Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Paul Erman was a German physicist from Berlin, Brandenburg and a Huguenot of the fourth generation. He was the son of the historian Jean Pierre Erman, author of Histoire des réfugiés. Erman became teacher of science successively at the French gymnasium in Berlin, at the military academy, on the foundation of the University of Berlin in 18 months he was chosen professor of physics, his work was concerned with electricity and magnetism, though he made some contributions to optics and physiology. Erman died in Berlin, he had a son, Georg Adolf Erman, a physicist, a grandson Johann Peter Adolf Erman, known as an Egyptologist. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Erman, Paul". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9. Cambridge University Press. P. 749
A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. Physicists are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, through biological physics, to cosmological length scales encompassing the universe as a whole; the field includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who specialize in the observation of physical phenomena and the analysis of experiments, theoretical physicists who specialize in mathematical modeling of physical systems to rationalize and predict natural phenomena. Physicists can apply their knowledge towards solving practical problems or to developing new technologies; the study and practice of physics is based on an intellectual ladder of discoveries and insights from ancient times to the present.
Many mathematical and physical ideas used today found their earliest expression in ancient Greek culture, for example in the work of Euclid, Thales of Miletus and Aristarchus. Roots emerged in ancient Asian culture and in the Islamic medieval period, for example the work of Alhazen in the 11th century; the modern scientific worldview and the bulk of physics education can be said to flow from the scientific revolution in Europe, starting with the work of Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler in the early 1600s. Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation were formulated in the 17th century; the experimental discoveries of Faraday and the theory of Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism were developmental high points during the 19th century. Many physicists contributed to the development of quantum mechanics in the early-to-mid 20th century. New knowledge in the early 21st century includes a large increase in understanding physical cosmology; the broad and general study of nature, natural philosophy, was divided into several fields in the 19th century, when the concept of "science" received its modern shape.
Specific categories emerged, such as "biology" and "biologist", "physics" and "physicist", "chemistry" and "chemist", among other technical fields and titles. The term physicist was coined by William Whewell in his 1840 book The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. A standard undergraduate physics curriculum consists of classical mechanics and magnetism, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, laboratory experience. Physics students need training in mathematics, in computer science. Any physics-oriented career position requires at least an undergraduate degree in physics or applied physics, while career options widen with a Master's degree like MSc, MPhil, MPhys or MSci. For research-oriented careers, students work toward a doctoral degree specializing in a particular field. Fields of specialization include experimental and theoretical astrophysics, atomic physics, biological physics, chemical physics, condensed matter physics, geophysics, gravitational physics, material science, medical physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics, radiophysics, electromagnetic field and microwave physics, particle physics, plasma physics.
The highest honor awarded to physicists is the Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. National physics professional societies have many awards for professional recognition. In the case of the American Physical Society, as of 2017, there are 33 separate prizes and 38 separate awards in the field; the three major employers of career physicists are academic institutions and private industries, with the largest employer being the last. Physicists in academia or government labs tend to have titles such as Assistants, Professors, Sr./Jr. Scientist, or postdocs; as per the American Institute of Physics, some 20% of new physics Ph. D.s holds jobs in engineering development programs, while 14% turn to computer software and about 11% are in business/education. A majority of physicists employed apply their skills and training to interdisciplinary sectors. Job titles for graduate physicists include Agricultural Scientist, Air Traffic Controller, Computer Programmer, Electrical Engineer, Environmental Analyst, Medical Physicist, Oceanographer, Physics Teacher/Professor/Researcher, Research Scientist, Reactor Physicist, Engineering Physicist, Satellite Missions Analyst, Science Writer, Software Engineer, Systems Engineer, Microelectronics Engineer, Radar Developer, Technical Consultant, etc.
