Amram Gaon was a famous Gaon or head of the Jewish Talmud Academy of Sura during the 9th century. He authored many Responsa, he was the first to arrange a complete liturgy for the synagogue. His Prayer-Book, which took the form of a long responsum to the Jews of Spain, is still extant and was an important influence on most of the current rites in use among the Jews. Amram was a pupil of Natronai II, Gaon of Sura, was exceptionally honored with the title of Gaon within the lifetime of his teacher. Upon Natronai's death, about 857, the full title and dignities of the gaonate were conferred upon Amram, he held them until his death, he is the author of about 120 responsa touching every department of Jewish jurisprudence. They are of great value in affording an insight into Amram's personality as well as into the religious conditions among the Jews of that period; the following decisions will serve in illustration: Interest may not be exacted from non-Jews, nor such minor profits as the Talmud designates as "the dust of interest", these being allowed only when customary in non-Jewish business circles.
It is characteristic of Amram's method to avoid extreme rigor. He combats superstition, places himself in opposition to the Talmud, when he protests that there is no sense in fasting on account of bad dreams, since the true nature of dreams is not known. Amram's rules concerning the methodology of the Talmud are of considerable value; the most important work of Amram, marking him as one of the most prominent of the geonim before Saadia, is his "Prayer-book," the so-called Siddur Rab Amram. Amram was the first to arrange a complete liturgy for use in home, his book forms the foundation both of the Spanish-Portuguese and of the German-Polish liturgies, has exerted great influence upon Jewish religious practise and ceremonial for more than a thousand years, an influence which to some extent is still felt at the present day. For Amram did not content himself with giving the mere text of the prayers, but in a species of running commentary added many Talmudical and gaonic regulations relating to them and their allied ceremonies.
His siddur, made familiar by the many extracts quoted from it by the liturgical writers of the Middle Ages, which served as the model for Saadia's and Maimonides' own prayer rituals, was published complete for the first time in Warsaw, in the year 1865, by N. N. Coronel, under the title Siddur Rab Amram Gaon; the work as published is composed of two parts. The second part containing the selichot and pizmonim for the month of Elul, for New Year and the Day of Atonement, is not the work of Amram, but appears to belong to a much period; the first portion, which contains the prayers proper, is full of interpolations, some of which, as the "kedushah" for private prayer, are evidently additions in the manuscripts. But not much weight can be attached to portions of the book which are given under the name of Amram; these explanations of the prayers make no reference to any authorities than the following: Natronai II, Amram's teacher, Natronai's predecessor in the gaonate, Paltoi and Moses, geonim before Amram Cohen Tzedek and Tzemach, contemporaries of Amram, Nathan of unknown date.
The only authority mentioned of date than Amram is Saadia. This indicates. Certainty on this head, can only be obtained by a comparison of the printed text with the manuscripts. Israel ben Todros mentions some azharot as having been composed by Amram. No early manuscripts of this prayer book survive, manuscripts appear to be edited to conform with the rites in use at the time: we therefore cannot be certain of the exact wording preferred by Amram Gaon himself. Evidence for this is: The manuscripts differ among themselves The text of the prayers is at variance with the surviving responsa of Natronai Gaon and other contemporary authorities, even with the halachic commentary of the siddur itself There are many instances where a authority, such as Abraham ben Nathan's Sefer ha-Manhig or David Abudirham, argues for text A "as prescribed by Amram Gaon" as against text B "found in popular usage", but the current version of Amram Gaon shows text B; the Siddur Rab Amram was sent to the communities of Spain, in response to a request for guidance on the laws of prayer.
