University of Wrocław
The University of Wrocław is a public research university located in Wrocław, Poland. The University of Wrocław was founded in 1945. Following the territorial changes of Poland's borders, academics from the Jan Kazimierz University of Lwów restored the university building damaged and split as a result of the Battle of Breslau. Nowadays it is one of the most prominent educational institutions in the region; the University is the largest in Lower Silesian Voivodeship with over 100,000 graduates since 1945 including some 1,900 researchers among whom many received the highest awards for their contribution to the development of scientific scholarship. The University of Wrocław is renowned for its high quality of teaching, placing 44th on the QS University Rankings: EECA 2016, is located in the same campus as the former University of Breslau, which produced 9 Nobel Prize winners; the oldest mention of a university in Wrocław comes from the foundation deed signed on July 20, 1505, by King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary for the Generale litterarum Gymnasium in Wrocław.
However, the new academic institution requested by the town council wasn't built because the King's deed was rejected by Pope Julius II for political reasons. The numerous wars and opposition from the Cracow Academy might have played a role; the first successful founding deed known as the Aurea bulla fundationis Universitatis Wratislaviensis was signed two centuries on October 1, 1702, by the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I of the House of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia. The predecessor facilities, which existed since 1638, were converted into Jesuit school, upon instigation of the Jesuits and with the support of the Silesian Oberamtsrat Johannes Adrian von Plencken, donated as a university in 1702 by Emperor Leopold I as a School of Philosophy and Catholic Theology with the designated name Leopoldina. On 15 November 1702, the university opened. Johannes Adrian von Plencken became chancellor of the University; as a Catholic institute in Protestant Breslau, the new university was an important instrument of the Counter-Reformation in Silesia.
After Silesia passed to Prussia, the university lost its ideological character but remained a religious institution for the education of Catholic clergy in Prussia. After the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon and the subsequent reorganisation of the Prussian state, the academy was merged on August 3, 1811, with the Protestant Viadrina University located in Frankfurt, re-established in Breslau as the Königliche Universität zu Breslau – Universitas litterarum Vratislaviensis. At first, the conjoint academy had five faculties: philosophy, law, Protestant theology, Catholic theology. Connected with the university were three theological seminars, a philological seminar, a seminar for German Philology, another seminar for Romanic and English philology, an historical seminar, a mathematical-physical one, a legal state seminar, a scientific seminar. From 1842, the University had a chair of Slavic Studies; the University had twelve different scientific institutes, six clinical centers, three collections.
An agricultural institute with ten teachers and forty-four students, comprising a chemical veterinary institute, a veterinary institute, a technological institute, was added to the university in 1881. In 1884, the university had 1,481 students in attendance, with a faculty numbering 131; the library in 1885 consisted of 400,000 works, including about 2,400 incunabula 250 Aldines, 2840 manuscripts. These volumes came from the libraries of the former universities of Frankfurt and Breslau and from disestablished monasteries, included the oriental collections of the Bibliotheca Habichtiana and the academic Leseinstitut. In addition, the university owned an observatory. In the late 19th century, numerous internationally renowned and notable scholars lectured at the University of Breslau, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet, Ferdinand Cohn, Gustav Kirchhoff among them. According to Polish professor of history Henryk Barycz in the academic year of 1813/1814 Polish youth constituted the majority of students at the University.
All students, including German and Jewish, established their own student fraternities. Polish student organizations included Concordia, a branch of the Sokol association. Many of the students came from areas of partitioned Poland; the Jewish students unions were the Student Union. Teutonia, a German Burschenschaft founded in 1817, was one of the oldest student fraternities in Germany, founded only two years after the Urburschenschaft; the Polish fraternities were all disbanded by the German professor Felix Dahn, in 1913 Prussian authorities established a numerus clausus law that limited the number of Jews from non-German Eastern Europe that could study in Germany to at most 900
Ludwig Henrich Friedlaender was a German philologist. He was one of the preeminent scholars of Ancient Rome of his time and is known for his research on Roman daily life and customs, he was a Professor at Albertina and served as its Rector 1865/66 and 1874/5. He was a member of the House of Lords, he studied at the universities of his hometown Königsberg and Berlin from 1841 to 1845. In 1847 he became privat-docent of classical philology at Königsberg, in 1856 assistant professor, in 1858 professor, he retired in 1892 to Strasbourg. He was a son of the merchant Hirsch Friedländer and Emma Levia Perlbach, was raised Jewish, he converted to Protestantism. In 1856, he married daughter of an East Prussian estate owner, their son Paul Friedländer was a noted chemist. Their daughter Charlotte Friedländer was married to the art historian Georg Dehio, his chief work is Darstellungen aus der Sittengeschichte Roms in der Zeit von August bis zum Ausgang der Antonine. This work is considered one of the most noteworthy philological productions of the 19th century.