A majority of Physics terminal bachelor's degree holders are employed in the private sector. Other fields are academia and military service, nonprofit entities and teaching. Typical duties of physicists with master's and doctoral degrees working in their domain involve research and analysis, data preparation, instrumentation and development of industrial or medical equipment and software development, etc. Chartered Physicist is a chartered status and a professional qualification awarded by the Institute of Physics, it is denoted by the postnominals "CPhys". Achieving chartered status in any profession denotes to the wider community a high level of specialised subject knowledge and professional competence. According to the Institute of Physics, holders of the award of the Chartered Physicist demonst
Johann Peter Adolf Erman was a renowned German Egyptologist and lexicographer. Born in Berlin, he was grandson of Paul Erman and Friedrich Bessel. Educated at Leipzig and Berlin, he became associate professor of Egyptology at the University of Berlin in 1883 and full professor in 1892. In 1885 he was appointed director of the Egyptian department at the royal museum. In 1934 he was excluded from the faculty of the university because he was, according to the Nazi ideology, one quarter Jewish; as his family had converted to Protestantism in 1802 he and his family were not persecuted by the Nazis, but they all lost their positions. Erman and his school at Berlin had the difficult task of recovering the grammar of the Egyptian language and spent thirty years of special study on it; the greater part of Egyptian texts after the Middle Kingdom having been written in what was then a dead language, as dead as Latin was to the medieval monks in Italy who wrote and spoke it, Erman selected for special investigation those texts which represented the growth of the language at different periods, and, as he passed from one epoch to another and consolidated his results.
The Neuägyptische Grammatik dealt with texts written in the vulgar dialect of the New Kingdom. Next followed, in the Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Alterthumskunde, studies on the Old Kingdom inscription of Unas, the Middle Kingdom contracts of Assiut, as well as on an Old Coptic text of the 3rd century CE. At this point a papyrus of stories written in the popular language of the Middle Kingdom provided Erman with a stepping-stone from Old Egyptian to the Late Egyptian of the Neuägyptische Grammatik, gave the connections that would bind solidly together the whole structure of Egyptian grammar; the archaic pyramid texts enabled him to sketch the grammar of the earliest known form of Egyptian, in 1894 he was able to write a little manual of Egyptian for beginners, centering on the language of the standard inscriptions of the Middle and New Kingdoms, but accompanying the main sketch with references to earlier and forms. Erman's pupils include James Henry Breasted, America's first Professor of Egyptology with his numerous works including his History of Egypt from the Earliest Times Down to the Persian Conquest and Georg Steindorff's little Koptische Grammatik, improving on Stern's standard work in regard to phonology and the relationship of Coptic forms to Egyptian, Sethe's Das Ägyptische Verbum.
The latter is an extensive monograph on the verb in Egyptian and Coptic by a brilliant and laborious philologist. Owing to the imperfect notation of sound in the writing, the important subject of the verbal roots and verbal forms was the obscurest branch of Egyptian grammar when Sethe first attacked it in 1895; the subject has been reviewed by Erman, Die Flexion des Aegyptischen Verbums in the Sitzungsberichte of the Berlin Academy, 1900. The Berlin school, having settled the main lines of the grammar, next turned its attention to lexicography, it devised a scheme, founded on that for the Latin Thesaurus of the Berlin Academy, which mechanically sorts the whole number of occurrences of every word in any text examined. In 1897, working together with Sethe, Hermann Grapow and other coworkers from all over the world, started to catalogue all the words from all the known Egyptian texts available; the complete edition of this gigantic dictionary comprises a total of twelve volumes. Erman said that the so-called pseudo-participle had been in meaning and in form a rough analogue of the Semitic perfect, though its original employment was obsolete in the time of the earliest known texts.