However, it never seems to have been adopted by them as a package deal, though they respected the individual halachic rulings contained in it. On the contrary, they appear to have edited it to suit their own requirements, so that the wording of the manuscripts and the printed version contains variants to be derived from early versions of the Spanish rite. None of these early versions survives, but
A siddur is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers. The word siddur comes from the Hebrew root ס־ד־ר meaning "order"; the earliest parts of Jewish prayer book are the Shema Yisrael, the Priestly Blessing, which are in the Torah. A set of eighteen blessings called the Shemoneh Esreh or the Amidah, is traditionally ascribed to the Great Assembly in the time of Ezra, at the end of the Biblical period; the name Shemoneh Esreh "eighteen", is a historical anachronism, since it now contains nineteen blessings. It was only near the end of the Second Temple period that the eighteen prayers of the weekday Amidah became standardized. At that time their precise wording and order was not yet fixed, varied from locale to locale. Many modern scholars believe. According to the Talmud, soon after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem a formal version of the Amidah was adopted at a rabbinical council in Yavne, under the leadership of Rabban Gamaliel II and his colleagues. However, the precise wording was still left open.
The order, general ideas and closing lines were fixed. Most of the wording was left to the individual reader, it was not until several centuries that the prayers began to be formally fixed. By the Middle Ages the texts of the prayers were nearly fixed, in the form in which they are still used today; the siddur was printed by Soncino in Italy as early as 1486, though a siddur was first mass-distributed only in 1865. The siddur began appearing in the vernacular as early as 1538; the first English translation was published in London in 1738 by an author writing under the pseudonym Gamaliel ben Pedahzur. Readings from the Torah and the Nevi'im form part of the prayer services. To this framework various Jewish sages added, from time to time, various prayers, for festivals numerous hymns; the earliest existing codification of the prayerbook was drawn up by Rav Amram Gaon of Sura, about 850 CE. Half a century Rav Saadia Gaon of Sura, composed a siddur, in which the rubrical matter is in Arabic; these were the basis of Simcha ben Samuel's Machzor Vitry, based on the ideas of his teacher, Rashi.
Another formulation of the prayers was that appended by Maimonides to the laws of prayer in his Mishneh Torah: this forms the basis of the Yemenite liturgy, has had some influence on other rites. From this point forward all Jewish prayerbooks had contents. Two authoritative versions of the Ashkenazi siddur were those of Shabbetai Sofer in the 16th century and Seligman Baer in the 19th century. There are differences among, amongst others, the Sephardic, Chasidic, Bené Roma or Italkim and Persian-, Kurdish-, Bukharian-, Georgian-, Mountain Jewish-, Ethiopian- and Cochin-Jewish liturgies. Most of these are slight differences in the wording of the prayers. In some cases, the order of the preparation for the Amidah is drastically different, reflecting the different halakhic and kabbalistic formulae that the various scholars relied on in assembling their siddurim, as well as the minhagim, or customs, or their locales; some forms of the Sephardi rite are considered to be overtly kabbalistic, depending on how far they reflect the ritual of Isaac Luria.
This is because the Tetragrammaton appears with varying vowel points beneath the letters and different Names of God appear in small print within the final hei of the Tetragrammaton. In some editions, there is a Psalm in the preparations for the Amidah, printed in the outline of a menorah, the worshipper meditates on this shape as he recites the psalm; the Ashkenazi rite is more common than the Sephardi rite in America. While Nusach Ashkenaz does contain some kabbalistic elements, such as acrostics and allusions to the sefirot, these are not seen unless the reader is initiated, it is notable that although many other traditions avoid using the poem Anim Zemiroth on the Sabbath, for fear that its holiness would be less appreciated due to the frequency of the Sabbath, the poem is sung by Ashkenazi congregations before concluding the Sabbath Musaf service with the daily psalm. The ark is opened for the duration of the song. Hasidim, though ethnically Ashkenazi use liturgies with varying degrees of Sephardic influence, such as Nusach Sefard and Nusach Ari, in order to follow the order of the prayers set by Rabbi Isaac Luria called "Ari HaKadosh", or "The Holy Lion".
