1. FSV Mainz 05
1. Fußball- und Sportverein Mainz 05 e. V. shortened to 1. FSV Mainz 05, Mainz 05 or Mainz, is a German association football club, founded in 1905 and based in Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate. 1. FSV Mainz 05 have played in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, for eight consecutive years, starting with the 2009–10 season; the club's main local rivals are Eintracht Frankfurt and 1. FC Kaiserslautern. In addition to the football division, 1. FSV Mainz 05 have table tennis departments. A failed attempt to start a football club in the city in 1903 was followed up two years by the successful creation of 1. Mainzer Fussballclub Hassia 1905. After a number of years of play in the Süddeutschen Fußballverband, the club merged with FC Hermannia 07 – the former football side of Mainzer TV 1817 – to form 1. Mainzer Fussballverein Hassia 05, which dropped "Hassia" from its name in August 1912. Another merger after World War I, in 1919, with Sportverein 1908 Mainz, resulted in the formation of 1.
Mainzer Fußball- und Sportverein 05. Die Nullfünfer were a solid club that earned several regional league championships in the period between the wars and qualified for the opening round of the national championships in 1921, after winning the Kreisliga Hessen. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the club earned decent results in the Bezirksliga Main-Hessen – Gruppe Hessen, including first-place finishes in 1932 and 1933; this merited the team a place in the Gauliga Südwest, 1 of 16 new first division leagues formed in the re-organization of German football under the Third Reich. The club only managed a single season at that level before being relegated, due to the high intensity play that they were unable to keep up with. Karl Scherm scored in 23 out of 44 matches with Mainz during his last season. In 1938, Mainz was forced into a merger with Reichsbahn SV Mainz and played as Reichsbahn SV Mainz 05 until the end of World War II. After World War II, the club again joined the upper ranks of league play in Germany's Oberliga Südwest, but were never better than a mid-table side.
It played in the top flight until the founding of the new professional league, the Bundesliga, in 1963 and would go on to play as a second division side for most of the next four decades. They withdrew for a time – from the late 1970s into the late 1980s – to the Amateur Oberliga Südwest, as the result of a series of financial problems. Mainz earned honours as the German amateur champions in 1982; the club returned to professional play with promotion to the 2. Bundesliga for a single season in 1988–89 with Bodo Hertlein as president, before returning for an extended run in 1990–91, they were perennial relegation candidates, struggling hard each season to avoid being sent down. However, under unorthodox trainer Wolfgang Frank, Mainz became one of the first clubs in German soccer to adopt a flat four zone defence, as opposed to the then-popular man-to-man defence using a libero. Mainz failed in three attempts to make it to the top flight in 1996–97, 2001–02, 2002–03, with close fourth-place finishes just out of the promotion zone.
The last failed attempt stung as they were denied promotion in the 93rd minute of the last match of the season. One year earlier, Mainz became the best non-promoted team of all-time in the 2. Bundesliga with 64 points accumulated. However, the club's persistence paid dividends after promotion to the Bundesliga in 2003–04 under head coach Jürgen Klopp; the club were relegated at the end of the 2006 -- 07 season. Mainz secured promotion back to the top flight just two years after the 2008–09 season. Mainz earned a spot in the 2005–06 UEFA Cup in their debut Bundesliga season as Germany's nominee in the Fair Play draw which acknowledges positive play, respect for one's opponent, respect for the referee, the behaviour of the crowd and of team officials, as well as cautions and dismissals. Due to the Bruchweg stadium's limited capacity, the home matches in UEFA Cup were played in Frankfurt's Commerzbank-Arena. After defeating Armenian club Mika and Icelandic club Keflavík in the qualifying rounds, Mainz lost to eventual champions Sevilla 2–0 on aggregate in the first round.
In the 2010–11 season, Mainz equalled the Bundesliga starting record by winning their first seven matches that season. They ended the season with their best finish to date in fifth place, good enough to secure them their second entry to the UEFA Europa League, where they were eliminated in the third qualifying round by Romanian club Gaz Metan Mediaș; the recent season-by-season performance of the club: Key The club plays its home matches at Opel Arena, a new stadium opened in 2011 with a capacity of 34,034. The first event held at the new arena was the LIGA total! Cup 2011, which took place from 19 July through to 20 July 2011, with the other participants being Bayern Munich, Borussia Dortmund and Hamburger SV. Die Nullfünfer played at the Bruchwegstadion, built in 1928, modified several times over the years to hold a crowd of over 20,300 spectators. Averaging crowds of about 15,000 while in the 2. Bundesliga, the team's hard won recent success had them filling their venue; the average home league attendance during the 2015–16 season was 30,324 spectators.
