Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger was a German and Swiss artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style. He is best known as one of the greatest portraitists of the 16th century and he produced religious art and Reformation propaganda, and made a significant contribution to the history of book design. He is called the Younger to distinguish him from his father, Hans Holbein the Elder, Born in Augsburg, Holbein worked mainly in Basel as a young artist. At first he painted murals and religious works and designed for stained glass windows and he painted the occasional portrait, making his international mark with portraits of the humanist Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam. When the Reformation reached Basel, Holbein worked for reformist clients while continuing to serve traditional religious patrons and his Late Gothic style was enriched by artistic trends in Italy and the Netherlands, as well as by Renaissance humanism. The result was a combined aesthetic uniquely his own, Holbein travelled to England in 1526 in search of work, with a recommendation from Erasmus.
He was welcomed into the humanist circle of Thomas More, where he built a high reputation. After returning to Basel for four years, he resumed his career in England in 1532 and this time he worked under the patronage of Anne Boleyn and Thomas Cromwell. By 1535, he was Kings Painter to King Henry VIII, in this role, he produced not only portraits and festive decorations but designs for jewellery and other precious objects. His portraits of the family and nobles are a record of the court in the years when Henry was asserting his supremacy over the English church. Holbeins art was prized from early in his career, the French poet and reformer Nicholas Bourbon dubbed him the Apelles of our time, a typical contemporary accolade. Holbein has described as a great one-off of art history. After his death, some of his work was lost, but much was collected, recent exhibitions have highlighted his versatility. He turned his fluid line to designs ranging from jewellery to monumental frescoes. Holbeins art has sometimes been called realist, since he drew and his portraits were renowned in their time for their likeness, and it is through Holbeins eyes that many famous figures of his day, such as Erasmus and More, are now seen.
Holbein was never content, with outward appearance and he embedded layers of symbolism and paradox in his art, to the lasting fascination of scholars. In the view of art historian Ellis Waterhouse, his portraiture remains unsurpassed for sureness and economy of statement, penetration into character, Holbein was born in the free imperial city of Augsburg during the winter of 1497–98. He was a son of the painter and draughtsman Hans Holbein the Elder, whose trade he and his brother, Ambrosius
Cologne is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth-largest city in Germany. It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, one of the major European metropolitan areas, and with more than ten million inhabitants, Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River, less than eighty kilometres from Belgium. The citys famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne, the University of Cologne is one of Europes oldest and largest universities. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the first century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the French version of the citys name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior, during the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval.
Up until World War II the city had several occupations by the French. Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during World War II, the bombing reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many buildings as possible. Cologne is a cultural centre for the Rhineland, it hosts more than thirty museums. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics, the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, in 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on the Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. The city was named Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in 50 AD, considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a 1900-year-old Roman boat was made in late 2007.
From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius, in 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it one of the most important trade. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462, parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire, Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period, under Charlemagne, in 795, bishop Hildebold was promoted to archbishop
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Patrician (post-Roman Europe)
In the rise of European towns in the 10th and 11th centuries, the patriciate, a limited group of families with a special constitutional position, in Henri Pirennes view, was the motive force. In 19th century central Europe, the term had become synonymous with the upper Bourgeoisie, except for the republics of Italy. As in Ancient Rome, patrician status could only be inherited. However, membership in the patriciate could be passed on through the female line, accession to a patriciate through this mechanism was referred to as erweibern. In any case, only patricians could hold, or participate in elections for. Often, as in Venice, non-patricians had almost no political rights, lists were maintained of who had the status, of which the most famous is the Libro dOro of the Venetian Republic. For instance in Scandinavia, the term synonymous with the rich mercantile class. The allegiance of the Principality of Salerno was bought in 887 by investing Prince Guaimar I, in 909 the Prince of Benevento, Landulf I, personally sought and received the title in Constantinople for both himself and his brother, Atenulf II.
