperity was restored in the early 20th century with the construction of oil refineries to service the newly discovered Venezuelan oil fields. Colonial rule ended after the conclusion of the Second World War. Queen Wilhelmina had promised in a 1942 speech to offer autonomy to the overseas territories of the Netherlands. During the war, the British and American occupation of the islands—with the consent of the Dutch government—led to increasing demands for autonomy within the population as well.
In May 1948 a new constitution for the territory entered into force, allowing the largest amount of autonomy possible under the Dutch constitution of 1922. Among other things, universal suffrage was introduced; the territory was renamed "Netherlands Antilles". After the Dutch constitution was revised in 1948, a new interim Constitution of the Netherlands Antilles was enacted in February 1951. Shortly afterwards, on 3 March 1951, the Island Regulation of the Netherlands Antilles was issued by royal decree, giving wide autonomy to the various island territories in the Netherlands Antilles. A consolidated version of this regulation remained in force until the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010; the new constitution was only deemed an interim arrangement, as negotiations for a Charter for th
Geography of Canada
The geography of Canada describes the geographic features of Canada, the world's second largest country in total area. Situated in northern North America, Canada spans a vast, diverse territory between the North Pacific Ocean to the west and the North Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Arctic Ocean to the north, with the United States to the south and northwest. Greenland is to the northeast. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W and 141°W longitude to the North Pole. While the magnetic North Pole lies within the Canadian Arctic territorial claim as of 2011, recent measurements indicate it is moving towards Siberia. Covering 9,984,670 km2 or 3,855,100 sq mi, Canada is less than three-fifths as large as Russia and smaller than Europe. In total area, Canada is larger than both the U. S. and China. S. is 9,161,923 km2. The population of Canada, 35,151,728 as of May 10, 2016, is concentrated in the south close to its border with the contiguous U. S.. The northernmost settlement in Canada—and in the world—is Canadian Forces Station Alert on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island at 82°30′N 62°19′W, just 834 kilometres from the North Pole.
Canada has a diverse climate. The climate varies from temperate on the west coast of British Columbia to a subarctic climate in the north. Extreme northern Canada can have snow for most of the year with a Polar climate. Landlocked areas tend to have a warm summer continental climate zone with the exception of Southwestern Ontario which has a hot summer humid continental climate. Parts of Western Canada have a semi-arid climate, parts of Vancouver Island can be classified as cool summer Mediterranean climate. Temperature extremes in Canada range from 45.0 °C in Midale and Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan on July 5, 1937 to −63.0 °C in Snag, Yukon on Monday, February 3, 1947. Canada covers a panoply of various geoclimatic regions. There are 8 main regions. Canada encompasses vast maritime terrain, with the world's longest coastline of 243,042 kilometres; the physical geography of Canada is varied. Boreal forests prevail throughout the country, ice is prominent in northerly Arctic regions and through the Rocky Mountains, the flat Canadian Prairies in the southwest facilitate productive agriculture.
The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River; the Appalachian mountain range extends from Alabama through the Gaspé Peninsula and the Atlantic Provinces, creating rolling hills indented by river valleys. It runs through parts of southern Quebec; the Appalachian mountains are an old and eroded range of mountains 380 million years in age. Notable mountains in the Appalachians include Mount Carleton, The Cabox. Parts of the Appalachians are home to a rich endemic flora and fauna and are considered to have been nunataks during the last glaciation era; the southern parts of Quebec and Ontario, in the section of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence basin, is another rich sedimentary plain. Prior to its colonization and heavy urban sprawl of the 20th century, this Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests area was home to large mixed forests covering a flat area of land between the Appalachian Mountains and the Canadian Shield. Most of this forest has been cut down through agriculture and logging operations, but the remaining forests are for the most part protected.
In this part of Canada the Gulf of St. Lawrence is one of the world's largest estuary. While the relief of these lowlands is flat and regular, a group of batholites known as the Monteregian Hills are spread along a regular line across the area; the most notable are Mont Saint-Hilaire. These hills are known for a great richness in precious minerals; the northeastern part of Alberta, northern parts of Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Quebec, as well as most of Labrador, are located on a vast rock base known as the Canadian Shield. The Shield consists of eroded hilly terrain and contains many lakes and important rivers used for hydroelectric production in northern Quebec and Ontario; the shield encloses an area of wetlands, the Hudson Bay lowlands. Some particular regions of the Shield are referred to as mountain ranges, including the Torngat and Laurentian Mountains; the Shield cannot support intensive agriculture, although there is subsistence agriculture and small dairy farms in many of the river valleys and around the abundant lakes in the southern regions.