Although the Ari himself was born Ashkenazi, he borr
Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire, of the Byzantine Empire, of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire, until falling to the Ottoman Empire. It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, dedicated on 11 May 330; the city was located in what is now the core of modern Istanbul. From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe; the city was famed for its architectural masterpieces, such as the Greek Orthodox cathedral of Hagia Sophia, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares. The University of Constantinople was founded in the fifth century and contained numerous artistic and literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453, including its vast Imperial Library which contained the remnants of the Library of Alexandria and had over 100,000 volumes of ancient texts.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times as the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and as the guardian of Christendom's holiest relics such as the Crown of Thorns and the True Cross. Constantinople was famed for its complex defences; the first wall of the city was erected by Constantine I, surrounded the city on both land and sea fronts. In the 5th century, the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius under the child emperor Theodosius II undertook the construction of the Theodosian Walls, which consisted of a double wall lying about 2 kilometres to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front; this formidable complex of defences was one of the most sophisticated of Antiquity. The city was built intentionally to rival Rome, it was claimed that several elevations within its walls matched the'seven hills' of Rome; because it was located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara the land area that needed defensive walls was reduced, this helped it to present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces and towers, the result of the prosperity it achieved from being the gateway between two continents and two seas.
Although besieged on numerous occasions by various armies, the defences of Constantinople proved impregnable for nearly nine hundred years. In 1204, the armies of the Fourth Crusade took and devastated the city, its inhabitants lived several decades under Latin misrule. In 1261 the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos liberated the city, after the restoration under the Palaiologos dynasty, enjoyed a partial recovery. With the advent of the Ottoman Empire in 1299, the Byzantine Empire began to lose territories and the city began to lose population. By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, the first known name of a settlement on the site of Constantinople was Lygos, a settlement of Thracian origin founded between the 13th and 11th centuries BC; the site, according to the founding myth of the city, was abandoned by the time Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara founded Byzantium in around 657 BC, across from the town of Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus.
The origins of the name of Byzantion, more known by the Latin Byzantium, are not clear, though some suggest it is of Thraco-Illyrian origin. The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas; the Byzantines of Constantinople themselves would maintain that the city was named in honour of two men and Antes, though this was more just a play on the word Byzantion. The city was renamed Augusta Antonina in the early 3rd century AD by the Emperor Septimius Severus, who razed the city to the ground in 196 for supporting a rival contender in the civil war and had it rebuilt in honour of his son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, popularly known as Caracalla; the name appears to have been forgotten and abandoned, the city reverted to Byzantium/Byzantion after either the assassination of Caracalla in 217 or, at the latest, the fall of the Severan dynasty in 235. Byzantium took on the name of Kōnstantinoupolis after its refoundation under Roman emperor Constantine I, who transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium in 330 and designated his new capital as Nova Roma'New Rome'.
During this time, the city was called'Second Rome','Eastern Rome', Roma Constantinopolitana. As the city became the sole remaining capital of the Roman Empire after the fall of the West, its wealth and influence grew, the city came to have a multitude of nicknames; as the largest and wealthiest city in Europe during the 4th–13th centuries and a centre of culture and education of the Mediterranean basin, Constantinople came to be known by prestigious titles such as Basileuousa and Megalopol
The Exilarch was the title of the leader of the Jewish community in Babylon during the era of the Parthians and Abbasids up until the Mongol invasion of Baghdad in 1258, with intermitent gaps akin to political developments. The Exilarch was the equivalent of the Katholikos of the Christian Church of the East, was thus responsible for community-specific organizational tasks such as running courts, collecting taxes and providing financing for the Talmudic Academies in Babylon, the redistribution and financial assistance to needy members of the community; the position was hereditary in a family. The first historical documents referring to it date from the time when Babylon was part of the Parthian Empire; the office first lasted to the middle of the 6th century, under different regimes (the Parthians and Sassanids. During the end of 5th century and the beginning of 6th century CE, Mar-Zutra II formed a politically independent state where he ruled from Mahoza for about seven years, he was defeated by Kavadh I, King of Persia.