Amalfi was ruled by a series of Patricians, the last of whom was elected Duke, in the late Middle Ages and early modern period patricians acquired noble titles, sometimes simply by acquiring domains in the surrounding contado that carried a heritable fief. The Republic of Genoa had a class, much smaller, of nobility. Some cities, such as Naples and Rome, which had never been republics in post-Classical times, had patrician classes, though most holders had noble titles. The Republic of Ragusa was ruled by a strict patriciate that was established in 1332. Subsequently, patrician became a term used for aristocrats and elite bourgeoisie in many countries. Florence, in 1244, came late in the peak period of these transformations. However Florence was to have other upheavals, reducing the power of the class, in the movement leading to the Ordinances of Justice in 1293. Of the major republics, only Venice managed to retain an exclusively patrician government, venetians with a disputed claim to the patriciate were required to present to the avogadori di commun established to adjudicate such claims a genealogy called a prova di nobiltà, a test of nobility.
Beginning in the 11th century, a class which much came to be called Patrizier formed in the German-speaking free imperial cities. Besides wealthy merchant Grand Burghers, they were recruited from the ranks of knights and ministeriales
Dianthus caryophyllus, carnation or clove pink, is a species of Dianthus. It is probably native to the Mediterranean region but its range is unknown due to extensive cultivation for the last 2,000 years. It is a perennial plant growing to 80 cm tall. The leaves are greyish green to blue-green, slender, up to 15 cm long. Some fragrance-less carnation cultivars are used as boutonnieres for men. Carnations require well-drained, neutral to alkaline soil, and full sun. Numerous cultivars have been selected for garden planting, typical examples include Gina Porto, Laced Romeo, and Red Rocket. Colombia is the largest carnation producer in the world, for the most part, carnations express love and distinction, though there are many variations dependent on colour. Along with the red rose, the red carnation can be used as a symbol of socialism and the labour movement, in Portugal, bright red carnations represent the 1974 coup detat that ended the Estado Novo regime. Light red carnations represent admiration, while dark red denote deep love, white carnations represent pure love and good luck, while striped carnations symbolise regret that a love cannot be shared.
White carnations, in the Netherlands are associated with HRH prince Bernhard and he wore one during World War II and in a gesture of defiance some of the Dutch population took up this gesture. After the war the white carnation became a sign of the Prince, veterans, in France, it is a traditional funeral flower, given in condolence for the death of a loved one. According to a Christian legend, carnations first appeared on Earth as Jesus carried the Cross, the Virgin Mary shed tears at Jesus plight, and carnations sprang up from where her tears fell. Thus the pink carnation became the symbol of a undying love. Carnation is the flower for those born in the month of January. The formal name for carnation, comes from Greek for heavenly flower, Carnations are often worn on special occasions, especially Mothers Day and weddings. In 1907, Anna Jarvis chose a carnation as the emblem of Mothers Day because it was her mothers favourite flower and this tradition is now observed in the United States and Canada on the second Sunday in May.
Ann Jarvis chose the carnation because she wanted to represent the purity of a mothers love
Smarthistory is a free resource for the study of art history created by art historians Beth Harris and Steven Zucker. Smarthistory is an independent not-for-profit organization and the partner to Khan Academy for art history. In addition to its focus on courses in art history, Smarthistory supports the art history Advanced Placement course. Smarthistory provides essays, video and links to resources for each of the 250 works of art. Smarthistory has published 1500 videos and essays on art and cultural history from the Paleolithic era to the 21st century that include the art of Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania. Smarthistorys essays have been contributed by more than 200 art historians, videos are unscripted conversations between experts recorded on location in front of the original work of art or architecture. According to the Smarthistory about page, We are interested in delivering the narratives of art using the read-write webs interactivity and capacity for authoring and remixing. Publishers are adding multimedia to their textbooks, but unfortunately they are doing so in proprietary, Smarthistory won the Webby Award for Education in 2009.