Boreal forest covers much of the shield, with a mix of conifers that provide valuable timber resources in areas such as the Central Ca
Geography of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis is a twin island country with a total landmass of just 270 square kilometres. The island of St. Kitts, the larger of the two, is 180 square kilometres in size and is located at latitude 17.30 N, longitude 62.80 W. Nevis is 93 square kilometres and located at latitude 17.10 N, longitude 62.35 W 3 km south-east of St. Kitts; the islands are about one-third of the way from Puerto Rico to Tobago. The island of St. Kitts is composed exclusively of volcanic rocks of andesite or dacite mineralogy, its geology is similar to that of other volcanic islands in the Lesser Antillean Archipelago. The islands are the summits of a submerged mountain range which forms the eastern boundary of what is known as the Caribbean Tectonic Plate. St. Kitts is about 80 km long and 16 km wide; the entire island archipelago is geologically young, having begun to form less than 50 million years ago, during the Miocene era. Volcanic activity occurred along the ridges of this arc during the Miocene era and has continued since.
Nevis is a volcanic island. However, the island comprises a number of discrete eruptive centers that range in age from mid-Pliocene to Pleistocene, these prevent any single model of the island's geological evolution; the geology of Nevis can be subdivided into four informal units: Volcanic of the eruptive centers, volcanigenic rocks - pyroclastics and lahars and lacustrine deposits, raised beaches. Location: Caribbean, islands in the Caribbean Sea, about one-third of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago Geographic coordinates: 17°20′N 62°45′W Map references: Central America and the Caribbean Area: total: 261 km² land: 261 km² water: 0 km² Area - comparative: 2/3 the size the island of Barbados Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 135 km Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 nautical miles or to the edge of the continental margin territorial sea: 12 nautical miles contiguous zone: 24 nautical miles exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles Climate: tropical tempered by constant sea breezes.
Geography of the British Virgin Islands
See also: British Virgin Islands The British Virgin Islands are located in the Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico. Its geographic coordinates are 18°30′N 64°30′W. Map references include the Caribbean; the area comprises 16 inhabited and more than 20 uninhabited islands. There are no bodies of water on the land. There are no land boundaries. There is 80 km of coastline. Maritime claims include 3 nmi of territorial sea and exclusive a 200 nmi fishing zone, it has a humid climate, with temperatures moderated by trade winds. Its terrain consists of coral islands, is flat, it is steep and hilly. Its lowest point is the Caribbean Sea and its highest point is Mount Sage at 521 metres above sea level, its natural resources are negligible. In terms of land use, it is 20% arable land, 6.67% permanent crops and 73.33% other as of a 2005 figure. Its natural hazards consist of tropical storms from July to October. There is limited natural fresh water resources, it has strong ties to nearby U.
S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico; the British Virgin Islands have tropical rainforest climate, moderated by trade winds. Temperatures vary little throughout the year. In the capital, Road Town, typical daily maxima are around 32 °C in the summer and 29 °C in the winter. Typical daily minima are around 24 °C in 21 °C in the winter. Rainfall averages about 1,150 mm per year, higher in the hills and lower on the coast. Rainfall can be quite variable, but the wettest months on average are September to November and the driest months on average are February and March. Hurricanes hit the islands, with the hurricane season running from June to November; this article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
Geography of El Salvador
El Salvador borders the North Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, with Guatemala to the north-northwest and Honduras to the north-northeast. In the southeast, the Golfo de Fonseca separates it from Nicaragua. El Salvador is the smallest Central American country and is the only one without a coastline on the Caribbean sea. El Salvador, along with the rest of Central America, is one of the most seismologically active regions on earth, situated atop three of the large tectonic plates that constitute the Earth's surface; the motion of these plates causes the area's earthquake and volcanic activity. Most of Central America and the Caribbean Basin rests on the motionless Caribbean Plate; the Pacific Ocean floor, however, is being carried northeast by the underlying motion of the Cocos Plate. Ocean floor material is composed of basalt, dense; the subduction of the Cocos Plate accounts for the frequency of earthquakes near the coast. As the rocks constituting the ocean floor are forced down, they melt, the molten material pours up through weaknesses in the surface rock, producing volcanoes and geysers.