The position was restored under Arab rule. Exilarchs continued to be appointed through the 11th century. Under Arab rule, Muslims treated the exilarch with great circumstance; the Exilarchs authority came under considerable challenge in 825 CE during the reign of al-Ma'mun who issued a decree permitting a group of ten men from any religious community to organize separately, which allowed the Gaon of the Talmudic academies of Sura and Pumbedita to compete with the Exilarch for power and influence contributing to the wider schism between Karaites and Rabbinic Jewry. Although there is no mention about the office before the 2nd century BCE, the traditional view is that the office of Exilarch was established following the deportation of King Jeconiah and his court into Babylonian exile after the first fall of Jerusalem in 597 BCE and augmented after the further deportations following the destruction of the kingdom of Judah in 587 BCE; the history of the exilarchate falls into two periods, separated by the beginning of the Arabic rule in Babylonia.
Nothing is known about the office before the 2nd century, including any details about its founding or beginnings. It can be said in general that the golah, the Jews living in compact masses in various parts of Babylon, tended to unite and create an organization, that this tendency, together with the high regard in which the descendants of the house of David living in Babylon were held, brought it about that a member of this house was recognized as "head of the golah." The dignity became hereditary in this house, was recognized by the state, hence became an established political institution, first of the Arsacid and of the Sassanid empire. Such was the exilarchate as it appears in Talmudic literature, the chief source for its history during the first period, which provides our only information regarding the rights and functions of the exilarchate. For the second, period, there is a important and trustworthy description of the institution of the exilarchate; the following list of exilarchs is based on the evidence detailed in the following sections.
Exilarchs listed in the Second Book of Kings, the Books of Chronicles and in the Seder Olam Zutta, some legendary, are: Jeconiah or Jehoiachin, according to the chronology of the exilarchate, the last of the Davidic kings of Judah. After a reign of only three months and ten days, Jeconiah's reign came to an end by Babylonian intervention, Jeconiah and the elite of Judah were taken into Babylonian exile in 597 BCE as part of the first deportation, Jeconiah continued to be regarded as the legitimate king of Judah by the Jews in Babylon, his family line was followed by subsequent exilarchs. Cuneiform records dated to 592 BCE mention Jeconiah and his five sons as recipients of food rations in Babylon. In any event, all the sons of Jehoiachin's successor on the throne of Judah, were killed by Nebuchadrezzar II after the fall of Jerusalem and destruction of the Temple in 586 BCE. Shealtiel, son of Jehoiachin Zerubbabel, son of Pedaiah, a son of Jehoiachin and is mentioned as a governor of the Persian Yehud Province.
According to the Seder Olam Zutta, Zerubbabel was the son of Shealtiel. Meshullam, son of Zerubbabel Hananiah, son of Zerubbabel Berechiah, son of Zerubbabel Hasadiah, son of Hananiah Jesaiah, son of Hananiah Obadiah, son of Hananiah Shemaiah, son of Shecaniah, a son of Hananiah Shechaniah, son of Hananiah According to the Seder Olam Zutta, Shechaniah was the son of Shemaiah, lived at the time of the destruction of the Second Temple. However, this is unlikely, since the Second temple wasn't destroyed until over 500 years after the days of Zerubbabel. Hezekiah, son of Neriah, the son of Shemaiah Akkub, son of Elioenai, a son of Neriah, a son of Shemaiah Probably historical exilarchs found in the Seder Olam Zutta: Nahum the same person known as Nehunyon or Ahijah from the time of the Hadrianic
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name, they ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE. The Abbasid Caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, near the ancient Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon; the Abbasid period was marked by reliance on Persian bureaucrats for governing the territories as well as an increasing inclusion of non-Arab Muslims in the ummah. Persianate customs were broadly adopted by the ruling elite, they began patronage of artists and scholars. Baghdad became a centre of science, culture and invention in what became known as the Golden Age of Islam. Despite this initial cooperation, the Abbasids of the late 8th century had alienated both non-Arab mawali and Iranian bureaucrats.