The Samuel H. Kress Foundation gave them a $25,000 grant for development in 2008, in an article in the Brooklyn New York Daily News, staff writer Elizabeth Lazarowitz quotes Steven Zucker, Art can be really intimidating for people, said Zucker. If we can make art feel exciting and interesting and very relevant to a historical moment. art can have real meaning. Unlike reading about art in a book, the idea of the audio was to keep a students eyes on the image and it helped students to learn the material a lot better. And for college students, the site is fast becoming an alternative to the commercial textbook whose short life cycle. We thought that that would make them relevant and more engaging for students
Westphalia is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It has an area of 7,802 sq mi and 7.9 million inhabitants, the region is almost identical with the Province of Westphalia which was a part of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1815 to 1918 and the Free State of Prussia from 1918 to 1946. In 1946, Westphalia merged with the Northern Rhineland, another part of Prussia. In 1947, the state with its two parts was joined by a third one, Lippe, a former principality and free state. All of the 17 districts and 9 independent cities of Westphalia, the Westphalian language, a variant of the German language, spreads north of Westphalias borders into southwest Lower Saxony. Being a part of the North German Plain, most of Westphalias north is flat, in the south the German Central Uplands emerge. Westphalia is divided into the following landscapes, other important rivers are the Ems and the Lippe. The Langenberg and the Kahler Asten in the Sauerlands part of the Rothaar Mountains are Westphalias, Westphalia is divided into three governmental districts.
These are subdivided into districts and independent cities. All districts and independent cities of the districts of Arnsberg. The District of Lippe as successor of the Free State of Lippe in the Governmental District of Detmold is rather considered to be a historic region. The traditional symbol of Westphalia is the Westphalian Steed, a horse on a red field. It is derived from the Saxon Steed in the coat of arms of the medieval Duchy of Saxony which most of todays Westphalia was part of. In official contexts the coat of arms of Westphalia is being used by the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association which represents these two historic parts of North Rhine-Westphalia. The coat of arms of Lower Saxony uses a different version of the Saxon Steed since the state covers parts of the Old Saxons duchy. The colors of Westphalia are white and red, the flag of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association uses these colors with the Westphalian coat of arms in its center. The flag of North Rhine-Westphalia is a combination of the Northern Rhinelands colors green/white, the flag of the Prussian Province of Westphalia already displayed the colors white and red.
The flag of Lower Saxony shows the colors of Germany and the Saxon Steed, composed in Iserlohn in 1886 by Emil Rittershaus, the Westfalenlied is an unofficial anthem of Westphalia
A guild /ɡɪld/ is an association of artisans or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of tradesmen and they were organized in a manner something between a professional association, trade union, a cartel, and a secret society. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting places, an important result of the guild framework was the emergence of universities at Bologna and Paris, they originated as guilds of students as at Bologna, or of masters as at Paris. Usually the founders were free independent master craftsmen who hired apprentices, there were several types of guilds, including the two main categories of merchant guilds and craft guilds but the frith guild and religious guild. In many cases became the governing body of a town. The Freedom of the City, effective from the Middle Ages until 1835, gave the right to trade, Trade guilds arose in the 14th century as craftsmen united to protect their common interest.
The occasion for these oaths were drunken banquets held on December 26, gregory of Tours tells a miraculous tale of a builder whose art and techniques suddenly left him, but were restored by an apparition of the Virgin Mary in a dream. Michel Rouche remarks that the story speaks for the importance of practically transmitted journeymanship, in France, guilds were called corps de métiers. According to Viktor Ivanovich Rutenburg, Within the guild itself there was little division of labour. Thus, according to Étienne Boileaus Book of Handicrafts, by the century there were no less than 100 guilds in Paris. In Catalan towns, specially at Barcelona, guilds or gremis were a basic agent in the society, a shoemakers guild is recorded in 1208. In England, specifically in the City of London Corporation, more than 110 guilds, referred to as companies, survive today. Other groups, such as the Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers, have been formed far more recently, membership in a livery company is expected for individuals participating in the governance of The City, as the Lord Mayor and the Remembrancer.