Friedländer's other publications include: Nicanoris περὶ Ιλιακῆς Στιγμῆς Reliquiæ Emendatiores. He annotated Martial. "Ludwig Friedländer". In Singer, Isidore; the Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world of its languages and literature but of Greco-Roman philosophy and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a fundamental element of a rounded education; the study of classics has therefore traditionally been a cornerstone of a typical elite education. Study encompasses a time-period of history from the mid-2nd millennium BC to the 6th century AD; the word classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning "belonging to the highest class of citizens". The word was used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality. For example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts "classicus" and "proletarius" writers. By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a second meaning.
Thus the two modern meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum, both derive from Roman use. In the Middle Ages and education were intertwined. Medieval education taught students to imitate earlier classical models, Latin continued to be the language of scholarship and culture, despite the increasing difference between literary Latin and the vernacular languages of Europe during the period. While Latin was hugely influential, Greek was studied, Greek literature survived solely in Latin translation; the works of major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. In the thirteenth century, the English philosopher Roger Bacon wrote that "there are not four men in Latin Christendom who are acquainted with the Greek and Arabic grammars."Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were other differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages.
Catullus, for instance, was entirely unknown in the medieval period. The popularity of different authors waxed and waned throughout the period: Lucretius, popular during the Carolingian period, was read in the twelfth century, while for Quintilian the reverse is true; the Renaissance led to the increasing study of both ancient literature and ancient history, as well as a revival of classical styles of Latin. From the 14th century, first in Italy and increasingly across Europe, Renaissance Humanism, an intellectual movement that "advocated the study and imitation of classical antiquity", developed. Humanism saw a reform in education in Europe, introducing a wider range of Latin authors as well as bringing back the study of Greek language and literature to Western Europe; this reintroduction was initiated by Petrarch and Boccaccio who commissioned a Calabrian scholar to translate the Homeric poems. This humanist educational reform spread from Italy, in Catholic countries as it was adopted by the Jesuits, in countries that became Protestant such as England and the Low Countries, in order to ensure that future clerics were able to study the New Testament in the original language.
The late 17th and 18th centuries are the period in Western European literary history, most associated with the classical tradition, as writers consciously adapted classical models. Classical models were so prized that the plays of William Shakespeare were rewritten along neoclassical lines, these "improved" versions were performed throughout the 18th century. From the beginning of the 18th century, the study of Greek became important relative to that of Latin. In this period Johann Winckelmann's claims for the superiority of the Greek visual arts influenced a shift in aesthetic judgements, while in the literary sphere, G. E. Lessing "returned Homer to the centre of artistic achievement". In the United Kingdom, the study of Greek in schools began in the late 18th century; the poet Walter Savage Landor claimed to have been one of the first English schoolboys to write in Greek during his time at Rugby School. The 19th century saw the influence of the classical world, the value of a classical education, decline in the US, where the subject was criticised for its elitism.
By the 19th century, little new literature was still being written in Latin – a practice which had continued as late as the 18th century – and a command of Latin declined in importance. Correspondingly, classical education from the 19th century onwards began to de-emphasise the importance of the ability to write and speak Latin. In the United Kingdom this process took longer than elsewhere. Composition continued to be the dominant classical skill in England until the 1870s, when new areas within the discipline began to increase in popularity. In the same decade came the first challenges to the requirement of Greek at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, though it would not be abolished for another 50 years. Though the influence of classics as the dominant mode of education in Europe and North America was in decline in the 19th century, the discipline was evolving in the same period. Classical scholarship was becoming more systematic and scientific with the "new philology" created at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century.
Its scope was broadening: it was during the 19th century that ancient history and classical archaeology began to be s
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich is a public research university located in Munich, Germany. The University of Munich is Germany's sixth-oldest university in continuous operation. Established in Ingolstadt in 1472 by Duke Ludwig IX of Bavaria-Landshut, the university was moved in 1800 to Landshut by King Maximilian I of Bavaria when Ingolstadt was threatened by the French, before being relocated to its present-day location in Munich in 1826 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria. In 1802, the university was named Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität by King Maximilian I of Bavaria in his as well as the university's original founder's honour; the University of Munich has since the 19th century, been considered as one of Germany's as well as one of Europe's most prestigious universities. Among these were Wilhelm Röntgen, Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn and Thomas Mann. Pope Benedict XVI was a student and professor at the university; the LMU has been conferred the title of "elite university" under the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
LMU is the second-largest university in Germany in terms of student population. Of these, 8,671 were freshmen while international students totalled 7,812 or 15% of the student population; as for operating budget, the university records in 2015 a total of 660.0 million euros in funding without the university hospital. The University was founded with papal approval in 1472 as the University of Ingolstadt, with faculties of philosophy, medicine and theology, its first rector was Christopher Mendel of Steinfels, who became bishop of Chiemsee. In the period of German humanism, the university's academics included names such as Conrad Celtes and Petrus Apianus; the theologian Johann Eck taught at the university. From 1549 to 1773, the university was influenced by the Jesuits and became one of the centres of the Counter-Reformation; the Jesuit Petrus Canisius served as rector of the university. At the end of the 18th century, the university was influenced by the Enlightenment, which led to a stronger emphasis on natural science.