Mainz is known for being one of the three foremost carnival cities in Germany, the others being Düsseldorf and Cologne. After every Mainzer goal scored at a home match, the "Narrhallamarsch", a famous German carnival tune, is played; the club's reserve team, 1. FSV Mainz 05 II, has with the rise of the senior side to Bundesliga level, risen through the ranks; the team first reached Oberliga level in 1999, followed by promotion to the Regionalliga in 200
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Włodzimierz'Włodek' Leonard Lubański is a former Polish football striker, the second all-time highest goal scorer for the Polish national team. For his national team, Lubański amassed 75 caps between 1963 and 1980, scoring 48 goals and being the second highest goalscorer in Poland's football history behind Robert Lewandowski. In 1972, he was awarded the title of Merited Master of Sport of the USSR. Lubański holds the position of vice-chairman at Polonia Warszawa
Jean Edouard Marie Nicolas was a French international footballer who played as a striker. Born in Nanterre, Nicolas played club football for FC Rouen, appeared in the 1934 and 1938 World Cup squads for France, scored two goals in the 1938 edition of the tournament, he scored a total of 21 goals in 25 international games between 1933 and 1938, making him the twelfth-highest goalscorer for France. Profile on French federation official site
Ligue 2 known as Domino's Ligue 2 due to sponsorship by Domino's Pizza, is a French professional football league. The league serves as the second division of French football and is one of two divisions making up the Ligue de Football Professionnel, the other being Ligue 1, the country's top football division. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with both Ligue 1 and the third division Championnat National. Seasons run from August with teams playing 38 games each totalling 380 games in the season. Most games are played on Fridays and Mondays, with a few games played during weekday and weekend evenings. Play is suspended the last weekend before Christmas for two weeks before returning in the second week of January. Ligue 2 was founded a year after the creation of the first division in 1933 under the name Division 2 and has served as the second division of French football since; the name lasted until 2002 before switching to its current name. Since the league is a part of the LFP, it allows clubs who are on the brink of professionalism to become so.
However, if a club suffers relegation to the Championnat National, its professional status can be revoked temporarily until they return to Ligue 2. The second division of French football was established in 1933, one year after the creation of the all-professional first division; the inaugural season of the competition consisted of the six clubs who were relegated following the 1932–33 National season, as well as many of the clubs who opposed the creation of the first division the previous season. Clubs such as Strasbourg, RC Roubaix, Amiens SC all played in the second division's debut season despite having prior grievances with the subjective criteria needed to become professional and play in the first division; the first year of the second division consisted of twenty-three clubs and were divided into two groups. Fourteen of the clubs were inserted into the Nord section, while the remaining nine were placed in Sud. Following the season, the winner of each group faced each other to determine which club would earn promotion.
On 20 May 1934, the winner of the Nord group, Red Star Saint-Ouen, faced Olympique Alès, the winner of the Sud group. Red Star were crowned the league's inaugural champions following a 3–2 victory. Despite losing, Alès was promoted to the first division and they were followed by Strasbourg and Mulhouse, who each won a pool championship, after the first division agreed to expand its teams to 16. Due to several clubs merging, folding, or losing their professional status, the federation turned the second division into a 16-team league and adopted the single-table method for the 1934–35 season. Due to the unpredictable nature of French football clubs, the following season, the league increased to 19 clubs and, two years increased its allotment to 25 teams with the clubs being divided into four groups; because of World War II, football was suspended by the French government and the Ligue de Football Professionnel. Following the end of the war, the second division developed stability. Due to the increase in amateur clubs, the league intertwined professional and amateur clubs and allowed the latter to become professional if they met certain benchmarks.
In 2002, the league changed its name from Division 2 to Ligue 2. In November 2014, the presidents of Caen and Nîmes were amongst several arrested on suspicion of match fixing; the arrests followed a 1–1 draw between Caen and Nîmes in May 2014, a result beneficial for each club. There are 20 clubs in Ligue 2. During the course of a season from August to May, each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 38 games. Teams receive one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points goal difference, goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion and promoted to Ligue 1. If points are equal, the goal difference and goals scored determine the winner. If still equal, teams are deemed to occupy the same position. If there is a tie for the championship or for relegation, a play-off match at a neutral venue decides rank; the second and third-place finisher are promoted to the first division, while the three lowest placed teams are relegated to the Championnat National and the top three teams from National are promoted in their place.