They were forced to cede authority over al-Andalus to the Umayyads in 756, Morocco to the Idrisid dynasty in 788, Ifriqiya to the Aghlabids in 800 and Egypt to the Isma'ili-Shia caliphate of the Fatimids in 969. The political power of the caliphs ended with the rise of the Iranian Buyids and the Seljuq Turks, who captured Baghdad in 945 and 1055, respectively. Although Abbasid leadership over the vast Islamic empire was reduced to a ceremonial religious function, the dynasty retained control over its Mesopotamian domain; the Abbasids' period of cultural fruition ended in 1258 with the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan. The Abbasid line of rulers, Muslim culture in general, re-centred themselves in the Mamluk capital of Cairo in 1261. Though lacking in political power, the dynasty continued to claim religious authority until after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517; the Abbasid caliphs were Arabs descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, one of the youngest uncles of Muhammad and of the same Banu Hashim clan.
The Abbasids claimed to be the true successors of Prophet Muhammad in replacing the Umayyad descendants of Banu Umayya by virtue of their closer bloodline to Muhammad. The Abbasids distinguished themselves from the Umayyads by attacking their moral character and administration in general. According to Ira Lapidus, "The Abbasid revolt was supported by Arabs the aggrieved settlers of Merv with the addition of the Yemeni faction and their Mawali"; the Abbasids appealed to non-Arab Muslims, known as mawali, who remained outside the kinship-based society of the Arabs and were perceived as a lower class within the Umayyad empire. Muhammad ibn'Ali, a great-grandson of Abbas, began to campaign in Persia for the return of power to the family of Prophet Muhammad, the Hashimites, during the reign of Umar II. During the reign of Marwan II, this opposition culminated in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent from Abbas. Supported by the province of Khorasan though the governor opposed them, the Shia Arabs, he achieved considerable success, but was captured in the year 747 and died assassinated, in prison.
On 9 June 747, Abu Muslim, rising from Khorasan initiated an open revolt against Umayyad rule, carried out under the sign of the Black Standard. Close to 10,000 soldiers were under Abu Muslim's command when the hostilities began in Merv. General Qahtaba followed the fleeing governor Nasr ibn Sayyar west defeating the Umayyads at the Battle of Gorgan, the Battle of Nahāvand and in the Battle of Karbala, all in the year 748; the quarrel was taken up by Ibrahim's brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu al-'Abbas as-Saffah, who defeated the Umayyads in 750 in the battle near the Great Zab and was subsequently proclaimed caliph. After this loss, Marwan fled to Egypt; the remainder of his family, barring one male, were eliminated. After their victory, As-Saffah sent his forces to Central Asia, where his forces fought against Tang expansion during the Battle of Talas; the noble Iranian family Barmakids, who were instrumental in building Baghdad, introduced the world's first recorded paper mill in the city, thus beginning a new era of intellectual rebirth in the Abbasid domain.
As-Saffah focused on putting down numerous rebellions in Mesopotamia. The Byzantines conducted raids during these early distractions; the first change the Abbasids, under Al-Mansur, made was to move the empire's capital from Damascus, in Syria, to Baghdad in Iraq. This was to both appease as well to be closer to the Persian mawali support base that existed in this region more influenced by Persian history and culture, part of the Persian mawali demand for less Arab dominance in the empire. Baghdad was established on the Tigris River in 762. A new position, that of the vizier, was established to delegate central authority, greater authority was delegated to local emirs; this meant that many Abbasid caliphs were relegated to a more ceremonial role than under the Umayyads, as the viziers began to exert greater influence, the role of the old Arab aristocracy was replaced by a Persian bureaucracy. During Al-Mansur's time control of Al-Andalus was lost, the Shia revolted and were defeated a year at the Battle of Bakhamra.
The Abbasids had depended on the support of Persians in their overthrow of the Umayyads. Abu al-'Abbas' successor, Al-Mansur welcomed non-Arab Musli
The Cairo Genizah, alternatively spelled Geniza, is a collection of some 300,000 Jewish manuscript fragments that were found in the genizah or storeroom of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Fustat or Old Cairo, Egypt. These manuscripts outline a 1,000-year continuum of Jewish Middle-Eastern and North African history and comprise the largest and most diverse collection of medieval manuscripts in the world; the Genizah texts are written in various languages Hebrew and Aramaic on vellum and paper, but on papyrus and cloth. In addition to containing Jewish religious texts such as Biblical and Rabbinic works, the Genizah gives a detailed picture of the economic and cultural life of the North African and Eastern Mediterranean regions during the 10th to 13th centuries, it is now dispersed among a number of libraries, including the libraries of Cambridge University and the University of Manchester. Some additional fragments were found in the Basatin cemetery east of Old Cairo, the collection includes a number of old documents bought in Cairo in the latter nineteenth century.