In 1800, the Prince-Elector Maximilian IV Joseph moved the university to Landshut, due to French aggression that threatened Ingolstadt during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1802, the university was renamed the Ludwig Maximilian University in honour of its two founders, Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria and Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria; the Minister of Education, Maximilian von Montgelas, initiated a number of reforms that sought to modernize the rather conservative and Jesuit-influenced university. In 1826, it was moved to the capital of the Kingdom of Bavaria; the university was situated in the Old Academy until a new building in the Ludwigstraße was completed. The locals were somewhat critical of the number of Protestant professors Maximilian and Ludwig I invited to Munich, they were dubbed the "Nordlichter" and physician Johann Nepomuk von Ringseis was quite angry about them. In the second half of the 19th century, the university rose to great prominence in the European scientific community, attracting many of the world's leading scientists.
It was a period of great expansion. From 1903, women were allowed to study at Bavarian universities, by 1918, the female proportion of students at LMU had reached 18%. In 1918, Adele Hartmann became the first woman in Germany to earn the Habilitation, at LMU. During the Weimar Republic, the university continued to be one of the world's leading universities, with professors such as Wilhelm Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Richard Willstätter, Arnold Sommerfeld and Ferdinand Sauerbruch. During the Third Reich, academic freedom was curtailed. In 1943 the White Rose group of anti-Nazi students conducted their campaign of opposition to the National Socialists at this university; the university has continued to be one of the leading universities of West Germany during the Cold War and in the post-reunification era. In the late 1960s, the university was the scene of protests by radical students. Today the University of Munich is part of 24 Collaborative Research Centers funded by the German Research Foundation and is host university of 13 of them.
It hosts 12 DFG Research Training Groups and three international doctorate programs as part of the Elite Network of Bavaria. It attracts an additional 120 million euros per year in outside funding and is intensively involved in national and international funding initiatives. LMU Munich has a wide range of degree programs, with 150 subjects available in numerous combinations. 15% of the 45,000 students who attend the university come from abroad. In 2005, Germany’s state and federal governments launched the German Universities Excellence Initiative, a contest among its universities. With a total of 1.9 billion euros, 75 percent of which comes from the federal state, its architects aim to strategically promote top-level research and scholarship. The money is given to more than 30 research universities in Germany; the initiative will fund three project-oriented areas: graduate schools to promote the next generation of scholars, clusters of excellence to promote cutting-edge research and "future concepts" for the project-based expansion of academic excellence at universities as a whole.
In order to
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Theodor Heinrich Gottfried Keil was a German classical philologist. He was a son-in-law to educator Friedrich August Eckstein, he studied classical philology at the Universities of Göttingen and Bonn, receiving his doctorate in 1843 with a textual critique on the Roman poet Propertius. From 1844 to 1846 he conducted manuscript studies at libraries in Italy. After his return to Germany, he became an instructor at the Francke Foundation Pädagogium in Halle an der Saale. In 1859 he was named successor to Carl Friedrich Nagelsbach as chair of classical philology at the University of Erlangen. In 1869 he became a full professor of classical philology at the University of Halle as a successor to Theodor Bergk; the focus of his work were studies of the ancient Latin grammarians and critical editions involving the works of Cato the Elder and Pliny the Younger. In 1875, he began. Obseruationes criticae in Propertium, 1843. Observationum criticarum in Catonis et Varronis de re rustica libros caput secundum, 1848.
Analecta grammatica, 1848. Observationes criticae in Catonis et Varronis De re rvstica libros accedit Epimetrvm criticvm, 1849. Grammatici latini, 1855–80: vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3, vol. 4, vol. 5, vol. 6 part 1, vol. 6 part 2, vol. 7, Quaestiones grammaticae, 1860. Henrici Keilii De libris manu scriptis Catonis de agri cultura disputatio. Henrici Keilii De Plinii epistulis emendandis disputatio, 1865-1866. Works by Heinrich Keil at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Heinrich Keil at Internet Archive