While a decision was made that during the season 2015-2016 only the best two teams would be promoted to Ligue 1 and the last two teams would be relegated to the National, that decision was overturned by an appeal to the Conseil d'État and the French Football Federation. 11 minutes: the time it took Sebastian Ribas to score the fastest hat trick in the history of Ligue 2. 5 times: the number of times Le Havre AC won the second division championship. Number of points won by a team in a single season, without being able to promote to the Ligue 1:77 points or 1.833 points per game for Toulouse FC. 72 points: or 1.71 points per game for Stade Lavallois. 69 points: or 1.82 points per game for Amiens SC.128 goals: The number of goals scored in 40 games by SCO Angers in 40 games. 55 goals: the number of goals scored in a season by Gerard Grizzetti, forward playing for AS Angoulême. 41 seasons: Number of seasons played by the RCFC Besançon and AS Cannes. The fastest goal in the history of Ligue 2 was marked on 26 September 2009 by Remi Nantais Maréval against Nîmes Olympique.
After eight seconds of play, the ball crossed the goal lin
Marburg is a university town in the German federal state of Hesse, capital of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district. The town area spreads along the valley of the river Lahn and has a population of 72,000. Having been awarded town privileges in 1222, Marburg served as capital of the landgraviate of Hessen-Marburg during periods of the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries; the University of Marburg dominates the public life in the town to this day. Like many settlements, Marburg developed at the crossroads of two important early medieval highways: the trade route linking Cologne and Prague and the trade route from the North Sea to the Alps and on to Italy, the former crossing the river Lahn here; the settlement was protected and customs were raised by a small castle built during the ninth or tenth century by the Giso. Marburg has been a town since 1140. From the Gisos, it fell around that time to the Landgraves of Thuringia, residing on the Wartburg above Eisenach. In 1228, the widowed princess-landgravine of Thuringia, Elizabeth of Hungary, chose Marburg as her dowager seat, as she did not get along well with her brother-in-law, the new landgrave.
The countess dedicated her life to the sick and would become after her early death in 1231, aged 24, one of the most prominent female saints of the era. She was canonized in 1235. In 1264, St Elizabeth's daughter Sophie of Brabant, succeeded in winning the Landgraviate of Hessen, hitherto connected to Thuringia, for her son Henry. Marburg was one of the capitals of Hessen from that time until about 1540. Following the first division of the landgraviate, it was the capital of Hessen-Marburg from 1485 to 1500 and again between 1567 and 1605. Hessen was one of the more powerful second-tier principalities in Germany, its "old enemy" was the Archbishopric of Mainz, one of the prince-electors, who competed with Hessen in many wars and conflicts for coveted territory, stretching over several centuries. After 1605, Marburg became just another provincial town, known for the University of Marburg, it became a virtual backwater for two centuries after the Thirty Years' War, when it was fought over by Hessen-Darmstadt and Hesse-Kassel.
The Hessian territory around Marburg lost more than two-thirds of its population, more than in any wars combined. Marburg is the seat of the oldest Protestant-founded university in the world, the University of Marburg, founded in 1527, it is one of the smaller "university towns" in Germany: Greifswald, Jena, Tübingen, as well as the city of Gießen, located 30 km south of Marburg. In 1529, Philipp I of Hesse arranged the Marburg Colloquy, to propitiate Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli. Owing to its neglect during the entire eighteenth century, Marburg – like Rye or Chartres – survived as a intact Gothic town because there was no money spent on any new architecture or expansion; when Romanticism became the dominant cultural and artistic paradigm in Germany, Marburg became interesting once again, many of the leaders of the movement lived, taught, or studied in Marburg. They formed a circle of friends, of great importance in literature, philology and law; the group included Friedrich Karl von Savigny, the most important jurist of his day and father of the Roman Law adaptation in Germany.
Most famous internationally, were the Brothers Grimm, who collected many of their fairy tales here. The original building inspiring his drawing. Across the Lahn hills, in the area called Schwalm, the costumes of little girls included a red hood. In the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Prince-elector of Hessen had backed Austria. Prussia won and took the opportunity to invade and annex the Electorate of Hessen north of the Main River. However, the pro-Austrian Hesse-Darmstadt remained independent. For Marburg, this turn of events was positive, because Prussia decided to make Marburg its main administrative centre in this part of the new province Hessen-Nassau and to turn the University of Marburg into the regional academic centre. Thus, Marburg's rise as an administrative and university city began; as the Prussian university system was one of the best in the world at the time, Marburg attracted many respected scholars. However, there was hardly any industry to speak of, so students and civil servants – who had enough but not much money and paid little in taxes – dominated the town, which tended to be conservative.