North of El Salvador and most of Guatemala are riding on the westward-moving North American Plate that butts against the northern edge of the stationary Caribbean Plate in southern Guatemala. The grinding action of these two plates creates a fault that runs the length of the valley of the Rio Motagua in Guatemala. Motion along this fault is the source of earthquakes in northernmost El Salvador. El Salvador has a long history of volcanic eruptions. San Salvador was destroyed in 1756 and 1854, suffered heavy damage in the 1919, 1982, 1986 tremors; the country has over twenty volcanoes, although only two, San Miguel and Izalco, have been active in recent years. From the early nineteenth century to the mid-1950s, Izalco erupted with a regularity that earned it the name "Lighthouse of the Pacific." Its brilliant flares were visible for great distances at sea, at night its glowing lava turned it into a brilliant luminous cone. Two parallel mountain ranges cross El Salvador to the west with a central plateau between them and a narrow coastal plain hugging the Pacific.
These physical features divide the country into two physiographic regions. The mountain ranges and central plateau, covering 85 percent of the land, comprise the interior highlands; the remaining coastal plains are referred to as the Pacific lowlands. The northern range of mountains, the Sierra Madre, form a continuous chain along the border with Honduras. Elevations in this region range from 1,600 to 2,700 meters; the area was once forested, but overexploitation led to extensive erosion, it has become semibarren. As a result, it is the country's most sparsely populated zone, with little farming or other development; the southern range of mountains is a discontinuous chain of more than twenty volcanoes, clustered into five groups. The westernmost group, near the Guatemalan border, contains Izalco and Santa Ana, which at 2,365 meters is the highest volcano in El Salvador. Between the cones lie alluvial basins and rolling hills eroded from ash deposits; the volcanic soil is rich, much of El Salvador's coffee is planted on these slopes.
The central plateau constitutes only 25 percent of the land area but contains the heaviest concentration of population and the country's largest cities. This plain has an average elevation of 600 meters. Terrain here is rolling, with occasional escarpments, lava fields, geysers. A narrow plain extends from the coastal volcanic range to the Pacific Ocean; this region has a width ranging from one to thirty-two kilometers with the widest section in the east, adjacent to the Golfo de Fonseca. Near La Libertad, the mass of the mountains push the lowlands out. Surfaces in the Pacific lowlands are flat or rolling and result from the alluvial deposits of nearby slopes. El Salvador has over 300 rivers, the most important of, the Rio Lempa. Originating in Guatemala, the Rio Lempa cuts across the northern range of mountains, flows along much of the central plateau, cuts through the southern volcanic range to empty into the Pacific, it is El Salvador's only navigable it and its tributaries drain about half the country.
Other rivers are short and drain the Pacific lowlands or flow from the central plateau through gaps in the southern mountain range to the Pacific. Numerous lakes of volcanic origin are found in the interior highlands; the largest lake, the Lago de Ilopango, lies just to the east of the capital. Other large lakes include the Lago de Coatepeque in the west and the Lago de Güija on the Guatemalan border; the Cerron Grande Dam on the Rio Lempa has created a large reservoir, the Embalse Cerron Grande, in northern El Salvador. Izalco has erupted at least 51 times since 1770, it earned the nickname "Lighthouse of the Pacific" because it was the most active volcano in Central America. El Salvador has a tropical climate with pronounced dry seasons. Temperatures vary with elevation and show little seasonal change; the Pacific lowlands are uniformly humid. The rainy season, known locally as invierno, or winter, extends from May to October. All the annual rainfall and the highest humidity occurs during this time, yea
Sint Eustatius known affectionately to the locals as Statia, is an island in the Caribbean. It is a special municipality of the Netherlands; the island lies in the northern Leeward Islands portion of the West Indies, southeast of the Virgin Islands. Sint Eustatius is to the northwest of Saint Kitts, to the southeast of Saba; the regional capital is Oranjestad. The island has an area of 21 square kilometres. In the 2001 census, the population was recorded as 3,543 inhabitants, with a population density of 169 inhabitants per square kilometre; as of 2015, the population was estimated at 3,877. The official language is Dutch, but English is the "language of everyday life" on the island and education is in English. A local English-based creole is spoken informally. Travellers to the island by air arrive through F. D. Roosevelt Airport. Part of the Netherlands Antilles, Sint Eustatius became a special municipality within the Netherlands on 10 October 2010; the name of the island, “Sint Eustatius”, is the Dutch name for Saint Eustace, a legendary Christian martyr, known in Spanish as San Eustaquio and in Portuguese as Santo Eustáquio or Santo Eustácio.