Erman died in Berlin. Life in Ancient Egypt, translated by H. M. Tirard Neuägyptische Grammatik. 1880 Sprache des Papyrus Westcar. 1889 Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. 1892 Egyptian grammar: with table of signs, exercises for reading and glossar, 1894 Ägyptische Grammatik, 2nd ed.. 1902 Die Flexion des ägyptischen Verbums in the Sitzungsberichte Die aegyptische Religion. Berlin 1905. Published in the original German edition as a handbook, by the General Verwaltung of the Berlin Imperial Museums. Das Verhältnis der ägyptischen zu den semitischen Sprachen. Gram. 1898. Die Literatur der Aegypter, 1923. English translation by Aylward M. Blackman published as The Literature of the Ancient Egyptians, Methuen & Co. 1927. List of Egyptologists Thomas L. Gertzen: Jean Pierre Adolphe Erman und die Begründung der Ägyptologie als Wissenschaft. Hentrich & Hentrich, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-95565-126-8
Carl Friedrich Gauss
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (. Sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum and "the greatest mathematician since antiquity", Gauss had an exceptional influence in many fields of mathematics and science, is ranked among history's most influential mathematicians. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on 30 April 1777 in Brunswick, in the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, to poor, working-class parents, his mother was illiterate and never recorded the date of his birth, remembering only that he had been born on a Wednesday, eight days before the Feast of the Ascension. Gauss solved this puzzle about his birthdate in the context of finding the date of Easter, deriving methods to compute the date in both past and future years, he was christened and confirmed in a church near the school he attended as a child. Gauss was a child prodigy. In his memorial on Gauss, Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen says that when Gauss was three years old he corrected a math error his father made. Many versions of this story have been retold since that time with various details regarding what the series was – the most frequent being the classical problem of adding all the integers from 1 to 100.
There are many other anecdotes about his precocity while a toddler, he made his first groundbreaking mathematical discoveries while still a teenager. He completed his magnum opus, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, in 1798, at the age of 21—though it was not published until 1801; this work was fundamental in consolidating number theory as a discipline and has shaped the field to the present day. Gauss's intellectual abilities attracted the attention of the Duke of Brunswick, who sent him to the Collegium Carolinum, which he attended from 1792 to 1795, to the University of Göttingen from 1795 to 1798. While at university, Gauss independently rediscovered several important theorems, his breakthrough occurred in 1796 when he showed that a regular polygon can be constructed by compass and straightedge if the number of its sides is the product of distinct Fermat primes and a power of 2. This was a major discovery in an important field of mathematics. Gauss was so pleased with this result that he requested that a regular heptadecagon be inscribed on his tombstone.
The stonemason declined, stating that the difficult construction would look like a circle. The year 1796 was productive for both Gauss and number theory, he discovered a construction of the heptadecagon on 30 March. He further advanced modular arithmetic simplifying manipulations in number theory. On 8 April he became the first to prove the quadratic reciprocity law; this remarkably general law allows mathematicians to determine the solvability of any quadratic equation in modular arithmetic. The prime number theorem, conjectured on 31 May, gives a good understanding of how the prime numbers are distributed among the integers. Gauss discovered that every positive integer is representable as a sum of at most three triangular numbers on 10 July and jotted down in his diary the note: "ΕΥΡΗΚΑ! num = Δ + Δ' + Δ". On 1 October he published a result on the number of solutions of polynomials with coefficients in finite fields, which 150 years led to the Weil conjectures. Gauss remained mentally active into his old age while suffering from gout and general unhappiness.
For example, at the age of 62, he taught himself Russian. In 1840, Gauss published his influential Dioptrische Untersuchungen, in which he gave the first systematic analysis on the formation of images under a paraxial approximation. Among his results, Gauss showed that under a paraxial approximation an optical system can be characterized by its cardinal points and he derived the Gaussian lens formula. In 1845, he became an associated member of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands. In 1854, Gauss selected the topic for Bernhard Riemann's inaugural lecture "Über die Hypothesen, welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen". On the way home from Riemann's lecture, Weber reported that Gauss was full of excitement. On 23 February 1855, Gauss died of a heart attack in Göttingen. Two people gave eulogies at his funeral: Gauss's son-in-law Heinrich Ewald, Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen, Gauss's close friend and biographer. Gauss's brain was preserved and was studied by Rudolf Wagner, who found its mass to be above average, at 1,492 grams, the cerebral area equal to 219,588 square millimeters.
Developed convolutions were found, which in the early 20th century were suggested as the explanation of his genius. Gauss was a Lutheran Protestant, a member of the St. Albans Evangelical Lutheran church in Göttingen. Potential evidence that Gauss believed in God comes from his response after solving a problem that had defeated him: "Finally, two days ago, I succeeded—not on account of my hard efforts, but by th
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website