The guild system reached a state in Germany circa 1300 and held on in German cities into the 19th century. In the 15th century, Hamburg had 100 guilds, Cologne 80, the latest guilds to develop in Western Europe were the gremios of Spain, e. g. Valencia or Toledo. Not all city economies were controlled by guilds, some cities were free, in order to become a Master, a Journeyman would have to go on a three-year voyage called Journeyman years. The practice of the Journeyman years still exists in Germany and France, in Ghent, as in Florence, the woolen textile industry developed as a congeries of specialized guilds. The appearance of the European guilds was tied to the emergent money economy, before this time it was not possible to run a money-driven organization, as commodity money was the normal way of doing business
Tiedemann Giese, was a member of the patrician Giese family of Danzig. The Gieses originated from Unna in Westphalia and his father was Albrecht Giese and his brother, the Hanseatic League merchant Georg Giese. Tiedemann became Bishop of Culm first canon, Prince-Bishop of Ermland, at age 24, he became a priest at the Catholic Church of St. Peter and St. Paul. Giese was supported by Chancellor Lucas David, Bishop Giese was a close friend of the famous astronomer and proponent of heliocentrism Nicolaus Copernicus. He worked on updating the Kulm law while a canon at Ermland, on 1 July 1536 he was designated by King of Poland, Sigismund I, who considered him a very valuable diplomat, as Bishop of Culm, which was confirmed by the Pope. After Mauritius Ferbers death Giese became prince-bishop, the Giese and the Copernicus family were related. Copernicus willed his writings to Giese and left his library to the administration of the Prince-Bishopric of Ermland. He carried out active correspondence with Erasmus of Rotterdam and Philipp Melanchthon, among his known publications is Centum et decem assertiones, quas auctor earum Flosculos appellavit de homine interiore et exteriore, a polemic with the proponent of Luther, Johann Briesmann.
Most of his works have been lost. Bischop Giese died in Heilsberg and was laid to rest next to Copernicus at the Frauenburg cathedral
The name Papiermark is applied to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Goldmark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of World War I. In particular, the name is used for the banknotes issued during the hyperinflation in Germany of 1922, from 1914, the value of the Mark fell. The rate of inflation rose following the end of World War I, the currency was stabilized in November 1923 after the announcement of the creation of the Rentenmark, although the Rentenmark did not come into circulation until 1924. When it did, it replaced the Papiermark at the rate of 1 trillion Papiermark =1 Rentenmark, in 1924, the Rentenmark was replaced by the Reichsmark. In addition to the issues of the government, emergency issues of both tokens and paper money, known as Kriegsgeld and Notgeld, were produced by local authorities, the Papiermark was used in the Free City of Danzig until replaced by the Danzig Gulden in late 1923. Several coins and emergency issues in papiermark were issued by the free city, during the war, cheaper metals were introduced for coins, including aluminium and iron, although silver ½ Mark pieces continued in production until 1919.
Aluminium 1 Pfennig were produced until 1918 and the 2 Pfennig until 1916, whilst iron 5 Pfennig, both iron and zinc 10 Pfennig and aluminium 50 Pfennig coins were issued until 1922. Aluminium 3 Mark were issued in 1922 and 1923, and aluminium 200 and 500 Mark were issued in 1923, the quality of many of these coins varied from decent to poor. During this period, many provinces and cities had their own corresponding coin and note issues and this came about often due to a shortage of exchangeable tender in one region or another during the war and hyperinflation periods. Some of the most memorable of these to be issued during this period came from Westfalen and featured the highest face value denominations on a coin ever, in 1914, the State Loan Office began issuing paper money known as Darlehnskassenscheine. These circulated alongside the issues of the Reichsbank, most were 1- and 2-Mark notes but there were 5-, 20-, 50- and 100-Mark notes. The victor nations in World War I decided to assess Germany for their costs of conducting the war against Germany, with no means of paying in gold or currency backed by reserves, Germany ran the presses, causing the value of the Mark to collapse.
Many Germans literally carted wheelbarrows of cash to pay for groceries, between 1914 and the end of 1923 the German papiermark’s rate of exchange against the U. S. dollar plummeted from 4.2 mark/dollar to 4.2 trillion mark/dollar. The price of one gold mark in German paper currency at the end of 1918 was two paper mark, but by the end of 1919 a gold mark cost 10 paper mark. This inflation worsened between 1920 and 1922, and the cost of a gold rose from 15 to 1,282 paper mark. In 1923 the value of the mark had its worst decline. By July, the cost of a mark had risen to 101,112 paper mark. On 30 Nov 1923 it cost 1 trillion paper mark to buy a gold mark