The island was claimed by many different nations. From the first European settlement, in the 17th century until the early 19th century, St. Eustatius changed hands twenty-one times. In 1636, the chamber of Zeeland of the Dutch West India Company took possession of the island, reported to be uninhabited; as of 1678, the islands of St. Eustatius, Sint Maarten and Saba fell under direct command of the Dutch West India Company, with a commander stationed on St. Eustatius to govern all three. At the time, the island was of some importance for the cultivation of sugar. In the 18th century, St. Eustatius' geographical placement in the middle of Danish, British and Spanish territories—its large harborage and status from 1756 as a free port with no customs duties were all factors in it becoming a major point of transhipment of goods, a locus for trade in contraband, its economy developed by ignoring the monopolistic trade restrictions of the British and Spanish islands. St. Eustatius's economy, under the Dutch, flourished.
The island became known as The Golden Rock. Edmund Burke said of the island in 1781: It has no produce, no fortifications for its defense, nor martial spirit nor military regulations... Its utility was its defense; the universality of its use, the neutrality of its nature was its safeguard. Its proprietors had, in the spirit of commerce, made it an emporium for all the world.... Its wealth was prodigious, arising from the nature of its commerce; the island sold arms and ammunition to anyone willing to pay. It was one of the few places; the good relationship between St. Eustatius and the United States resulted in the noted "First Salute". On November 16, 1776, Captain Isaiah Robinson of the 14-gun American brig Andrew Doria, sailed into the anchorage below St. Eustatius' Fort Oranje. Robinson announced his arrival by firing a thirteen gun salute, one gun for each of the thirteen American colonies in rebellion against Britain. Governor Johannes de Graaff replied with an eleven-gun salute from the cannons of Fort Oranje.
International protocol required a two gun less acknowledgment of a sovereign flag. The Andrew Doria flew the Continental Colors of the fledgling United States, it was the first international acknowledgment of American independence. The Andrew Doria had arrived to purchase munitions for the American Revolutionary forces, she was carrying a copy of the Declaration of Independence, presented to Governor De Graaff. An earlier copy had been captured on the way to Holland by the British, it was wrapped in documents. In reality the documents were written to Jewish merchants in Holland. U. S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt came to St. Eustatius in 1939 to recognize the importance of the 1776 "First Salute", he presented a large brass plaque to St. Eustatius, displayed today under a flagpole atop the walls of Fort Oranje. President Roosevelt visited the island for 2 hours on February 1939 on the USS Houston; the plaque reads: "In commemoration to the salute to the flag of the United States, Fired in this fort November 16.
1776, By order of Johannes de Graaff, Governor of Saint Eustatius, In reply to a National Gun-Salute, Fired by the United States Brig of War Andrew Doria, Under Captain Isaiah Robinson of the Continental Navy, Here the sovereignty of the United States of America was first formally acknowledged to a national vessel by a foreign official. Presented by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States of America" The recognition provided the title for Barbara W. Tuchman's 1988 book The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution; the British took the incident seriously. Britain protested bitterly against the continuous trade between the United Colonies and St. Eustatius. In 1778, Lord Stormont claimed in Parliament that, "if Sint Eustatius had sunk into the sea three years before, the United Kingdom would have dealt with George Washington". Nearly half of all American Revolutionary military supplies were obtained through St. Eustatius. Nearly all American communications to Europe first passed through the island.