Franz von Papen, vice-chancellor of Germany in 1934, delivered an anti-Nazi speech at the University of Marburg on 17 June. From 1942 to 1945, the whole city of Marburg was turned into a hospital with schools and government buildings turned into wards to augment the existing hospitals. By the spring of 1945, there were over 20,000 patients – wounded German soldiers; as a result of its being designated a hospital city, there was not much damage from bombings except along the railroad tracks. In 1945, the Elisabethkirche in Marburg became the final resting place of Field Marshal and President Paul von Hindenburg, he is an honorary citizen of the town. As a larger mid-sized city, like six other such cities in Hessen, has a special status as compared to the other municipalities in the district; this means that the city takes on tasks more performed by the district so that in many ways it is comparable to an urban
Racing Club de France football Colombes 92
Racing Club de France football Colombes 92 is a French association football club based in Colombes, a suburb of Paris. Racing was founded in 1882 as a multi-discipline sports club, is one of the oldest clubs in French football history; the team plays in the fifth level of French football. Racing is managed by former player Azzedine Meguellatti and hosts its home matches at the Stade Lucien-Choine, a smaller stadium next to the Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir in Colombes. Racing Club de France, founded in 1882, was a founding member of Ligue 1; the club has won one Ligue 1 title and five Coupe de France titles, is tied for fourth-best. Racing played in the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques-sanctioned league, France's first championship league; the club debuted in the league in 1899 and won the championship in 1907 after finishing second in 1902 and 1903. Notable players include Roger Marche, Oscar Heisserer, Thadée Cisowski, Raoul Diagne, Luis Fernández, Maxime Bossis, David Ginola, Luís Sobrinho, Pierre Littbarski, Enzo Francescoli, Alfred Bloch, Rubén Paz.
Diagne spent a decade with the club and, in 1931, was the first black player on the French national team. He played in the 1938 FIFA World Cup with Abdelkader Ben Bouali, his Racing teammate, one of the first North African players on the national team. From 2009 to 2012, the club moved to nearby Levallois-Perret after reaching a financial agreement with the commune. During the 1900 Summer Olympics, Racing Club de France hosted the athletics events at Croix-Catelan Stadium. Racing's zenith was the 1930s and 1940s, when the club won Ligue 1 in 1936 and the Coupe de France in 1936, 1939, 1940, 1945 and 1949; the club was successful in the early 1960s, finishing second in the first division in 1961 and 1962. However, Racing was a focal point of the financial crisis affecting French football during the mid-1960s; the club's financial struggles resulted in its relegation to the lower divisions. In 1982, businessman Jean-Luc Lagardère wanted to build a team of stars and invested in the club as a second major club in Paris.
Although he considered a merger of Paris FC and Racing, the Racing management refused due to a lack of detailed information on PFC finances. Lagardère bought the Paris FC and renamed it "Paris Racing 1". Lagardère invested in experienced players in 1982 and 1983. Lagardère, determined to lead his club to the European Cup draws in 1987, hired Portuguese coach Artur Jorge after Jorge's victory in the European Cup with FC Porto, he completed the team with Pascal Olmeta. However, the club fell on hard times and attendance declined. During the late 1980s, Racing lost 300 million francs; the club, relegated to the amateur levels, sought firmer financial footing. In December 2008, Georgios Kintis tried unsuccessfully to buy the club. Before the 2009–10 season, Racing reached a financial agreement with the city of Levallois; the club's association and support from the commune resulted in a name change to Racing Club de France Levallois 92. Despite assistance from Levallois, Racing was relegated to the Championnat de France amateur 2 by the DNCG in July 2010 after it was determined that the club had a €500,000 debt.
On 21 November 2010, Racing Levallois and UJA Alfortville announced plans to merge for the following season. In 2012, the club returned to Colombes as Racing Club de France Colombes 92. Racing Club de France: Racing Club Paris: Matra Racing: Racing Paris 1: Racing 92: Racing Club de France 92: Racing Club de France football 92: Racing Club de France Levallois 92: Racing Club de France Colombes 92: As of 8 April 2019. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; the following players have represented Racing in league and international competition since the club's foundation in 1882. They achieved prominence elsewhere. For a complete list of RCF Paris players, see Category:Racing Club de France football Colombes 92 players. President: Jean-Michel Jaquot Vice-presidents: Bruno Texier, Denis Marsault General secretary: Alain Lemoine Assistant managers: Vincent Bordot, José Freitas, Robert Leveque Ligue 1 champions: 1936 Runners-up: 1961, 1962 Ligue 2 champions: 1986 Championnat National 2: 2004 Championnat National 3: 2007 Division d'Honneur championship: 1973 Coupe de France champions: 1936, 1939, 1940, 1945, 1949 Runners-up: 1930, 1950, 1990 Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques Championship: 1907 USFSA Paris Championship: 1902, 1903, 1907, 1908, 1911, 1919 FFFA Ligue de Paris champions: 1931, 1932 Coupe Dewar champions: 1905, 1906, 1907, 1912 Runners-up: 1901 Official site Official Facebook