The first European to note the collection was Simon van Gelderen, who visited the Ben Ezra synagogue and reported about the Cairo Genizah in 1752 or 1753. In 1864 the traveler and scholar Jacob Saphir visited the synagogue and explored the Genizah for two days. In 1896, the Scottish scholars, twin sisters Agnes S. Lewis and Margaret D. Gibson returned from Egypt with fragments from the Genizah they considered to be of interest, showed them to Solomon Schechter "their irrepressibly curious rabbinical friend" at Cambridge. Schechter aware of the Genizah but not of its significance recognized the importance of the material. With the financial assistance of his Cambridge colleague and friend Charles Taylor, Schechter made an expedition to Egypt, with the assistance of the Chief Rabbi, he sorted and removed the greater part of the contents of the Genizah chamber. Agnes and Margaret joined him there en route to Sinai and he showed them the chamber which Agnes reported was "simply indescribable"; the Genizah fragments have now been archived in various libraries around the world.
The Taylor-Schechter collection at Cambridge is the largest, by far, single collection, with nearly 193,000 fragments. There are a further 31,000 fragments at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; the John Rylands University Library in Manchester holds a collection of over 11,000 fragments, which are being digitised and uploaded to an online archive. The Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford has a collection of 25,000 Genizah folios. Westminster College in Cambridge held 1,700 fragments, which were deposited by Lewis and Gibson in 1896. In 2013 the two Oxbridge libraries, the Bodleian Library at Oxford and Cambridge University Library, joined together to raise funds to buy the Westminster collection after it was put up for sale for £1.2 million. This is the first time; the Cairo Genizah documents include both religious and secular writings, composed from about 870 AD to as late as 1880. The normal practice for genizot was to bury them in a cemetery. Many of these documents were written in the Aramaic language using the Hebrew alphabet.
As the Jews considered Hebrew to be the language of God, the Hebrew script to be the literal writing of God, the texts could not be destroyed long after they had served their purpose. The Jews who wrote the materials in the Genizah were familiar with the culture and language of their contemporary society; the documents are invaluable as evidence for how colloquial Arabic of this period was spoken and understood. They demonstrate that the Jewish creators of the documents were part of their contemporary society: they practiced the same trades as their Muslim and Christian neighbors, including farming; the importance of these materials for reconstructing the social and economic history for the period between 950 and 1250 cannot be overemphasized. Judaic scholar Shelomo Dov Goitein created an index for this time period which covers about 35,000 individuals; this included about 350 "prominent people," among them Maimonides and his son Abraham, 200 "better known families", mentions of 450 professions and 450 goods.
He identified material from Egypt, Lebanon, Tunisia and covering trade with India. Cities mentioned range from Samarkand in Morocco to the west. In particular the various records of payments to labourers for building maintenance and the like form by far the largest collection of records of day wages in the Islamic world for the early medieval period, despite difficulties in interpreting the currency units cited and other aspects of the data, they have invariably been cited in discussions of the medieval Islamic economy since the 1930s, when this aspect of the collection was researched by French scholars. The materials include a vast number of books, most of them fragments, which are estimated to number nearly 280,000 leaves, including parts of Jewish religious writings and fragments from the Quran. Of particular interest to biblical scholars are severa
Romanization of Hebrew
Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel diacritics. The romanization of Hebrew is the use of the Latin alphabet to transliterate Hebrew words. For example, the Hebrew name spelled יִשְׂרָאֵל in the Hebrew alphabet can be romanized as Yisrael or Yiśrāʼēl in the Latin alphabet. Romanization includes any use of the Latin alphabet to transliterate Hebrew words, it is to identify a Hebrew word in a non-Hebrew language that uses the Latin alphabet, such as German, Turkish, so on. Transliteration uses an alphabet to represent the letters and sounds of a word spelled in another alphabet, whereas transcription uses an alphabet to represent the sounds only. Romanization can do both. To go the other way, from English to Hebrew, see Hebraization of English. Both Hebraization of English and Romanization of Hebrew are forms of transliteration. Where these are formalized these are known as "transliteration systems", where only some words, not all, are transliterated, this is known as "transliteration policy".