The trade between St. Eustatius and the United States was the main reason for the Fourth
Geography of Cuba
Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean Sea. Cuba has an official area of 109,884 km2, its area is 110,860 km2 including territorial waters. The main island has 5,746 km of coastline and 28.5 km of land borders—all figures including the United States territory at Guantánamo Bay, where the U. S. Navy's Guantanamo Bay Naval Base is located. Cuba lies west of the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Gulf of Mexico, south of the Straits of Florida, northwest of the Windward Passage, northeast of the Yucatán Channel; the main island makes up most of the land area 104,556 km2. The island is 1,250 km long and 191 km across its widest points and 31 km across its narrowest points; the largest island outside the main island is the Isla de la Juventud in the southwest, with an area of 2,200 km2. Cuba is located 77 km west of Haiti across the Windward Passage, 21 km south of the Bahamas, 150 km south of Florida, 210 km east of Mexico, 140 km north of Jamaica, it was made in three stages. Cuba is the largest country by land area in the Caribbean.
Its main island is the seventeenth-largest island in the world by land area. The island rises between the Caribbean, it is bordered on the north by the Straits of Florida, on the northeast by Nicholas Channel and the Old Bahama Channel. The southern part is bounded by the Windward Passage and the Cayman Trench, while the southwest lies in the Caribbean Sea. To the west, it reaches to the Yucatán Channel, the northwest is open to the Gulf of Mexico. More than 4,000 islands and cays are found in bays; the southern coast includes such archipelagos as the Canarreos. The northeastern shore is lined by the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago, which includes Jardines del Rey and is composed of 2,517 cays and islands; the Colorados Archipelago is developed on the north-western coast. Terrain is flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and mountains in the southeast; the lowest point is the Caribbean Sea at 0 m and the highest point is Pico Turquino at 1,974 m, part of the Sierra Maestra mountain range, located in the southeast of the island.
Other mountain ranges are Sierra Cristal in the southeast, Escambray Mountains in the center of the island, Sierra del Rosario in the northwest. White sand beaches, as well as mangroves and marshes can be found in the coastal area; the largest is the Zapata Swamp, with over 4,520 km2. Cuba has negligible inland water area; the largest natural water mirror is Laguna de Leche at 67.2 km2, while the man-made Zaza Reservoir, at 113.5 km2, is the largest inland water surface by area in the country. Cuba makes maritime claims that include a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles and an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles. Extreme points in Cuba are: Natural resources include cobalt, iron ore, salt, silica and petroleum. At one time, the whole island was covered with forests and there are still many cedar, chechem and other valuable trees. Large areas were cleared to grow more sugarcane, so few trees remained that timber had to be imported; the most important Cuban mineral economic resource is nickel.
Cuba has the second largest nickel reserves in the world after Russia. Sherritt International, a Canadian energy company, operates a large nickel mining facility in Moa, Cuba. Another leading mineral resource is a byproduct of nickel mining operations. Cuba ranks as the fifth largest producer of refined cobalt in the world. Petroleum is extracted in the provinces of La Habana and Matanzas. Recent petroleum exploration has revealed that the North Cuba Basin could produce 4.6 billion barrels to 9.3 billion barrels of petroleum. As of 2006, Cuba has now started to test-drill these locations for possible exploitation; the petroleum is of low quality, used for energy generation only. Sugarcane was the most important part of the economy in Cuba's history, is still grown on large areas. Extensive irrigation systems are developed in the south of Sancti Spíritus Province. Tobacco, used for some of the world's cigars, is grown in the Pinar del Río Province. Most of Cuba has a tropical savanna climate according to the Köppen Climate classification, though some areas have a tropical monsoon climate, with isolated pockets that have a tropical rainforest climate or a hot semi-arid climate.
In most areas, the dry season lasts from the rainy season from May to October. Cuba is an archipelago of islands located in the Caribbean Sea, with the geographic coordinates 21°3N, 80°00W. Cuba is the principal island, surrounded by four main groups of islands; these are the Sabana-Camagüey, the Jardines de la Reina and the Canarreos. The main island of Cuba constitutes most of the nation's land area or 104,556 km2 and is the seventeenth-largest island in the world by land area; the second largest island in Cuba is the Isla de la Juventud in the southwest, with an area of 2,200 km2. Cuba has a total land area of 109,884 km2; the main island consists of flat to rolling plains. At the southeastern end is the Sierra Maestra, a range of steep mountains whose highest point is the Pico Real del Turquino at 1,974 metres; the climate is tropical, though moderated by trade winds. In general, there