Transliteration assumes two different script systems. The use of a French word in English without translation, such as "bourgeois", is not transliteration; the use of a Hindi word in English such as "khaki" is transliteration. Transliteration of a foreign word into another language is the exception to translation, occurs when there is something distinctive about the word in the original language, such as a double entendre, religious, cultural or political significance, or it may occur to add local flavour. In the cases of Hebrew transliteration into English, many Hebrew words have a long history of transliteration, for example Amen, ephod and Thummim have traditionally been transliterated, not translated; these terms were in many cases first transliterated into Greek and Latin before English. Different publishers have different transliteration policies. For example ArtScroll publications transliterate more words relative to sources such as the Jewish Encyclopedia 1911, or Jewish Publication Society texts.
There are various transliteration systems for Hebrew-to-English. In general usage there are no hard and fast rules in Hebrew-to-English transliteration, many transliterations are an approximation due to lack of equivalence between the English and Hebrew alphabets. Conflicting systems of transliteration appear in the same text, as certain Hebrew words tend to associate with certain traditions of transliteration. For example, For Hanukkah at the synagogue Beith Sheer Chayyim, Isaac donned his talis that Yitzchak sent him from Bet Qehila in Tsfat, Israel; this text includes instances of the same word transliterated in different ways: The Hebrew word בית is transliterated as both Beith and Bet. These discrepancies in transliterations of the same word can be traced to discrepancies in the transliterations of individual Hebrew letters, reflecting not only different traditions of transliteration into different languages that use Latin alphabets, but the fact that different pronunciation styles exist for the same letters in Israel.
For example and Chayyim are transliterated with different initial letter combinations, although in Hebrew both begin with the letter ח. The Hebrew letter ת is transliterated as th in the word Beith, s in the word talis, t in the word Bet though it is the same letter in all three words in Hebrew; the Hebrew letter ק is transliterated as c in Isaac, k in Yitzchak, q in Qehila. The Hebrew letter צ is transliterated variously as s, tz, ts, again reflecting different traditions of spelling or pronunciation; these inconsistencies make it more difficult for the non-Hebrew-speaking reader to recognize related word forms, or to properly pronounce the Hebrew words thus transliterated. Early romanization of Hebrew occurred with the contact between the Jews, it was influenced by earlier transliteration into the Greek language. For example, the name of the Roman province of Iudaea was derived from the Greek words Ἰούδα and Ἰουδαία; these words can be seen in Chapter 1 of Esdras in the Septuagint, a Hellenistic translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek.
The Greek words in turn are transliterations of the Hebrew word יהודה that we now know adapted in English as the names Judah and Jude. In the 1st century, Satire 14 of Juvenal uses the Hebraic words sabbata and Moyses adopted from the Greek; the 4th-century and 5th-century Latin translations of the Hebrew Bible romanize its proper names. The familiar Biblical names in English are derived from these romanizations; the Vulgate, of the early 5th century, is considered the first direct Latin translation of the Hebrew Bible. Apart from names, another term that the Vulgate romanizes is the technical term mamzer. With the rise of Zionism, some Jews promoted the use of romanization instead of Hebrew script in hopes of helping more people learn Hebrew. One such promoter was Ittamar Ben Avi as he styled himself, his father Eliezer Ben Yehuda raised him to be the first modern native speaker of Hebrew. In 1927 Ben-Avi published the biography Avi in romanized Hebrew. However, the innovation did not cat